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Finding Inconsistencies in Programs with Loops [chapter]

Temesghen Kahsai, Jorge A. Navas, Dejan Jovanović, Martin Schäf
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a novel approach to inconsistent code detection that can reason about programs with loops without compromising precision.  ...  Existing approaches to inconsistent code detection scale to programs with millions of lines of code, and have lead to patches in applications like the web-server Tomcat or the Linux kernel.  ...  Think, for example, of a program containing a single loop with one conditional choice in its body.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-48899-7_35 fatcat:inwrnyteojffbo3x2w6p6jb2a4

Conflict-Directed Graph Coverage [chapter]

Daniel Schwartz-Narbonne, Martin Schäf, Dejan Jovanović, Philipp Rümmer, Thomas Wies
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We implemented conflict-directed coverage and used it for detecting code inconsistencies in several large Java open-source projects with over one million lines of code in total.  ...  Many formal method tools for increasing software reliability apply Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers to enumerate feasible paths in a program subject to certain coverage criteria.  ...  This work was in part supported by the NASA contract NNX14AI05A and the NSF grant CCS-1350574.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-17524-9_23 fatcat:p6xw2xl5vjeyxoh5ex2sfuhawe

Predicate Generation for Learning-Based Quantifier-Free Loop Invariant Inference [chapter]

Yungbum Jung, Wonchan Lee, Bow-Yaw Wang, Kwangkuen Yi
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We address the predicate generation problem in the context of loop invariant inference.  ...  Our technique is able to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning-based loop invariant inference algorithm in [14] .  ...  The authors would like to thank Wontae Choi, Soonho Kong, and anonymous referees for their comments in improving this work.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19835-9_17 fatcat:gj5a53yv2zf4zfy7oj54w5mcta

Predicate Generation for Learning-Based Quantifier-Free Loop Invariant Inference

Wonchan Lee, Yungbum Jung, Bow-yaw Wang, Kwangkuen Yi, Parosh Abdulla
2012 Logical Methods in Computer Science  
We address the predicate generation problem in the context of loop invariant inference.  ...  Our technique is able to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the learning-based loop invariant inference algorithm in [14].  ...  With the initial set, we start the learning process until the algorithm finds a loop invariant or there is an exception raised.  ... 
doi:10.2168/lmcs-8(3:25)2012 fatcat:mcsiiatm5jecvadahrwdi2eyoq

Detecting inconsistencies via universal reachability analysis

Aaron Tomb, Cormac Flanagan
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis - ISSTA 2012  
as bug finding technique with a low false-positive rate.  ...  Existing approaches to inconsistency detection have used intentionally unsound techniques aimed at bug-finding rather than verification.  ...  The results show that Curate runs in less time than the comparable Saturn null pointer analysis, while usually finding a larger number of inconsistencies, although Saturn does discover one class of inconsistency  ... 
doi:10.1145/2338965.2336788 dblp:conf/issta/TombF12 fatcat:ryeg7cmo7fcsbmfdvpbiqhkgnq

A note on segmentation of computer programs

A.T. Berztiss
1968 Information and Control  
It has been shown that the cycle picture of the directed graph of a computer program can be used to solve the segmentation problem. A simple algorithm for finding the cycle picture is given.  ...  can be cut into segments of required size with no loops spanning the cuts.  ...  But if a network is found inconsistent, Marimont's algorithm cannot distinguish between an arc which lies on a loop and an are which lies between two loops without being itself part of a loop.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(68)90156-3 fatcat:nbkjmxxzivcjbm52fecep6a3he

Severity Levels of Inconsistent Code [chapter]

Martin Schäf, Ashish Tiwari
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Inconsistent code can be detected locally, fully automatically, and with a very low false positive rate. However, not all instances of inconsistent code are worth reporting.  ...  We apply our algorithm to several open-source project to demonstrate that inconsistencies of the first category are highly relevant and often lead to bug fixes, while inconsistencies in the last category  ...  Acknowledgement This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant contracts CCF 1423296 and CNS 1423298, and DARPA under agreement number FA8750-12-C-0225.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24953-7_8 fatcat:atzakmq5b5ee5ivxoqtrzwz22q

What Is a Procedure? [chapter]

Eric C. R. Hehner
2017 Present and Ulterior Software Engineering  
The Program Answer uses least-fixed-points as the meaning of loops, but they are difficult to find, difficult to use in verification, and useless for program construction.  ...  A specification that is consistent and satisfiable in one language may be inconsistent and unsatisfiable in another.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67425-4_2 fatcat:rva5sjyshbg5zbaflymmgii4w4

Context-based detection of clone-related bugs

Lingxiao Jiang, Zhendong Su, Edwin Chiu
2007 Proceedings of the the 6th joint meeting of the European software engineering conference and the ACM SIGSOFT symposium on The foundations of software engineering - ESEC-FSE '07  
We have discovered many previously unknown bugs and programming style issues in both projects (with 57 for the Linux kernel and 38 for Eclipse).  ...  In this paper, we introduce a general notion of context-based inconsistencies among clones and develop an efficient algorithm to detect such inconsistencies for locating bugs.  ...  We were able to find 33 bugs and 9 programming style issues in the Linux kernel and 15 bugs and 13 style issues in Eclipse when all filters were enabled.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1287624.1287634 dblp:conf/sigsoft/JiangSC07 fatcat:tojldpcgwrdqho3xosv4lbi5nu

A Debugging Approach for Trigger-Action Programming

Luigi De Russis, Alberto Monge Roffarello
2018 Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '18  
In this paper, we present a novel debugging approach for trigger-action programming.  ...  The approach, based on Semantic Web and Petri Nets, has been implemented in a EUD tool, and it has been preliminary evaluated in a user study with 6 participants.  ...  When the net execution terminates, all the tokens in the net are analyzed to find inconsistencies and redundancies.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3170427.3188641 dblp:conf/chi/RussisR18 fatcat:rwk7tsm3rfhhtkhejh6533zhge

Page 152 of Behavior Research Methods Vol. 19, Issue 2 [page]

1987 Behavior Research Methods  
For example, Lucas and Kaplan (1974) investigated the influence of structure by asl^g students in a PL/I course to compose and debug programs with or without the use of GOTO loops.  ...  The difficulties of finding a sensitive measure of the comprehension of computer programs, as well as the in¬ consistencies in results in the literature, are most easily We would like to thank A1 Bottner  ... 

Retrospective and Prospective for Unifying Theories of Programming [chapter]

Eric Hehner
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents a personal account of developments leading to Unifying Theories of Programming, and some opinions about the direction the work should take in the future.  ...  Retrospective and Prospective for Unifying Theories of Programming 2  ...  If we ignore time, we find an inconsistency: assuming either final state of the circuit leads to a contradiction.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11768173_1 fatcat:pjk7kzzyqjbhhc3w2656rjjxoy

The power of procrastination

Clemens Kolbitsch, Engin Kirda, Christopher Kruegel
2011 Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '11  
Experimental results show that our system, called HASTEN, works well in practice, and that it is able to detect additional malicious behavior in real-world malware samples.  ...  Whenever an anti-malware solution becomes popular, malware authors typically react promptly and modify their programs to evade defense mechanisms.  ...  Altering the flow of execution of a program (such as prematurely preempting a loop or following an "unexplored" path within the loop) can leave this program in an inconsistent state.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2046707.2046740 dblp:conf/ccs/KolbitschKK11 fatcat:mnjx2q6baffwtfljnboxry4l3i

DIFFERENCE GAMES AND POLICY EVALUATION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

A. J de ZEEUW, F. van der PLOEG
1991 Oxford Economic Papers  
These issues of time inconsistency will be dealt with in the next section.  ...  The decision model with open-loop information structure and binding commitments can suffer from time inconsistency, although there is some logical contradiction here with the assumption of binding commitments  ... 
doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.oep.a042020 fatcat:xhe6wblwinegbc6db4hcprlfea

The influence of structure on computer program comprehension

Sandra L. Newsome, Irvin R. Katz
1987 Behavoir research methods, instruments & computers  
Subjects in this experiment were told the general purpose of a program written in English and asked to anticipate the subsequent lines.  ...  scientists (e.g., Schwartz, 1976) frequently indicate that a structured style of programming (i.e., single entry and single exit from a loop) is an absolute necessity for comprehensible programs, the  ...  The difficulties of finding a sensitive measure of the comprehension of computer programs, as well as the inconsistencies in results in the literature, are most easily We would like to thank AI Bottner  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03203778 fatcat:4cezf7ze25grhbyxt7aixetphu
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