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Feasibility study of power line communications for backhauling outdoor small cells

Jose Antonio Cortes, Francisco Javier Canete, Matias Toril, Eduardo Martos-Naya, Javier Poncela, Luis Diez, Alicia Garcia
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
INDEX TERMS Power line communications, backhaul, small cells, outdoor public lighting networks.  ...  Since lamp-posts are one of the most convenient locations for outdoor small cells, this work analyzes the use of power line communications (PLC) over outdoor public lighting networks (OPLN) as a backhaul  ...  ) for the support provided to this work.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3059418">doi:10.1109/access.2021.3059418</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ry5ngglcbvdahas6oh3chcht2q">fatcat:ry5ngglcbvdahas6oh3chcht2q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210717153408/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/9312710/09354150.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/26/25/2625e0ae8e4db1f88262c1811915f2f58cfdf0d2.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3059418"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Small cell backhaul: challenges and prospective solutions

Amir H. Jafari, David López-Pérez, Hui Song, Holger Claussen, Lester Ho, Jie Zhang
<span title="2015-08-18">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a5gjzjadkzbirdua4xdqipotp4" style="color: black;">EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, backhaul challenges for small cell base stations (BSs) are discussed, and potential wired and wireless solutions together with their benefits and drawbacks are presented.  ...  However, in order to roll-out a large number of small cells and allow anytime, anywhere wireless broadband connectivity through wireless technologies, operators must still face the challenge of backhauling  ...  feasible links (green lines) between both the small cell and the PoP can be added.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13638-015-0426-y">doi:10.1186/s13638-015-0426-y</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mpuo3rpnyngfnfxbaky7lcirea">fatcat:mpuo3rpnyngfnfxbaky7lcirea</a> </span>
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The Role of Optical Wireless Communication Technologies in 5G/6G and IoT Solutions: Prospects, Directions, and Challenges

Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury, Md. Shahjalal, Moh. Khalid Hasan, Yeong Min Jang
<span title="2019-10-16">2019</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/smrngspzhzce7dy6ofycrfxbim" style="color: black;">Applied Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
for successful deployment of 5G/6G and IoT systems.  ...  Optical wireless communication (OWC), along with many other wireless technologies, is a promising candidate for serving the demands of 5GB communication systems.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204367">doi:10.3390/app9204367</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lofczlpwznedlgevc25vx6y43m">fatcat:lofczlpwznedlgevc25vx6y43m</a> </span>
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D1.1 ARIADNE use case definition and system requirements

Svetlana Tcvetkova, Marco Di Renzo, Georgia Ntouni, Dimitrios Kritharidis, Konstantinos Chartsias, Konstantinos Ntontin, Fotis Lazarakis, Antonis Alexandridis, Jukka Lamsa, Moamen Ibrahim, Edwin Yaqub, Lourdes Luque (+6 others)
<span title="2020-05-15">2020</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
The main objective of this task is to define the use cases and a set of requirements that will be the basis for all further work.  ...  Thus, Deliverable 1.1 presents an overview of the ARIADNE system concept, a detailed description of each use case and corresponding scenarios, the resulting analysis on the definition of the main Key Performance  ...  According to the measurements, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication through scattering and object reflections is also feasible, apart from LOS communication, with a potential range for mobile communications  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4020453">doi:10.5281/zenodo.4020453</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5ushcoptzjf37kr4hwldsoidoq">fatcat:5ushcoptzjf37kr4hwldsoidoq</a> </span>
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Proof-of-Concept of a Millimeter-Wave Integrated Heterogeneous Network for 5G Cellular

Shozo Okasaka, Richard Weiler, Wilhelm Keusgen, Andrey Pudeyev, Alexander Maltsev, Ingolf Karls, Kei Sakaguchi
<span title="2016-08-25">2016</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
be used not only for access linking, but also for wireless backhaul linking, which will facilitate the installation of mmWave small cells.  ...  In this study, a proof-of-concept (PoC) was conducted to demonstrate the practicality of a prototype mmWave-integrated HetNet, using mmWave technologies for both backhaul and access.  ...  Acknowledgments: Part of this work has been done under a project named "Millimeter-Wave Evolution for Backhaul and Access (MiWEBA)" supported by Seventh Framework Programme in European Union Japan (FP7  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091362">doi:10.3390/s16091362</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27571074">pmid:27571074</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC5038640/">pmcid:PMC5038640</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jt4ntciujrg4dczh35oicddssq">fatcat:jt4ntciujrg4dczh35oicddssq</a> </span>
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Coordinated multi-point transmission for relaxation of self-backhauling bottlenecks in heterogeneous networks

Beneyam B. Haile, Edward Mutafungwa, Jyri Hämäläinen
<span title="2015-03-20">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a5gjzjadkzbirdua4xdqipotp4" style="color: black;">EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking</a> </i> &nbsp;
The heterogeneous deployment of high-power macro cells and low-power nodes (LPNs) is now widely acknowledged as an essential requirement towards meeting the continued demand for mobile data capacity.  ...  The results of the studies demonstrate that significant spectral efficiency and throughput gains for the LPN backhaul are achievable through the use of selected CoMP technique under realizable feedback  ...  Acknowledgements This work was performed within the ICT&E project funded by the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering programme on energy efficiency  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13638-015-0279-4">doi:10.1186/s13638-015-0279-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tisn5c3kznbwzgeultjss6o6zi">fatcat:tisn5c3kznbwzgeultjss6o6zi</a> </span>
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Adding Indoor Capacity without Fiber Backhaul: An mmWave Bridge Prototype

Adrian Schumacher, Ruben Merz, Andreas Burg
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/risok53fz5a7tj5f2bczy5zmpq" style="color: black;">IEEE Communications Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
Indoor small cells and distributed antennas along train tracks are often considered as a solution, but the cost and the need for optical fiber backhaul are often prohibitive.  ...  To alleviate this issue, we describe an out-of-band repeater that converts a sub-6 GHz cell signal from a small cell installed at a cell tower to a mmWave frequency for the fronthaul to buildings or distributed  ...  ., Kirkland (WA), USA for providing the mmWave antennas, D. Northcote from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK for support around PYNQ on the Xilinx RFSoC, R.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mcom.001.2000722">doi:10.1109/mcom.001.2000722</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yv6oljfh6fb6jghlgdhffimmkq">fatcat:yv6oljfh6fb6jghlgdhffimmkq</a> </span>
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200 Gb/s FSO WDM Communication System Empowered by Multiwavelength Directly Modulated TOSA for 5G Wireless Networks

Zeping Zhao, Zhike Zhang, Jun Tan, Yu Liu, Jianguo Liu
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/om3ffw454zhbbg3oqtn7ogq6fi" style="color: black;">IEEE Photonics Journal</a> </i> &nbsp;
The advantages of integration, channelization, miniaturization, and low power consumption of the FSO WDM scheme present a promising result on constructing the future fronthaul/backhaul link for wireless  ...  In order to demonstrate the feasibility of our scheme, the outdoor experiments with 25 Gb/s PAM-4 are tested in free space.  ...  Acknowledgments This work has been supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB340102) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61625504, 61727815).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/jphot.2018.2851558">doi:10.1109/jphot.2018.2851558</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gl3hpcqh7nfelnyphmarbndmaa">fatcat:gl3hpcqh7nfelnyphmarbndmaa</a> </span>
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Interference management for moving networks in ultra-dense urban scenarios

Yutao Sui, Ismail Guvenc, Tommy Svensson
<span title="2015-04-18">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a5gjzjadkzbirdua4xdqipotp4" style="color: black;">EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking</a> </i> &nbsp;
of regular outdoor users.  ...  To address this challenge, we evaluated different inter-cell interference coordination and multi-antenna interference suppression techniques for MNs.  ...  Acknowledgments Part of this work has been performed in the framework of the FP7 project ICT-317669 METIS, which is partly funded by the European Union.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13638-015-0326-1">doi:10.1186/s13638-015-0326-1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pdw7r5mv4jel5lqea6ofokv7e4">fatcat:pdw7r5mv4jel5lqea6ofokv7e4</a> </span>
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Information rates of precoding for massive MIMO and base station cooperation in an indoor scenario

Stefan Dierks, Gerhard Kramer, Berthold Panzner, Wolfgang Zirwas
<span title="2020-01-21">2020</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a5gjzjadkzbirdua4xdqipotp4" style="color: black;">EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking</a> </i> &nbsp;
The performance of centralized and distributed massive MIMO deployments are studied for simulated indoor office scenarios.  ...  Two main conclusions are that distributing base stations helps to overcome wall penetration loss; however, a backhaul is required to mitigate inter-cell interference.  ...  There are two parameter sets for line-of-sight (LOS) and for non line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions.  ... 
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Optical Wireless Hybrid Networks: Trends, Opportunities, Challenges, and Research Directions

Mostafa Zaman Chowdhury, Moh Khalid Hasan, Md. Shahjalal, Md. Tanvir Hossan, Yeong Min Jang
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/b4kxurpz5vbn7gog6wq32vliii" style="color: black;">IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials</a> </i> &nbsp;
We consider the RFbased macrocell, small cell, wireless fidelity, and Bluetooth, as well as optical-based visible light communication, light fidelity, optical camera communication, and free-space optical  ...  communication technologies for different combinations of hybrid systems.  ...  ., Ethernet, cable TV (CATV), and PLC networks are used for backhauling the traffic of small cell networks.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/comst.2020.2966855">doi:10.1109/comst.2020.2966855</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/qgkoolfncjbm3cqwj7a3b7kr2i">fatcat:qgkoolfncjbm3cqwj7a3b7kr2i</a> </span>
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THz Communications: A Catalyst for the Wireless Future

Angeliki Alexiou, Sergey Andreev, Gabor Fodor, Tadao Nagatsuma
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/risok53fz5a7tj5f2bczy5zmpq" style="color: black;">IEEE Communications Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
and Halim Yanikomeroglu, presents a recently proposed vertical heterogeneous network architecture for backhaul/fronthaul in the case of a large number of small cells of diff erent communications technologies  ...  As THz links offer large bandwidth, leading to ultrahigh data rates, this solution is suitable for backhauling and fronthauling of small cells that support numerous applications from inter-satellite links  ...  and Halim Yanikomeroglu, presents a recently proposed vertical heterogeneous network architecture for backhaul/fronthaul in the case of a large number of small cells of diff erent communications technologies  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2020.9269507">doi:10.1109/mcom.2020.9269507</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/abnk4uh6s5fq7aefzofcd6wreq">fatcat:abnk4uh6s5fq7aefzofcd6wreq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201129040825/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/35/9269495/09269507.pdf?tp=&amp;arnumber=9269507&amp;isnumber=9269495&amp;ref=" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c5/06/c506097d3bae3a3a32046eee289038ad460291e6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2020.9269507"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Technoeconomical Analysis of Macrocell and Femtocell Based HetNet under Different Deployment Constraints

Syed Fahad Yunas, Waqas H. Ansari, Mikko Valkama
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Hindawi Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/khqygtfojnby3jyh5obuwd7ko4" style="color: black;">Mobile Information Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
Indoor small cell solutions (e.g., femtocell or WiFi) are well positioned for delivering superior indoor coverage and capacity.  ...  Ultradense deployment of small cells is being considered as one of the key flavors of the emerging 5G cellular networks to address the future data capacity challenges.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to extend their gratitude to the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, TEKES, for funding this research work as a part of "Energy-Efficient Wireless  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6927678">doi:10.1155/2016/6927678</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zuqf7ceb2ve6xnye3lif3y2o6m">fatcat:zuqf7ceb2ve6xnye3lif3y2o6m</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190503043925/http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/6927678.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bc/5b/bc5b0993c81a288b8785f3f74c080e3fdaca18af.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6927678"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> hindawi.com </button> </a>

The TUCAN3G project: wireless technologies for isolated rural communities in developing countries based on 3G small cell deployments

Andres Martinez-Fernandez, Josep Vidal, Javier Simo-Reigadas, Ignacio Prieto-Egido, Adrian Agustin, Juan Paco, Alvaro Rendon
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/risok53fz5a7tj5f2bczy5zmpq" style="color: black;">IEEE Communications Magazine</a> </i> &nbsp;
We first analyze the general characteristics of isolated rural communities, and based on this information, low cost solutions are designed for both access (using 3G access points (AP)) and backhaul networks  ...  Subsequently a study of population-dependent income versus costs is presented and a new business model is proposed involving mobile network operators (MNO), rural operators and infrastructure providers  ...  Femto APs are suitable for outdoor scenarios if they are placed in high position and can take advantage of line-of-sight propagation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2016.7509376">doi:10.1109/mcom.2016.7509376</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gpwa63awx5gbbhbspz5ueycb3a">fatcat:gpwa63awx5gbbhbspz5ueycb3a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180721213625/https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/106554/TUCAN3G_CommMAG_W4D_rev_EXTENDED.pdf;jsessionid=C4563A11A721C8B1275313871A392ADC?sequence=3" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/08/a7/08a749f44bb049db7b4fbbfd36968a3477adabf1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/mcom.2016.7509376"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Evolution Toward 5G Mobile Networks – A Survey on Enabling Technologies

Rony Kumer Saha, Poompat Saengudomlert, Chaodit Aswakul
<span title="2016-01-29">2016</span> <i title="Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ru3yy36s65cnhkah276jjvkz6e" style="color: black;">Engineering Journal</a> </i> &nbsp;
A low power node covers a small portion of a macrocell area, and hence is also termed as a small cell.  ...  Since typically the capacity per unit area increases with the number of small cells, small cells are expected to be deployed as densely as possible, and hence HetNets are thus extended to dense HetNets  ...  The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments to help improve the quality of the paper.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4186/ej.2016.20.1.87">doi:10.4186/ej.2016.20.1.87</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/llbntl3fw5fhbgvrzfnsfhwosy">fatcat:llbntl3fw5fhbgvrzfnsfhwosy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180720225246/http://www.engj.org/index.php/ej/article/download/822/435/" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b3/f3/b3f3f015097539c9f38a078d91e864dfa021aadc.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4186/ej.2016.20.1.87"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>
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