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Eye closure in darkness animates sensory systems

Esther Marx, Thomas Stephan, Annina Nolte, Angela Deutschländer, Klaus C Seelos, Marianne Dieterich, Thomas Brandt
2003 NeuroImage  
Single subject and group analyses (n ϭ 12) showed that the eyes-open and eyes-closed states in complete darkness considerably and consistently differ in the patterns of associated brain activation in fMRI  ...  During nonchanging external stimulation, ocular motor and attentional systems were activated when the eyes were open; the visual, somatosensory, vestibular, and auditory systems were activated when the  ...  An "interoceptive mental state" (eyes closed Ͼ eyes open)? The cortical activation of various sensory systems seems to prevail in the eyes-closed state.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1053-8119(03)00150-2 pmid:12880821 fatcat:kxn6iqm5svgvfk2azhno7b4reu

The onset of visual experience gates auditory cortex critical periods

Todd M. Mowery, Vibhakar C. Kotak, Dan H. Sanes
2016 Nature Communications  
Sensory systems influence one another during development and deprivation can lead to cross-modal plasticity.  ...  Early eyelid opening closes the auditory cortex CPs precociously and dark rearing prevents this effect. In contrast, delayed eyelid opening extends the auditory cortex CPs by several additional days.  ...  Early CP closure was prevented by dark rearing.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ncomms10416 pmid:26786281 pmcid:PMC4736048 fatcat:twtifxqhezfkzjvfvz56fqpdfq

Enriched and Deprived Sensory Experience Induces Structural Changes and Rewires Connectivity during the Postnatal Development of the Brain

Harkaitz Bengoetxea, Naiara Ortuzar, Susana Bulnes, Irantzu Rico-Barrio, José Vicente Lafuente, Enrike G. Argandoña
2012 Neural Plasticity  
This paper summarizes our current understanding of sensory systems development, focused specially in the visual system.  ...  Although the time course for experience-mediated sensory development is specific for each system, postnatal development acts as a whole, and if one cortical area is deprived of its normal sensory inputs  ...  These effects can be altered or modified if animals are dark-reared in complex environments.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2012/305693 pmid:22848849 pmcid:PMC3400395 fatcat:6dxcuh4w6rchlkjk3t6j2tom3q

Gaze failure, drifting eye movements, and centripetal nystagmus in cerebellar disease

J Leech, M Gresty, K Hess, P Rudge
1977 British Journal of Ophthalmology  
Three abnormalities of eye movement in man are described which are indicative of cerebellar system disorder, namely, centripetally beating nystagmus, failure to maintain lateral gaze either in darkness  ...  or with eye closure, and slow drifting movements of the eyes in the absence of fixation.  ...  of gaze maintenance after eye closure or in darkness, and drifting movements of the eyes in the absence of fixation.  ... 
doi:10.1136/bjo.61.12.774 pmid:603785 pmcid:PMC1043118 fatcat:5s56mwj7oranhi4rpkk7p2ct64

Downbeat Nystagmus Elicited by Eyelid Closure

João Lemos, Daniela Pereira, Margarida Amorim, Beatriz Santiago, António Paiva, Luís Cunha
2014 Journal of neuro-ophthalmology  
We describe a patient with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) evoked only by eye closure.  ...  One potential mechanism for DBN in this case involves transverse ephaptic spread of excitation from areas that subserve coordinated lid closure to the decussating ventral tegmental tract.  ...  After 9 months, motor and sensory involvement had completely resolved, whereas DBN and unsteadiness evoked by eye closure were unchanged.  ... 
doi:10.1097/wno.0000000000000123 pmid:24667774 fatcat:mbncnh26qrembjcuugmzf6wlum

The reaction to light of the decapitated young Necturus

Albert C. Eycleshymer
1908 Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology  
In a word, it may be said that the evidence has been slowly accumulating from the morphological side in support of the hypothesis that the retina belongs to the cutaneous sensory system.  ...  system."  ... 
doi:10.1002/cne.920180303 fatcat:gcsamunbyjhehccfse7uvv24pi

Structural Plasticity of Synaptopodin in the Axon Initial Segment during Visual Cortex Development

Annabelle Schlüter, Domenico Del Turco, Thomas Deller, Annika Gutzmann, Christian Schultz, Maren Engelhardt
2017 Cerebral Cortex  
In line with this observation, synaptopodin-deficient mice lacking the CO showed AIS shortening in the dark.  ...  Dark rearing resulted in an increase in synaptopodin cluster sizes, suggesting a homeostatic function of the CO in this cellular compartment.  ...  Of note, the length of AIS from dark-reared animals corresponded to that of animals before eye-opening, suggesting that dark rearing does not elongate the AIS, but rather that increased sensory input and  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhx208 pmid:28922860 fatcat:m44pz4pnvzc5zcz46b36nggudq

Insights into Visual Cortex Plasticity: Interaction Between Genes and Sensory Experience [chapter]

Jos Fernando, Matteo Caleo
2012 Visual Cortex - Current Status and Perspectives  
system is dark rearing (i.e., rearing animals in total darkness from birth).  ...  Noteworthy, rearing animals in complete darkness extents the critical period far beyond its normal limits (Hensch 2005) .  ... 
doi:10.5772/50721 fatcat:mlmi7f4625benizfleiyh6wfti

Critical Periods in the Visual System: Changing Views for a Model of Experience-Dependent Plasticity

Bryan M. Hooks, Chinfei Chen
2007 Neuron  
of critical periods in the visual system.  ...  Sensory experience or deprivation during an early critical period results in substantial plasticity and is a crucial factor in establishing the mature circuitry.  ...  Changes in environmental experience can affect multiple facets of the sensory system.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.10.003 pmid:17964248 fatcat:ozutlrn3rfhvjoq6esfg5sanpm

A period of structural plasticity at the axon initial segment in developing visual cortex

Annika Gutzmann, Nursah Ergül, Rebecca Grossmann, Christian Schultz, Petra Wahle, Maren Engelhardt
2014 Frontiers in Neuroanatomy  
A system particularly well-studied in this context is the mammalian visual system. Plasticity has been documented for the somatodendritic compartment of neurons in detail.  ...  To test if the dynamic maturation of the AIS is influenced by eye opening (onset of activity), animals were deprived of visual input before and during the CP.  ...  This effect was even more pronounced in dark reared (birth to P28) animals.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00011 pmid:24653680 pmcid:PMC3949221 fatcat:wejw7xf2jvgr3esinyq2mum5xm

Nature and nurture in hearing: Critical periods for therapy of deafness

Andrej Kral, Mika Sato
2020 Acoustical Science and Technology  
The results show that many characteristics of the afferent auditory system, particularly the anatomical features, are genetically determined (are in origin "nature"), and that experience is used to maintain  ...  requires interaction between bottomup and top-down streams of information processing, since features define objects and context (i.e. active objects) defines which features may carry relevant information in  ...  In the visual system, on the other hand, the eye occluded lost the ability to drive cortical neurons, leading to blindness on that eye (discussion in [37, 39] ).  ... 
doi:10.1250/ast.41.54 fatcat:dwlvxqeycrbhrbo2bbcteyrwhu

Distinct Roles for Spontaneous and Visual Activity in Remodeling of the Retinogeniculate Synapse

Bryan M. Hooks, Chinfei Chen
2006 Neuron  
Sensory experience and spontaneous activity play important roles in development of sensory circuits; however, their relative contributions are unclear.  ...  We found that the bulk of maturation occurs without patterned sensory activity over 4 days spanning eye opening.  ...  Chronic Dark Rearing Results in Only Modest Changes in Synapse Maturation Because previous studies had shown sensory deprivation-induced plasticity from retina to cortex in the visual system, our short-term  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.07.007 pmid:17046691 fatcat:yzpe2wxrvncj3ijxg6epimasqy

Visual Cortex Plasticity: A Complex Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Influences

José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt, Nicola Origlia
2012 Neural Plasticity  
Recent experimental evidence for mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity following congenital or acquired sensory deprivation both in human and animal models will be considered as well.  ...  Here, we shall concentrate on structural and functional consequences of early sensory deprivation in the visual system and discuss how intracellular signal transduction pathways associated with experience  ...  (i.e., rearing animals in total darkness from birth).  ... 
doi:10.1155/2012/631965 pmid:22852098 pmcid:PMC3407658 fatcat:2kkdnvqaujd5pdqosatxazimda

New Perspectives in Amblyopia Therapy on Adults: A Critical Role for the Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance

Laura Baroncelli, Lamberto Maffei, Alessandro Sale
2011 Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience  
visual acuity in an apparently healthy eye and various other perceptual abnormalities, including deficits in contrast sensitivity and in stereopsis.  ...  However, recent results obtained both in clinical trials and in animal models have challenged this traditional view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery after the end of  ...  A recent study reported that exposing adult animals to complete darkness can induce vision recovery in amblyopic rats, providing evidence that the enhanced cortical plasticity is related to a shift in  ... 
doi:10.3389/fncel.2011.00025 pmid:22144947 pmcid:PMC3223381 fatcat:6bbeaz74hbfhtp3tfnuumgufsi

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reverses the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REMSD) on developmentally regulated, long-term potentiation (LTP) in visual cortex slices

James P. Shaffery, Jorge Lopez, Howard P. Roffwarg
2012 Neuroscience Letters  
Work in this laboratory demonstrated a role for rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) in critical period (CP), postnatal days (P)17-30, synaptic plasticity in visual cortex.  ...  Neurotrophins are implicated in the synaptic plasticity that underlies CP maturation and also final closure of the CP in visual cortex.  ...  These findings and the dark-rearing studies from Bear's laboratory 21 suggest that endogenous neural activation during REMS as well as exogenous sensory stimulation of visual system contribute to configuring  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.012 pmid:22361363 pmcid:PMC3307368 fatcat:l5mhurko5zf4vmis6aiplpit6u
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