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Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

Scott E. Field, Chad R. Galley, Jan S. Hesthaven, Jason Kaye, Manuel Tiglio
<span title="2014-07-14">2014</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/34iggvr2oraezibenzxlccincy" style="color: black;">Physical Review X</a> </i> &nbsp;
[Abridged] We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model.  ...  Surrogate model building for other waveform models follow the same steps and have the same low online scaling cost.  ...  COST AND SPEEDUP FOR SURROGATE MODEL PREDICTIONS Next we discuss the cost (in terms of operation counts) to evaluate a surrogate model.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevx.4.031006">doi:10.1103/physrevx.4.031006</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7dlpbglt5veopbqxyzayqkopaa">fatcat:7dlpbglt5veopbqxyzayqkopaa</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170815071525/https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/190545/files/PhysRevX.4.031006.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9d/be/9dbed2acdec8c9c783af2f1adb4171040083bab8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevx.4.031006"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> aps.org </button> </a>

Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models

Jonathan Blackman, Scott E. Field, Chad R. Galley, Béla Szilágyi, Mark A. Scheel, Manuel Tiglio, Daniel A. Hemberger
<span title="2015-09-18">2015</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pkmpevvs3bgkhal5dvrmsu5mvq" style="color: black;">Physical Review Letters</a> </i> &nbsp;
We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code.  ...  Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from non-spinning BBH coalescences  ...  For each simulated mass ratio q i , we build a temporary trial surrogate using the other 21 waveforms, evaluate the trial surrogate at q i , and compare the prediction with the SpEC waveform for q i .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.115.121102">doi:10.1103/physrevlett.115.121102</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26430979">pmid:26430979</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2gnddtlnrngv5kexivbxjs6ui4">fatcat:2gnddtlnrngv5kexivbxjs6ui4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180724074739/https://link.aps.org/accepted/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.121102" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a2/41/a241611a0de2dedaeb33b037486ec31be625b43b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.115.121102"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> aps.org </button> </a>

On ab initio-based, free and closed-form expressions for gravitational waves [article]

Manuel Tiglio, Aarón Villanueva
<span title="2021-02-12">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Distinct aspects of our approach are that: i) representations of the gravitational waves can be explicitly written in a few lines, ii) these representations are free-form yet still fast to search for and  ...  Namely, symbolic regression through genetic programming combined with sparse representations in parameter space and the time domain using Reduced Basis and the Empirical Interpolation Method enabling fast  ...  We thank Hod Lipson for introducing us to symbolic regression, the team at Nutonian for academic licenses of Eureqa and a steep discount on their enterprise parallel version, and Jorge Pullin for comments  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.00644v2">arXiv:1911.00644v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/bjup4cccgbcalfdwllnk32f5ve">fatcat:bjup4cccgbcalfdwllnk32f5ve</a> </span>
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A Surrogate Model for Gravitational Wave Signals from Comparable- to Large- Mass-Ratio Black Hole Binaries [article]

Nur E. M. Rifat, Scott E. Field, Gaurav Khanna, Vijay Varma
<span title="2020-04-02">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We present EMRISur1dq1e4, a reduced-order surrogate model for gravitational waveforms of 13,500M in duration and including several harmonic modes for non-spinning black hole binary systems with mass-ratios  ...  Gravitational wave signals from compact astrophysical sources such as those observed by LIGO and Virgo require a high-accuracy, theory-based waveform model for the analysis of the recorded signal.  ...  This code enabled us to compute the decaying trajectories using the energy-balance approach.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.10473v2">arXiv:1910.10473v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zby3zs5sz5hhrbcp7zp5k4gfku">fatcat:zby3zs5sz5hhrbcp7zp5k4gfku</a> </span>
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An architecture for efficient gravitational wave parameter estimation with multimodal linear surrogate models

Richard O'Shaughnessy, Jonathan Blackman, Scott E Field
<span title="2017-06-27">2017</span> <i title="IOP Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/j5iizqxt2rainmxg6nfmpg2ds4" style="color: black;">Classical and quantum gravity</a> </i> &nbsp;
Using a straightforward variant of a production-scale parameter estimation code, we demonstrate our method using surrogate models of effective-one-body and numerical relativity waveforms.  ...  The recent direct observation of gravitational waves has further emphasized the desire for fast, low-cost, and accurate methods to infer the parameters of gravitational wave sources.  ...  "Fast" parameters are those for which new waveform evaluations can be quickly generated from existing ones as the value of λ f changes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6382/aa7649">doi:10.1088/1361-6382/aa7649</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/h5xjj5mxtfcttnmlzoc6c44z6y">fatcat:h5xjj5mxtfcttnmlzoc6c44z6y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180724011835/https://authors.library.caltech.edu/78717/2/1701.01137.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b2/e3/b2e351e5c3e5607c4da23369a4fa3ff5155394a8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6382/aa7649"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> iop.org </button> </a>

Cost Minimization in Acquisition for Gravitational Wave Surrogate Modeling [article]

Karl Daningburg, Richard O'Shaughnessy
<span title="2022-05-16">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Surrogate models have been developed to efficiently interpolate between simulation results, but these models require a sufficiently comprehensive sample to train on.  ...  We show that when applied to a 3D domain of binary mass ratio and dimensionless spins, the accumulated cost of simulation is reduced by a factor of about 10.  ...  Acknowledgments ROS is supported by NSF AST-1909534 and PHY 1912632, 2012057. We thank Hong Qi and Zoheyr Doctor for helpful feedback.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.07987v1">arXiv:2205.07987v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sof44cgzkngljg64aq3t5d7nwy">fatcat:sof44cgzkngljg64aq3t5d7nwy</a> </span>
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Gravitational wave surrogates through automated machine learning [article]

Damián Barsotti, Franco Cerino, Manuel Tiglio, Aarón Villanueva
<span title="2021-10-17">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We analyze a prospect for predicting gravitational waveforms from compact binaries based on automated machine learning (AutoML) from around a hundred different possible regression models, without having  ...  The results here presented suggest that AutoML might provide a framework for regression in the field of surrogates for gravitational waveforms.  ...  FIG. 5 . 5 Prediction from the surrogate model with GPR and Radial Basis Function compared to the numerical relativity gravitational waveform for q = 4.499.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.08901v1">arXiv:2110.08901v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tcljdnnctnhmpncgkr64v6hxkm">fatcat:tcljdnnctnhmpncgkr64v6hxkm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20211026010043/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.08901v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a3/ba/a3bafc222dc436b28abc0e280a10b403a8e9e54d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2110.08901v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Fast prediction and evaluation of eccentric inspirals using reduced-order models

Dániel Barta, Mátyás Vasúth
<span title="2018-06-07">2018</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/m2dr5bxn6ne7tmkwh3btn7xxhu" style="color: black;">Physical Review D</a> </i> &nbsp;
A large number of theoretically predicted waveforms are required by matched-filtering searches for the gravitational-wave signals produced by compact binary coalescence.  ...  the parameter range of the model.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the NKFIH 124366 and NKFIH 124508 grants. Partial support comes from NewComp-Star, COST Action Program MP1304.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.97.124011">doi:10.1103/physrevd.97.124011</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yz5jaqxhkfg5nojdnqc4dg6kpy">fatcat:yz5jaqxhkfg5nojdnqc4dg6kpy</a> </span>
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A Surrogate model of gravitational waveforms from numerical relativity simulations of precessing binary black hole mergers

Jonathan Blackman, Scott E. Field, Mark A. Scheel, Chad R. Galley, Daniel A. Hemberger, Patricia Schmidt, Rory Smith
<span title="2017-05-17">2017</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/m2dr5bxn6ne7tmkwh3btn7xxhu" style="color: black;">Physical Review D</a> </i> &nbsp;
We present the first surrogate model for gravitational waveforms from the coalescence of precessing binary black holes. We call this surrogate model NRSur4d2s.  ...  We perform cross-validation studies to compare the model to NR waveforms not used to build the model, and find a better agreement within the parameter range of the model than other, state-of-the-art precessing  ...  Since we cannot evaluate an arbitrarily large number of NR waveforms, we instead first construct a temporary mock surrogate using a simpler waveform model that is both fast to evaluate and is defined in  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.95.104023">doi:10.1103/physrevd.95.104023</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3wdsv7o2fnalzbxf2xjmwgz5lm">fatcat:3wdsv7o2fnalzbxf2xjmwgz5lm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180723190800/https://authors.library.caltech.edu/77526/2/1701.00550.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e8/19/e81916b12683c8975711e14c06229004f04bc9fd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.95.104023"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> aps.org </button> </a>

Effective-one-body waveforms for binary neutron stars using surrogate models

Benjamin D. Lackey, Sebastiano Bernuzzi, Chad R. Galley, Jeroen Meidam, Chris Van Den Broeck
<span title="2017-05-30">2017</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/m2dr5bxn6ne7tmkwh3btn7xxhu" style="color: black;">Physical Review D</a> </i> &nbsp;
However, this requires accurate and computationally efficient waveform models that take <1s to evaluate for use in Bayesian parameter estimation codes that perform 10^7 - 10^8 waveform evaluations.  ...  We present a surrogate model of a nonspinning effective-one-body waveform model with l = 2, 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments that reproduces waveforms of binary neutron star numerical simulations up to  ...  Subsequently, reduced-order modeling techniques have been used to efficiently represent/compress large waveform banks [29, [37] [38] [39] [40] and to build fast and accurate surrogate models [24] of  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevd.95.104036">doi:10.1103/physrevd.95.104036</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/mlck64ae4rdfvh33azsuricwq4">fatcat:mlck64ae4rdfvh33azsuricwq4</a> </span>
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A surrogate model for gravitational waveforms of spin-aligned binary black holes with eccentricities [article]

Qianyun Yun, Wen-Biao Han, Xingyu Zhong, Carlos A. Benavides-Gallego
<span title="2021-04-08">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
A waveform model for the eccentric binary black holes named SEOBNRE has been used to analyze the LIGO-Virgo's gravitational wave data by several groups.  ...  However, SEOBNRE is a time-domain model, and the efficiency for generating waveforms is a bottleneck in data analysis.  ...  Therefore, fast surrogate waveform models [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] are now often used in LIGO's data processing pipeline.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.03789v1">arXiv:2104.03789v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vqdnsrz6l5axhgnohhoi3zizfq">fatcat:vqdnsrz6l5axhgnohhoi3zizfq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210728210226/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2104.03789v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download [not primary version]" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <span style="color: #f43e3e;">&#10033;</span> <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c3/53/c353e64c45bb09644a6cbc166b44c85cc3013e1d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.03789v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Surrogate model for gravitational wave signals from non-spinning, comparable- to large-mass-ratio black hole binaries built on black hole perturbation theory waveforms calibrated to numerical relativity [article]

Tousif Islam, Scott E. Field, Scott A. Hughes, Gaurav Khanna, Vijay Varma, Matthew Giesler, Mark A. Scheel, Lawrence E. Kidder, Harald P. Pfeiffer
<span title="2022-04-05">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We present a reduced-order surrogate model of gravitational waveforms from non-spinning binary black hole systems with comparable to large mass-ratio configurations.  ...  We expect our model to be useful to study intermediate-mass-ratio binary systems in current and future gravitational-wave detectors.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Keigan Cullen and Nur Rifat for insightful comments and discussions on this project.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.01972v1">arXiv:2204.01972v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dryq36kxlbgm7nyscucvwg4wtu">fatcat:dryq36kxlbgm7nyscucvwg4wtu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220516170544/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2204.01972v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e8/7e/e87ea7205fc38e3bacbfbeb54962556bdd828d28.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.01972v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

On ab initio-based, free and closed-form expressions for gravitational waves

Manuel Tiglio, Aarón Villanueva
<span title="2021-03-12">2021</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tnqhc2x2aneavcd3gx5h7mswhm" style="color: black;">Scientific Reports</a> </i> &nbsp;
Namely, symbolic regression through genetic programming combined with sparse representations in parameter space and the time domain using Reduced Basis and the Empirical Interpolation Method enabling fast  ...  Distinct aspects of our approach are that: (i) representations of the gravitational waves can be explicitly written in a few lines, (ii) these representations are free-form yet still fast to search for  ...  We thank Hod Lipson for introducing us to symbolic regression, the team at Nutonian for academic licenses of Eureqa (now part of DataRobot) and a steep discount on their enterprise parallel version, and  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85102-y">doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85102-y</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33712649">pmid:33712649</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5eteyzoq7beq7f7xk7wbdpfjmi">fatcat:5eteyzoq7beq7f7xk7wbdpfjmi</a> </span>
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Surrogate models for precessing binary black hole simulations with unequal masses

Vijay Varma, Scott E. Field, Mark A. Scheel, Jonathan Blackman, Davide Gerosa, Leo C. Stein, Lawrence E. Kidder, Harald P. Pfeiffer
<span title="2019-10-10">2019</span> <i title="American Physical Society (APS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xs76paw2lnaxbdftrazjjcfyii" style="color: black;">Physical Review Research</a> </i> &nbsp;
We present two new fast and accurate surrogate models for the outputs of these simulations: the first model, NRSur7dq4, predicts the gravitational waveform and the second model, , predicts the properties  ...  The waveform model, NRSur7dq4, which begins about 20 orbits before merger, includes all ℓ≤ 4 spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes, as well as the precession frame dynamics and spin evolution of the black  ...  The total mass scales out of the problem and does not constitute an additional parameter for modeling. The surrogate models of Ref. [56] for the gravitational waveform and Ref.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevresearch.1.033015">doi:10.1103/physrevresearch.1.033015</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xla3nvn5orfrfnfoeh7jug5wwy">fatcat:xla3nvn5orfrfnfoeh7jug5wwy</a> </span>
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Accelerating multimodal gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binaries with artificial neural networks [article]

Lucy M. Thomas, Geraint Pratten, Patricia Schmidt
<span title="2022-05-27">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
A popular method to generate waveforms more efficiently is to build a fast surrogate model of a slower one.  ...  We apply this method to the state-of-the-art waveform model SEOBNRv4PHM and find significant computational improvements: On a traditional CPU, the typical generation of a single waveform using our neural  ...  L.M.T. is supported by STFC, the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Birmingham and the Birmingham Institute for Gravitational Wave Astronomy.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.14066v1">arXiv:2205.14066v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/q27hncqywfbz3efyflvtnvj55m">fatcat:q27hncqywfbz3efyflvtnvj55m</a> </span>
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