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Fair Client Puzzles from the Bitcoin Blockchain [chapter]

Colin Boyd, Christopher Carr
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
These puzzles can be solved using the mining process of Bitcoin, or similar cryptocurrencies.  ...  We call puzzles which can be solved independently of client computing resources fair client puzzles.  ...  In fact, the fairness we allude to is order preserving, which is inherited from the blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-40253-6_10 fatcat:dgvc3gv3ajb2vb6c3m57ivleb4

SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies

Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten
2015 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
Bitcoin has emerged as the most successful cryptographic currency in history.  ...  We provide the first systematic exposition Bitcoin and the many related cryptocurrencies or 'altcoins.'  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the following colleagues for feedback on drafts of this paper: Sergio Demian Lerner  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2015.14 dblp:conf/sp/BonneauMCNKF15 fatcat:ziajrymw3bdd7houz56culqkoi

Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol [article]

Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin Gun Sirer, Robbert van Renesse
2015 arXiv   pre-print
We implement Bitcoin-NG and perform large-scale experiments at 15% the size of the operational Bitcoin system, using unchanged clients of both protocols.  ...  In addition to Bitcoin-NG, we introduce several novel metrics of interest in quantifying the security and efficiency of Bitcoin-like blockchain protocols.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank Ayush Dubey, Gregory Maxwell, Malte Möser, and Weijia Song for their comments on initial versions of this manuscript.  ... 
arXiv:1510.02037v2 fatcat:ldcw6teepvgfro5tgbtnod35gy

Local Bitcoin Network Simulator for Performance Evaluation using Lightweight Virtualization [article]

Lina Alsahan, Noureddine Lasla, Mohamed Abdallah
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To enable fast simulation of a large scale network without disabling mining service, the simulator can adjust the bitcoin mining difficulty level to below the default minimum value.  ...  As part of our contribution, we have made the simulator available on Github ( for the community to use and improve it.  ...  Each container runs the Bitcoin core reference client application.  ... 
arXiv:2002.01243v2 fatcat:yhgjzirmqnauvlm3jkk5kfpwku

Blockchain Transaction Processing [chapter]

Suyash Gupta, Mohammad Sadoghi
2019 Encyclopedia of Big Data Technologies  
Nakamoto referred to the transactional tokens exchanged among clients in his system as Bitcoins.  ...  Blockchain transactions act on the identical ledger data stored at each node. Blockchain was first perceived by Satoshi Nakamoto, as a peer-to-peer money exchange system.  ...  To ensure Bitcoin system remains fair towards all the machines, the difficulty of proof-of-work challenge is periodically increased.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-77525-8_333 fatcat:xx6d4ahzzvcs3d5tiehbh5472e

Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments Revisited

Matteo Campanelli, Rosario Gennaro, Steven Goldfeder, Luca Nizzardo
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '17  
Zero Knowledge Contingent Payment (ZKCP) protocols allow fair exchange of sold goods and payments over the Bitcoin network.  ...  We also implement ZKCSP protocols for the case of Proof of Retrievability, where a client pays the server for providing a proof that the client's data is correctly stored by the server.  ...  Zero Knowledge Contingent Payment (ZKCP) protocols [17, 12, 35 ] to allow fair exchange over the Bitcoin blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3133956.3134060 dblp:conf/ccs/CampanelliGGN17 fatcat:dkfvwo4exrbwbi4sazcr24orlq

When Cryptocurrencies Mine Their Own Business [chapter]

Jason Teutsch, Sanjay Jain, Prateek Saxena
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Bitcoin and hundreds of other cryptocurrencies employ a consensus protocol called Nakamoto consensus which reward miners for maintaining a public blockchain.  ...  Such an attack creates a longer valid blockchain by forking the honest blockchain, and the attacker's blockchain need not disrupt any "legitimate" non-mining transactions present on the honest blockchain  ...  Scriptable cryptocurrencies allow clients to outsource computational tasks or puzzles [13] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-54970-4_29 fatcat:iaj2nxnsu5ebjc4droayxj24va

Quality and Innovation with Blockchain Technology [article]

Morgan C. Benton, Nicole M. Radziwill
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Apart from the creation of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, it has been difficult to determine what practical utility might lie in the adoption of blockchain, mainly because there are so few in existence  ...  In recent years, hype surrounding the proliferation of blockchain-based technology has been significant.  ...  To solve this "fairness" problem, and ensure that all participants have equal opportunity to contribute to the puzzle-solving process, Pass & Shi (2017) have developed a variant of blockchain called  ... 
arXiv:1710.04130v1 fatcat:3dpiyp4mkfem5jqni3ymv6v5am

Consensus in the Age of Blockchains [article]

Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Mustafa Al-Bassam, Sarah Azouvi, Patrick McCorry, Sarah Meiklejohn, George Danezis
2017 arXiv   pre-print
The blockchain initially gained traction in 2008 as the technology underlying bitcoin, but now has been employed in a diverse range of applications and created a global market worth over 150B as of 2017  ...  What distinguishes blockchains from traditional distributed databases is the ability to operate in a decentralized setting without relying on a trusted third party.  ...  A client first gets signed 'clearance' from majority of the mintettes that manage the transaction inputs.  ... 
arXiv:1711.03936v2 fatcat:va2pvautcvf4zdt5marnsornvi

SoK of Used Cryptography in Blockchain [article]

Mayank Raikwar, Danilo Gligoroski, Katina Kralevska
2019 arXiv   pre-print
few studies scrutinize the cryptographic concepts used in blockchain.  ...  We also include possible instantiations of these cryptographic concepts in the blockchain domain.  ...  Since the invention of Bitcoin, there has been a growing interest in blockchain from both academia and industry.  ... 
arXiv:1906.08609v3 fatcat:l62esrum3bhmfcdxzpx3h3he4e

The FAIR TRADE Framework for Assessing Decentralised Data Solutions

John Domingue, Allan Third, Manoharan Ramachandran
2019 Companion Proceedings of The 2019 World Wide Web Conference on - WWW '19  
We present a set of dimensions relevant to data management in decentralised contexts and use them to define principles extending the FAIR framework, initially developed for open research data.  ...  TRADE framework is useful for describing and evaluating the management of decentralised data solutions, and aim to contribute to the development of best practice in a developing field.  ...  As Bitcoin is a public blockchain, all data is accessible from the Bitcoin blockchain at any time.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3308560.3317076 dblp:conf/www/DomingueTR19 fatcat:e6iqzmwgxvdkjcvl3pepen7jfq

Digital cash system of Invisibility of user Identity and Concealment

Meghan Bani Assad
2020 International journal of advanced information and communication technology  
Although it is providing the Invisibility of user Identity but extracting and combining the data and profile from the Blockchain, the identity can be revealed.  ...  Bitcoin can be considered as one of the most prevailed applications of Blockchain technology developed so far. It is the most eminent, decentralized and distributed network-based platform.  ...  Fair Exchange protocol: A fair exchange protocol ensures that the exchanged item is received by the participants or that they do not receive anything.  ... 
doi:10.46532/ijaict-2020031 fatcat:6ghqf476wjf7vb3mphyb2bgyzy

Nodes in the Bitcoin Network: Comparative Measurement Study and Survey

Sehyun Park, Seongwon Im, Youhwan Seol, Jeongyeup Paek
2019 IEEE Access  
This P2P network is at the heart of Bitcoin and many other blockchain technologies. In this paper, we present a comparative measurement study of nodes in the Bitcoin network.  ...  Our investigation includes the IP addresses of Bitcoin nodes, size of the network, power law in the geographic distribution, protocol, and client versions, and network latencies and shows how today's network  ...  If connected, BITCOIN-NODE-SCANNER obtains information such as the protocol version, client agent type, round-trip-time from the scanner, etc. from the connected peer using the Bitcoin protocol.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2914098 fatcat:zodghqh4mvgshfbtm63nslorke

A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin

Mauro Conti, Sandeep Kumar E, Chhagan Lal, Sushmita Ruj
2018 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials  
In exchangefor the incentive, the miners are expected to honestly maintainthe blockchain.  ...  Wereview the existing vulnerabilities in Bitcoin and its underlyingmajor technologies such as blockchain and PoW based consensusprotocol.  ...  from the miners, thus releases the product to dishonest client (C d ), (ii) at the same time, part of the Bitcoin miners network accepts the transaction T C d C d , thus create blockchain forks in the  ... 
doi:10.1109/comst.2018.2842460 fatcat:dueceve54nhlzdk3vrpmbb6oc4

Bitcoin: Benefit or Curse?

George F. Hurlburt, Irena Bojanova
2014 IT Professional Magazine  
Keep the bitcoin client running via an Internet connection. Become a miner Mine bitcoin blocks to help process transactions.  ...  Coinage metrically equated to established value, thus promoting fair trade.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mitp.2014.28 fatcat:kesj2anbd5c5ln2bk7rlvn4x3i
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