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Fair and Useful Cohort Selection [article]

Konstantina Bairaktari and Paul Langton and Huy L. Nguyen and Niklas Smedemark-Margulies and Jonathan Ullman
2022 arXiv   pre-print
To study fairness under composition, Dwork and Ilvento introduced an archetypal problem called fair-cohort-selection problem, where a single fair classifier is composed with itself to select a group of  ...  In this work we design algorithms for selecting cohorts that not only preserve fairness, but also maximize the utility of the selected cohort under two notions of utility that we introduce and motivate  ...  At step , we have two numbers and which get rounded and obtain new values denoted by ˜ and ˜ , respectively. The rounding depends on the value of + .  ... 
arXiv:2009.02207v2 fatcat:rfezz2fezjccdopls4yzknpofa

Fair and Optimal Cohort Selection for Linear Utilities [article]

Konstantina Bairaktari, Huy Le Nguyen, Jonathan Ullman
2021 arXiv   pre-print
To this end, Dwork and Ilvento introduced the fair cohort selection problem, which captures a specific application where a single fair classifier is composed with itself to pick a group of candidates of  ...  In this work we introduce a specific instance of cohort selection where the goal is to choose a cohort maximizing a linear utility function.  ...  Definition 4 (Fair and Useful Cohort Selection Problem).  ... 
arXiv:2102.07684v2 fatcat:ls7isjuwlfd7jifgd4hmq3rvqa

Individual Fairness in Pipelines

Cynthia Dwork, Christina Ilvento, Meena Jagadeesan, Aaron Roth
2020 Symposium on Foundations of Responsible Computing  
Pipelines differ from ordinary sequential or repeated composition in that individuals may drop out at any stage, and classification in subsequent stages may depend on the remaining "cohort" of individuals  ...  We show that naïve auditing is unable to uncover systematic unfairness and that, in order to ensure fairness, some form of dependence must exist between the design of algorithms at different stages in  ...  In each case, we state the set of cohorts the company intends to select from, and we assume that the company uses a method similar to the one described in Appendix C.3 of the full version to derive a fair  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.forc.2020.7 dblp:conf/forc/DworkIJ20 fatcat:efquf23a4zdlnkvy6f3qzbky6u

Individual Fairness in Pipelines [article]

Cynthia Dwork, Christina Ilvento, Meena Jagadeesan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Pipelines differ from ordinary sequential or repeated composition in that individuals may drop out at any stage, and classification in subsequent stages may depend on the remaining "cohort" of individuals  ...  We show that naïve auditing is unable to uncover systematic unfairness and that, in order to ensure fairness, some form of dependence must exist between the design of algorithms at different stages in  ...  As initial constraints on A and F , we assume that A is an individually fair cohort selection mechanism and that each f ∈ F is individually fair within the cohort it observes, i.e., it is intra-cohort  ... 
arXiv:2004.05167v1 fatcat:3w6acu4hhjaf3c5qwdwwtu7fo4

Toward Fairness in Speech Recognition: Discovery and mitigation of performance disparities [article]

Pranav Dheram, Murugesan Ramakrishnan, Anirudh Raju, I-Fan Chen, Brian King, Katherine Powell, Melissa Saboowala, Karan Shetty, Andreas Stolcke
2022 arXiv   pre-print
One approach to achieve fairness in speech recognition is to (1) identify speaker cohorts that suffer from subpar performance and (2) apply fairness mitigation measures targeting the cohorts discovered  ...  We compare cohort discovery based on geographic and demographic information to a more scalable method that groups speakers without human labels, using speaker embedding technology.  ...  These are used to measure both accuracy and cross-cohort discrepancies for baseline and new models.  ... 
arXiv:2207.11345v1 fatcat:tproepuvsreinpr4tpiyjkkf7u

Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III)

William M. Reichmann, Jeffrey N. Katz, Elena Losina, Joel Gagnier
2011 PLoS ONE  
Method: We used data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES-III; population-based national survey) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; prospective cohort study).  ...  Self-selection bias may contribute to overestimation of SRHS in prospective cohort studies such as OAI.  ...  The propensity score (x-axis) is defined as the probability of being selected into the NHANES-III cohort.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017345 pmid:21387001 pmcid:PMC3046148 fatcat:eolherhk2bbgzhnmuetx65hos4

Fairness in examination timetabling: Student preferences and extended formulations

Ahmad Muklason, Andrew J. Parkes, Ender Özcan, Barry McCollum, Paul McMullan
2017 Applied Soft Computing  
of high quality timetable solutions while also providing a trade-off between the standard soft constraints and a desired fairness for each student.  ...  Acknowledgement This study was supported by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE), Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of Indonesia.  ...  information about student's course and year, exam's school and faculty) that can be used to define 'cohorts'.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2017.01.026 fatcat:5fqltaazcfdvblm2rla3cwil6q

A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

Amjad Hossain, John Phelps, Ashok Agarwal, Eduardo Sanz, Maha Mahadevan
2016 International Journal of Fertility and Sterility  
Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems.  ...  The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer.  ...  Acknowledgements There was no funding to support and conflict of interest in this systematic review.  ... 
pmid:27441045 pmcid:PMC4948064 fatcat:pkhggldq3bdmhbzncm5kt4u634

Differences between blacks and whites in well-being, beliefs, emotional states, behaviors and survival, 1978-2014

Zafar Zafari, Katherine M. Keyes, Boshen Jiao, Sharifa Z. Williams, Peter Alexander Muennig, Sabine Rohrmann
2020 PLoS ONE  
selected measures of well-being, beliefs, and emotional states.  ...  in our selected measures.  ...  Survival effects of the select measures of well-being After adjustment for age, period, cohort, sex, and race, amongst our select measures, self-rated health, happiness, trust, and high school graduation  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238919 pmid:32925952 fatcat:xzq4m54oz5fk7f5tcbrqopl4ei

Identification of Relationships Between Patients Through Elements in a Data Warehouse Using the Familial, Associational, and Incidental Relationship (FAIR) Initiative: A Pilot Study

Thomas M English, Rebecca L Kinney, Michael J Davis, Ariana Kamberi, Wayne Chan, Rajani S Sadasivam, Thomas K Houston
2015 JMIR Medical Informatics  
The identifiers used for FAIR were available for the majority of patients: insurance number (483/500, 96.6%), phone number (500/500, 100%), and address (497/500, 99.4%).  ...  Using the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) warehouse infrastructure, we have now developed a Web app that facilitates FAIR for any index population.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the University of Massachusetts Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences (UL1TR000161), the National Cancer Institute (K07CA172677), and the US Department  ... 
doi:10.2196/medinform.3738 pmid:25803561 pmcid:PMC4376146 fatcat:jvkzfew2jfhzzejfcuaacsoawe

Community Building to move forward with FAIR

Emma Karoune, Carla Lancelotti, Javier Ruiz-Pérez, Juan José García-Granero, Marco Madella, Celine Kerfant
2021 Zenodo  
This projects takes an open source community-led approach to FAIR implementation through three methods: community engagement, open source infrastructure and fair assessment with community review.  ...  The talk presents a new project to implement the FAIR data principles in phytolith research.  ...  FAIR assessment and community review This image was created by Scriberia for The Turing Way community and is used under a CC-BY licence. 1.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5770744 fatcat:6zgsprxr2jegllr4tjjl77vorm

Selection fairness information and applicant reactions: A longitudinal field study

Donald M. Truxillo, Talya N. Bauer, Michael A. Campion, Matthew E. Paronto
2002 Journal of Applied Psychology  
Information was related to perceived fairness measured at the time of testing and 1 month later when applicants received their results.  ...  The discussion focuses on why certain findings from previous studies were not replicated and on the use of information when applicants have an investment in getting a job.  ...  Although selection was not controlled, the statistical control of cohort differences through the use of pretests helps overcome this threat.  ... 
doi:10.1037//0021-9010.87.6.1020 fatcat:622oxwkslvhtlnzbinjfz7qafi

Selection fairness information and applicant reactions: A longitudinal field study

Donald M. Truxillo, Talya N. Bauer, Michael A. Campion, Matthew E. Paronto
2002 Journal of Applied Psychology  
Information was related to perceived fairness measured at the time of testing and 1 month later when applicants received their results.  ...  The discussion focuses on why certain findings from previous studies were not replicated and on the use of information when applicants have an investment in getting a job.  ...  Although selection was not controlled, the statistical control of cohort differences through the use of pretests helps overcome this threat.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.6.1020 pmid:12558210 fatcat:ardzy2aps5aujfr4zjs5jngqfu

Does group assessment impact BME attainment?

Natasha Hill, James Denholm Price, Nigel Atkins, Luis Tojal Dourado, Owuraku Nimoh, Nigel Page
2016 New Directions in the Teaching of Physical Sciences  
Assessment of student learning is fundamental in Higher Education (HE) reflecting academic standards and impacting on student satisfaction, position in league tables and graduate employment.  ...  prior attainment and entry profile), which is persistent across the HE sector.  ...  Parameter (2) was used to standardise performance of BME and non-BME cohorts in (1).  ... 
doi:10.29311/ndtps.v0i11.579 fatcat:sjzgpn62evan5jsuxuanmfssf4

Healthier, Wealthier, and Wiser: A Demonstration of Compositional Changes in Aging Cohorts Due to Selective Mortality

Anna Zajacova, Sarah A. Burgard
2013 Population: Research and Policy Review  
We use data on health, wealth, and education from 10 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey (N=16,233).  ...  HEALTHIER, WEALTHIER, AND WISER: A DEMONSTRATION OF COMPOSITIONAL CHANGES IN AGING COHORTS DUE TO SELECTIVE MORTALITY.  ...  On the other hand, the consequences of the selection process have been used to explain associations between characteristics in cohorts, like race and health or education and health.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11113-013-9273-x pmid:25075152 pmcid:PMC4112120 fatcat:boow62xklvh3zkz5etjm7bqopm
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