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Facial Deception in Humans and ECAs [chapter]

Isabella Poggi, Radoslaw Niewiadomski, Catherine Pelachaud
Modeling Communication with Robots and Virtual Humans  
A typology of ways to deceive is outlined (omission, concealment, falsification, masking, negation, and false confirmation), and applied to deception in facial and bodily expression.  ...  This paper presents a definition of deception and of its functions in terms of a model of cognition and social action.  ...  Part of the research is supported by the EU FP6 Network of Excellence HUMAINE and by the EU FP6 Integrated Project Callas.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79037-2_11 dblp:conf/zif/PoggiNP06 fatcat:px2rcqnofvhllnb4nejoleogdm

Catch me if you can

Matthias Rehm, Elisabeth André
2005 Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems - AAMAS '05  
In this paper, we examine such facial clues to deception and present the results of two empirical studies: i.) lies in monologues by a talking head presenting movies, ii.) lies in an interactive game of  ...  But such masks are often deficient and thus subtle clues of lying and deceiving manifest themselves in facial expressions.  ...  CURRENT AND FUTURE WORK The GAMBLE system was presented as a testbed to investigate the effects that deceiving ECAs have on the human-ECA interaction.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1082473.1082615 dblp:conf/atal/RehmA05 fatcat:hoiacakw5zbvjfbjzlyn54e2tq

Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent [chapter]

Elisabeth André, Elisabetta Bevacqua, Dirk Heylen, Radoslaw Niewiadomski, Catherine Pelachaud, Christopher Peters, Isabella Poggi, Matthias Rehm
2010 Cognitive Technologies  
These social virtual agents face many of the same problems as humans have in controlling and expressing themselves in an appropriate manner so as to establish and maintain persuasive interaction.  ...  All along the chapter, much of our discussion will handle concepts applicable both to agent and to human behaviour.  ...  Human users have a tendency to apply the same principles when communicating with other humans or with ECAs (Reeves and Nass, 1996) . ECAs are often used as dialogue partners.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15184-2_30 fatcat:2oa2763tgbhctlguypdtwtrmki

Embodied Conversational Agent-Based Kiosk for Automated Interviewing

Jay F. Nunamaker, Douglas C. Derrick, Aaron C. Elkins, Judee K. Burgoon, Mark W. Patton
2011 Journal of Management Information Systems  
In this study, ECA responsiveness was limited to head movement, and facial reactions were fixed.  ...  However, the model developed using the human-to-human interviews from Study 2 were supported and consistent in the human-to-ECA interaction from Study 3.  ... 
doi:10.2753/mis0742-1222280102 fatcat:odwkugkuabgyzjxfjtp7qcrvnq

Unobtrusive Deception Detection [chapter]

Rafael Calvo, Sidney D'Mello, Jonathan Gratch, Arvid Kappas, Aaron Elkins, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Maja Pantic, Judee Burgoon
2015 The Oxford Handbook of Affective Computing  
In response to national security needs and human deception detection limitations paired with advances in sensor and computing technology research into automated deception detection has increased in recent  ...  In order to develop algorithms and technology to detect and classify deception, these behaviors and physiology must be measured remotely.  ...  In western culture people have the greatest awareness and control of their facial expressions.  ... 
doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199942237.013.037 fatcat:4dpdfrthgjavxc2pkxh2pjkz4q

Where computers disappear, virtual humans appear

Anton Nijholt
2004 Computers & graphics  
In this paper, we survey the role of virtual humans (or embodied conversational agents) in smart and ambient intelligence environments.  ...  We discuss virtual humans as social actors and argue that, rather than is common in traditional human-computer interface research, we need to look at multi-party interaction.  ...  In [18] , we discussed the translation of the main aspects of human-human friendship to human-ECA friendship and how we can incorporate this translation in the design process of an ECA, using a scenario-based  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cag.2004.04.002 fatcat:a2tx4r436jdv5hc4w5h6ffucwi

Perception of dynamic facial expressions of emotion between dogs and humans

Catia Correia-Caeiro, Kun Guo, Daniel S. Mills
2020 Animal Cognition  
Humans and dogs showed different gaze distributions when viewing the same facial expressions of either humans or dogs.  ...  stimuli, to compare how two different species living in the same ecological niche, humans and dogs, perceive each other's facial expressions of emotion.  ...  When modelling ECA in relation to the viewed face species and facial expressions, the best model contained only expression as an explanatory variable (ESM 14, 16) , indicating that when humans categorised  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10071-020-01348-5 pmid:32052285 fatcat:jc5uwgjyove2xayeakxcojq7xi

The Sound of Trust: Voice as a Measurement of Trust During Interactions with Embodied Conversational Agents

Aaron C. Elkins, Douglas C. Derrick
2013 Group Decision and Negotiation  
We used an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) to maximize consistency and control in questioning, timing, and interviewer nonverbal behavior, thus eliminating potential confounds that may be introduced  ...  Participants (N = 88) completed a face-to-face interview with the ECA and reported their perceptions of the ECA's trustworthiness.  ...  Both the male and female models had similar facial structures and were identical in size, volume, and background.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10726-012-9339-x fatcat:avw3fxdcrjaqlc3pjpafvlibwu

Gamble v2.0

Matthias Rehm, Elisabeth André, Michael Wissner
2005 Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems - AAMAS '05  
The CASA paradigm [9] claims that agents are regarded and treated as social actors.  ...  Whereas in 1:1 interactions it was shown that people tend to consider their "traffic-rules" of social interaction, we know little about scenarios in which more than one user is interacting with the same  ...  This enables us to investigate how subtle emotional signals employed by an ECA are perceived by the human user.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1082473.1082824 dblp:conf/atal/RehmAW05 fatcat:gnrqq5zp2rbktdie446q4eh5uu

A Model of Attention and Interest Using Gaze Behavior [chapter]

Christopher Peters, Catherine Pelachaud, Elisabetta Bevacqua, Maurizio Mancini, Isabella Poggi
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present a model of an ECA able to establish, maintain and end the conversation based on its perception of the level of interest of its interlocutor.  ...  find rapidly the restrictions and limitations of the dialog systems, they may perceive the repetition of the ECAs animation, they may find the behaviors of ECAs to be inconsistent and implausible, etc  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Stéphane Donikian and Fabrice Lamarche for letting us use the HTPS++ toolkit. We are grateful to Nicolas Ech Chafaï for discussing with us on this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11550617_20 fatcat:xlgaecfubfd7zir77qdkos2k7i

Design Principles for Special Purpose, Embodied, Conversational Intelligence with Environmental Sensors (SPECIES) Agents

Douglas Derrick, Jeffrey Jenkins, Jay Nunamaker
2011 AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction  
In a face-toface context, humans often relay spoken words to each other, display facial gestures, change their posture, move their hands, or change voice pitch.  ...  For example, SPECIES agents could be designed to detect deception in a security context, to assess learning in an online learning context, negotiate a contract in a business context, or conduct a job interview  ...  The views, opinions, and/or findings in this report are those of the authors.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1thci.00027 fatcat:idxjguuyufh3nosaclqarrrxsy

Corpus-based generation of head and eyebrow motion for an embodied conversational agent

Mary Ellen Foster, Jon Oberlander
2007 Language Resources and Evaluation  
We first describe how a domain-specific corpus of facial displays was recorded and annotated, and outline the regularities that were found in the data.  ...  We compare these methods to each other in two ways: through cross-validation against the corpus, and by asking human judges to rate the output.  ...  Embodied conversational agents An Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) is a computer interface that is represented as a human body, and that uses its face and body in a human-like way in conversation with  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10579-007-9055-3 fatcat:cw4olvmh2bfajld7ldirhjauau

Predicting Users' Perceived Trust in Embodied Conversational Agents Using Vocal Dynamics

Aaron C. Elkins, Douglas C. Derrick, Judee K. Burgoon, Jay F. Nunamaker Jr.
2012 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  
Theoretical Background SPECIES Agents Interfaces and human-computer interaction are becoming more natural and in some cases more lifelike.  ...  Can we predict differences in perceptions of trust and its change over time according to the voice of the human interviewee?  ...  The ECAs used during the experiment are shown in Figure 3 above. Both the male and female models had similar facial structures, were identical in size, volume, and background.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hicss.2012.483 dblp:conf/hicss/ElkinsDBN12 fatcat:5jf3ll53f5fqjjlnfodyfzwmva

From Chatterbots to Natural Interaction -- Face to Face Communication with Embodied Conversational Agents

M. REHM
2005 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
The game has been used as a testbed to study typical conversational behavior patterns in interactions between human users and synthetic agents.  ...  In particular, we were interested in the question to what extent the interaction with the agent can be considered as natural.  ...  For dyadic interactions between an ECA and a human, a positive effect of natural gaze behavior was found.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ietisy/e88-d.11.2445 fatcat:cqag4mtgnjffzdeean57jjvjlu

External manifestations of trustworthiness in the interface

Justine Cassell, Timothy Bickmore
2000 Communications of the ACM  
Here we are going to argue that interaction rituals among humans, such as greetings, small talk and conventional leavetakings, along with their manifestations in speech and in embodied conversational behaviors  ...  Introduction This article is about the kind of trust that is demonstrated in human face-to-face interaction, and approaches to and benefits of having our computer interfaces depend on these same manifestations  ...  In addition, semi-autonomous ECAs can actually decrease deception (untrustworthy behavior), by ensuring that all communicative modalities are delivering a consistent message, an important consideration  ... 
doi:10.1145/355112.355123 fatcat:2kx2ikmo3rczrpt5jnfcn7hv5m
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