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How to build time-lock encryption

Jia Liu, Tibor Jager, Saqib A. Kakvi, Bogdan Warinschi
2018 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  
We build our time-lock encryption on top of the new concept of computational reference clocks and an extractable witness encryption scheme.  ...  We explain how to construct a computational reference clock based on Bitcoin. We show how to achieve constant level of multilinearity for witness encryption by using SNARKs.  ...  Extractable witness encryption Extractable witness encryption from SUBSET-SUM In this section, we propose a construction for extractable witness encryption from a special Subset-Sum problem and we prove  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10623-018-0461-x fatcat:gp5tebkchbexnmdhj7girsh4ki

JugglingSwap: Scriptless Atomic Cross-Chain Swaps [article]

Omer Shlomovits, Oded Leiba
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The fair exchange is achieved by a gradual release of secrets.  ...  This has many benefits to blockchains throughput, efficiency of swap protocols and also to fungibility and privacy.  ...  The segments [x] k | m k=1 should be small enough to allow extraction of [x] k from [x] k G in polynomial time in the security parameter.  ... 
arXiv:2007.14423v1 fatcat:drzezviozvh63bxwheq5qrnu5e

The Ring of Gyges

Ari Juels, Ahmed Kosba, Elaine Shi
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
algorithm, and extracts a set of witnesses including sk V .  ...  NIZK), as a valid witness is extracted.  ...  Further, simP decrypts the msk from c 0 . Now reconstruct M in the following manner: Compute all κ i 's from the msk. For every κ i that was submitted as an RO query, the simulator recovers the m i .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978362 dblp:conf/ccs/JuelsKS16 fatcat:zzgm544fnjga7feyeyatyif2w4

A Survey on Ransomware: Evolution, Taxonomy, and Defense Solutions [article]

Harun Oz, Ahmet Aris, Albert Levi, A. Selcuk Uluagac
2021 arXiv   pre-print
and IoT/CPS platforms.  ...  provide an extensive overview of ransomware defense research (i.e., analysis, detection, and recovery) with respect to platforms of PCs/workstations, mobile devices, and IoT/CPS.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is partially supported by the US National Science Foundation Awards: NSF-CAREER-CNS-1453647 and NSF-1718116.  ... 
arXiv:2102.06249v1 fatcat:3n62zwlo2be47m3sinht5ts6bu

Ransomware Attack: India Issues Red Alert [chapter]

Simran Sabharwal, Shilpi Sharma
2019 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing  
WannaCry ransomware attack is the latest global cyber attack which usually strikes Microsoft Windows Operating systems and the payment is stipulated in the less traceable Bitcoin crypto currency.  ...  A cyber security firm Quick Heal Technologies reported that it has detected over 48,000 ransomware attack attempts in the country, with West Bengal witnessing the most incidents.  ...  Microsoft, at the same time released a patch which no longer backed Windows Server 2003, Windows 8 and Windows XP.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-981-13-7403-6_42 fatcat:6xya4qncozeidanlvbergic5tm

Bitcoin Investigations: Evolving Methodologies and Case Studies

Andrew LR, Douglas AO
2018 Journal of Forensic Research  
This paper discusses what Bitcoin is and how it works, and explores various investigative methodologies to perform Bitcoin network analysis, transactional analysis, and wallet analysis.  ...  Techniques to investigate Bitcoin and to identify its users are therefore required to enforce laws and protect the public.  ...  Extraction of PII and Bitcoin addresses by malicious trackers is another possibility [39] .  ... 
doi:10.4172/2157-7145.1000420 fatcat:z3l5f6yivbcqdgk6lv6wbsnele

Understanding the Evolution of Ransomware: Paradigm Shifts in Attack Structures

Aaron Zimba, Mumbi Chishimba
2019 International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security  
We propose a ransomware categorization framework that classifies the virulence of a given ransomware based on a proposed classification algorithm that is based on data deletion and file encryption attack  ...  The categories that increase in severity from CAT1 to CAT5 classify the technical prowess and the overall effectiveness of potential ways of retaining the data without paying the ransom demand.  ...  However, this time might not be enough to make a decision and follow through the process of converting fiat money to bitcoins.  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijcnis.2019.01.03 fatcat:nejwhbc3jja5hkqu3ucchmrqde

The Challenges of Existence, Status, and Value for Improving Blockchain

Fei Lin, Minqian Qiang
2019 IEEE Access  
An improved blockchain provides a democratic virtual economic system (DVES) that can verify payments, reach consensus, and store encrypted data in virtual economic systems.  ...  This paper outlines the challenges of value, existence, and status (VES) and the state-of-the-art solutions for improved blockchain.  ...  To prevent attackers from extracting key information for core cryptographic algorithms, one can use keyless cryptographic algorithms, code obfuscation techniques [24] or encrypting keys using encryption  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2888697 fatcat:wd6fwoejnvfsfamdzthpf2hi44

Leveraging Machine Learning Algorithms For Zero-Day Ransomware Attack

2019 International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology  
This type of malware encrypts consumer files, extracts consumer files, and charges higher ransoms to be paid for decryption of keys.  ...  Current global huge cyber protection attacks resulting from Infected Encryption ransomware structures over all international locations and businesses with millions of greenbacks lost in paying compulsion  ...  The ransom is requested via bitcoin encryption. Device documents are not encrypted to keep the device running.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijeat.f8694.088619 fatcat:u2msij4k6fdrvjmnlbepunu6jm

Encryption analysis of AES-Cipher Block Chaining performance in Crypto-Wall Ransomware and SDN based mitigation

Anish Pillai, M S. Vasanthi, Ruturaj Kadikar, B Amutha
2018 International Journal of Engineering & Technology  
The time taken for CryptoWall ransomware encryption using AES- CBC is observed for various data sizes and a SDN approach for ransomware threat mitigation is discussed.  ...  Modern ransomware behaviour indicates propagation of the malware from the host victim to other computers and shared drives within its network.  ...  , Chennai, for their kind assistance and providing us with the required resources.  ... 
doi:10.14419/ijet.v7i2.24.11997 fatcat:z5bkyo4jqzctjagtut7mf455qa

How to keep a secret

Aggelos Kiayias, Qiang Tang
2013 Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC conference on Computer & communications security - CCS '13  
We formalize the notion of leakage-deterring in the context of encryption, signature, and identification and we provide efficient generic constructions that facilitate the recoverability of the hidden  ...  Given that she possesses the cryptographic key, it is impossible for her to be prevented from writing code or building a device that uses that key. She may though be deterred from doing so.  ...  the money out from the bitcoin account corresponding to the key owner.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2508859.2516691 dblp:conf/ccs/KiayiasT13 fatcat:g5bellremjdrxdqo73gpnhu5wa

A solution for secure certified electronic mail using Blockchain as a secure message board

M. Francisca Hinarejos, Josep-Lluis Ferrer-Gomila, LlorenC Huguet-Rotger
2019 IEEE Access  
The protocol is secure, efficient, and viable from a practical perspective. INDEX TERMS Bitcoin, blockchain, certified delivery, certified email, email security, fair exchange, nonrepudiation.  ...  The few solutions without a TTP have not been successful due to their high computational and/or communication cost.  ...  Herrera-Joancomartí, researcher at the Department of Information Engineering and Communications of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), for his advice and suggestions about Bitcoin.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2902174 fatcat:ul7fzhgqbbewpavaazbqdgv7v4

ZETH: On Integrating Zerocash on Ethereum [article]

Antoine Rondelet, Michal Zajac
2019 arXiv   pre-print
While Ben-Sasson et al. presented the Zerocash protocol [BCG+14] as a decentralized anonymous payment (DAP) scheme standing on top of Bitcoin, no study about the integration of such DAP on top of a ledger  ...  private transactions in the context of public and permissioned chains.  ...  extractor to extract a witness w, such that (x, w) ∈ R.  ... 
arXiv:1904.00905v2 fatcat:xqzvlizrsnc5bdd6gj473tjdoi

Improvements to Secure Computation with Penalties

Ranjit Kumaresan, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Prashant Nalini Vasudevan
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
load and also space on the blockchain) on the number of parties from quadratic to linear (and in particular, is completely independent of the underlying function).  ...  (CCS 2015) where we reduce the total number of claim-or-refund transactions and also the script complexity from quadratic to linear in the number of parties.  ...  Pi+1 released a witness for the predicate φi+1, and 2.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978421 dblp:conf/ccs/KumaresanVV16 fatcat:5ngghr4jfbghdp3d7vpokmfaw4

Achieving cybersecurity in blockchain-based systems: A survey

Mar Gimenez-Aguilar, Jose Maria de Fuentes, Lorena Gonzalez-Manzano, David Arroyo
2021 Future generations computer systems  
The analysis is intended to target area researchers, cybersecurity specialists and blockchain developers. For this purpose, we analyze 272 papers from 2013 to 2020 and 128 industrial applications.  ...  Since blockchain technologies provide a distributed ledger, they are receiving massive attention from the research community in different application fields.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions, as well as Prof. Javier Lopez, Dr. David Galindo and Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.future.2021.05.007 fatcat:qgrvgan6znbmvnnatig3uduyau
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