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Childhood generalized and mesial temporal epilepsies demonstrate different amounts and patterns of hippocampal neuron loss and mossy fibre synaptic reorganization

Gary W. Mathern, Thomas L. Babb, Paul S. Mischel, Harry V. Vinters, James K. Pretorius, Joao P. Leite, Warwick J. Peacock
1996 Brain  
(Hi) By contrast, young children with the syndrome of mesial temporal epilepsy show patterns of neuron loss and mossy fibre sprouting, typical of hippocampal sclerosis, (iv) Repeated extra-hippocampal  ...  However, repeated childhood generalized seizures are not necessarily associated with the development of hippocampal sclerosis.  ...  Changes in hippocampal neuron densities associated with seizures Compared with children with extra-hippocampal pathologies, those with mesial temporal epilepsy showed hippocampal sclerosis, and the clinical  ... 
doi:10.1093/brain/119.3.965 pmid:8673505 fatcat:rsduqthaqzh7lbbdhvzfrsbvma

Abnormalities in hippocampi remote from the seizure focus: a T2 relaxometry study

R. C. Scott
2003 Brain  
The patients were divided on the basis of clinical, video-EEG and visual MRI assessment into three groups: (i) those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) (MTS-TLE); (ii  ...  Abbreviations: AI = asymmetry index; CI = con®dence interval; ETE = extratemporal epilepsy; MTS = mesial temporal sclerosis; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy Brain 126 ã Guarantors of Brain 2003; all rights  ...  Introduction Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common structural correlate of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in adults who undergo temporal lobe resections for treatment of epilepsy.  ... 
doi:10.1093/brain/awg199 pmid:12805108 fatcat:5rxjisgl55bmloech6iw6ik2ni


Vijaya Kumari M, Aswini Jyothi J S, Suman Chandra A, Pushpanjali V, Jayalatha N
2017 Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences  
is found on magnetic resonance imaging. 26 Approximately, 60% of patients become seizure free after surgery, the seizure free surgical outcome being 67% for mesial temporal sclerosis, 75% for neoplasms  ...  and 58% for cortical dysplasia. 27 CONCLUSION The present study was performed in seventy three patients in the paediatric age group from 0 -16 years who presented with clinical presentation of seizures  ...  Mesial temporal sclerosis was diagnosed based on the principal findings of volume loss and abnormal signal in the hippocampus with identification of loss of hippocampal architecture on inversion recovery  ... 
doi:10.14260/jemds/2017/107 fatcat:zegdt3hlwna37ecqsnaf7qzjqi

CPD – Education and Self-assessment: Functional imaging in epilepsy

Mark P Richardson
2001 Seizure  
Functional imaging plays a growing role in the clinical assessment and research investigation of patients with epilepsy.  ...  The place of these techniques in clinical evaluation and their contribution to a better neurobiological understanding of epilepsy are discussed.  ...  Of 17 patients with MCD, 15 had abnormal PET findings, consisting of focal hypometabolism in nine patients and displaced metabolic activity of normal grey matter, reflecting underlying grey matter heterotopia  ... 
doi:10.1053/seiz.2001.0546 pmid:11407959 fatcat:hf6ntoujkneknj5jj4kqvngo44

CPD – Education and Self-assessment: Functional imaging in epilepsy

2001 Seizure  
Functional imaging plays a growing role in the clinical assessment and research investigation of patients with epilepsy.  ...  The place of these techniques in clinical evaluation and their contribution to a better neurobiological understanding of epilepsy are discussed.  ...  Of 17 patients with MCD, 15 had abnormal PET findings, consisting of focal hypometabolism in nine patients and displaced metabolic activity of normal grey matter, reflecting underlying grey matter heterotopia  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1059-1311(01)90546-1 fatcat:dvozjwc2qbethbzaiyzb2evam4

Imaging and epilepsy

J. Duncan
1997 Brain  
T 2 relaxation time; HMPAO ϭ hexamethylpropylenamine oxime; HS ϭ hippocampal sclerosis; MCD ϭ malformation of cortical development; MAO ϭ monoamine oxidase; MRS ϭ magnetic resonance spectroscopy; NAA  ...  ϭ creatineϩphosphocreatine; CSI ϭ chemical shift imaging; ECD ϭ ethyl cysteinate dimer; 18 FDG ϭ [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose; fMRI ϭ functional MRI; FLAIR ϭ fluid attenuated inversion recovery; HCT 2 ϭ hippocampal  ...  In a complex group of patients, hippocampal atrophy on MRI compared temporal lobe white matter and cortex, dilatation of the temporal horn and a blurring of the grey-white matter margin favourably with  ... 
doi:10.1093/brain/120.2.339 pmid:9117380 fatcat:7lxkh7srofbidaod4fxbjggrjy

Towards in vivo focal cortical dysplasia phenotyping using quantitative MRI

Sophie Adler, Sara Lorio, Thomas S. Jacques, Barbora Benova, Roxana Gunny, J. Helen Cross, Torsten Baldeweg, David W. Carmichael
2017 NeuroImage: Clinical  
Quantitative MRI offers the possibility to probe tissue biophysical properties in vivo and may bridge the gap between radiological assessment and ex-vivo histology.  ...  Future research linking quantitative MRI to FCD histological properties should improve clinical protocols, allow better characterisation of lesions in vivo and tailored surgical planning to the individual  ...  Inflammation (glial cell proliferation) Neuronal density References References References References  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2017.04.017 pmid:28491496 pmcid:PMC5413300 fatcat:5hm4i3da25eqffud5my67p5w3q

A Review on the Pathomechanism of Interictal Psychiatry Comorbidities in Epilepsy

Anna SzAcs, Andras Horvath, Daniel Fabo, Andrea Kovacs, Peter Halasz, Geza Szabo
2018 Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience  
Epileptic activity impairs the white and grey matter of the brain; likely contributing to brain network changes.  ...  During ten years of follow-up, 10% of children suffering in temporal lobe epilepsy have developed an episode of schizophrenic psychosis [21].  ...  There were white matter abnormalities in the fornix, the cingulate gyrus, the corpus callosum and the left superior frontal gyrus with widespread extra-temporal grey matter atrophy despite excess aberrant  ... 
doi:10.21767/2171-6625.1000244 fatcat:mduycegnafgvzaivzgfhbp335i

Central Nervous System Findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Epilepsy [chapter]

Teodoro Dur-Trav, Maria Eugenia, Joaquin Esparza-Estan, Fidel Gallinas-Victoriano, Sergio Aguilera-Albesa, Amaia Sagastibelza-Zabalet
2012 Neuroimaging - Clinical Applications  
enlargement, prominence of the extra-axial spaces, hippocampal atrophy or signal abnormality, and others structural abnormalities.  ...  In 19 studies with at least one MRI abnormality, the most common abnormalities included white-matter lesions (28.1%), volume loss (15.6%), gray-matter lesions (12.5%) and prominence of extra-axial fluid  ... 
doi:10.5772/23801 fatcat:scmgktzv5nabncf3sfp2t2mhma

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-flumazenil positron emission tomography in patients with refractory epilepsy

Marina Hodolic, Raffi Topakian, Robert Pichler
2016 Radiology and Oncology  
sclerosis, as observed by histopathology or MRI.  ...  Unfortunately, 18 F-FDG is not an ideal PET tracer regarding the management of patients with epilepsy: areas of glucose hypometabolism do not correlate precisely with the proven degree of change within hippocampal  ...  In selected patients with focal structural lesions such as cortical dysplasia, mesial temporal sclerosis, vascular malformations and in some paediatric epilepsy syndromes, surgery may substantially reduce  ... 
doi:10.1515/raon-2016-0032 pmid:27679539 pmcid:PMC5024661 fatcat:ewswdtsl55akhmug7nti7gewze

A systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of neuroimaging assessments used to visualise the seizure focus in people with refractory epilepsy being considered for surgery

P Whiting, R Gupta, J Burch, R Mujica Mota, K Wright, A Marson, U Weishmann, A Haycox, J Kleijnen, C Forbes
2006 Health Technology Assessment  
Distribution of hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy volumetric MRI assessment. Neurology 1992; 42:205. 170. Cook M. Mesial temporal sclerosis and volumetric investigations.  ...  Partial volume effect corrected ( 11 C) flumazenil (FMZ) PET reveals extrahippocampal abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis.  ...  ti) or ((Fluid attentuated inversion recovery) in ti,ab,de) or ((mr spectroscop*)in ti,ab,de) or ((mr imag*)in ti,ab,de) or ((mr scan*)in ti,ab,de) or ((mr tomograph*)in ti,ab,de) or ((mr tomograph*)in  ... 
doi:10.3310/hta10040 pmid:16487454 fatcat:wjztskv2kjcgpeoqmwaw36i4vm

Why is delirium more frequent in the elderly?

Orso Bugiani
2021 Neurological Sciences  
An aging-related reduction in the brain's functional reserve may explain why delirium is more frequent in the elderly than in younger people insofar as the reserve becomes inadequate to cover the metabolic  ...  The aim of this paper is to review the normal aging-related changes that theoretically compromise complex mental activities, neuronal and synaptic densities, and the neurocomputational flexibility of the  ...  CBF [47, 48], whereas McLott et al. [49] speculated that post-operative delirium was related to abnormalities in thalamic inputs to the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal grey matter.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10072-021-05339-3 pmid:34031797 pmcid:PMC8143064 fatcat:gum4o5aymnf3taljrmbix6go2e


2015 Epilepsia  
Outcome was dependent on localisation of epilepsy (at the last follow up visit: 50.0% seizure free patients with other temporal, 33.3% with mesial TLE associated with hippocampal sclerosis and 26.5% with  ...  With hippocampal sclerosis as the most often observed histopathological finding, its epileptogenesis is still researched.  ...  In this study we identified the hemodynamic maps of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWDs) recorded in IGE patients with photosensitivity respect with the one detected in IGEs without reflex traits  ... 
doi:10.1111/epi.13241 fatcat:jnz7opo6tnccjcljtelg53ux6u

Monday July 3, 2006 15:00-17:00 Hall 3A Discussion Group Session Cognitive dysfunction in children with temporal lobe epilepsy

2006 Epilepsia  
Recruitment commenced in 1999, ended 2005, and follow up ended in 2005.  ...  Purpose: To compare lamotrigine (LTG) and slow-release carbamazepine (CBZ) in the treatment of newly diagnosed epilepsy in the elderly.  ...  Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was present in 58% of N-DR and in 71% of DR patients.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00715_55.x fatcat:as6vr3saobh2noqiutoquvfmni

Proceedings of the Association of British Neurologists and the Society of British Neurological Surgeons, University of Liverpool, 5-7 April 1995: Platform Presentations

1995 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry  
Scanning patients with primary generalised epilepsy showed underlying structural abnormalities in six cases.  ...  Three had subependymal heterotopia and three hippocampal asymmetry: one of these improved after temporal lobectomy. Reconstruction of on 24 July 2018 by guest. Protected by copyright.  ...  In conclusion, there is a reduction of BZ/GABA-A receptor density in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy over and above loss of hippocampal volume.  ... 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.59.2.200 fatcat:uea4uqttq5eknafdsoirgnv724
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