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Extensionally defining principles and cases in ethics: An AI model

Bruce M. McLaren
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
This paper discusses research in which the following hypothesis was empirically tested: extensionally defined principles, as well as cited past cases, can help in predicting the principles and cases that  ...  To investigate this phenomenon computationally, a large set of professional ethics cases was analyzed and a computational model called SIROCCO, a system for retrieving principles and past cases, was constructed  ...  I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers of the paper and the editors of this special edition of the AI Journal, who provided many helpful suggestions and comments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00135-8 fatcat:gdn7pzbhufgxtjav23kjm77zdi

Extensionally Defining Principles and Cases in Ethics: an AI model

Bruce M. McLaren
This paper discusses research in which the following hypothesis was empirically tested: extensionally defined principles, as well as cited past cases, can help in predicting the principles and cases that  ...  To investigate this phenomenon computationally, a large set of professional ethics cases was analyzed and a computational model called SIROCCO, a system for retrieving principles and past cases, was constructed  ...  In particular, (1) the concept and use of operationalization of abstract principles in an ill-defined domain and (2) the example the SIROCCO project provides of how an AI model and methods can be used  ... 
doi:10.1184/r1/6470063 fatcat:igzgillkxzforjdk2g26wy5i7y

Philosophical Specification of Empathetic Ethical Artificial Intelligence [article]

Michael Timothy Bennett, Yoshihiro Maruyama
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In order to construct an ethical artificial intelligence (AI) two complex problems must be overcome. Firstly, humans do not consistently agree on what is or is not ethical.  ...  An ethical AI must be capable of inferring unspoken rules, interpreting nuance and context, possess and be able to infer intent, and explain not just its actions but its intent.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to acknowledge and thank the reviewers for their thoughtful and detailed feedback, which improved this paper substantially.  ... 
arXiv:2107.10715v1 fatcat:ek7h6llu6zfzrnkilg2pzv6hj4

Particularism and Generalism: How AI can Help us to Better Understand Moral Cognition [chapter]

Marcello Guarini
2020 Machine Ethics and Robot Ethics  
Neural network models of moral case classification are presented, and the contrast case method for testing and revising case classifications is considered.  ...  Particularism and Generalism refer to families of attitudes towards moral principles.  ...  It is in considering how to revise cases that principles (whether they are called contributory, open textured, extensionally defined, et cetera) will likely loom large.  ... 
doi:10.4324/9781003074991-26 fatcat:b3lmwrljkzeddezurskdkfkheq

Automated argument adjudication to solve ethical problems in multi-agent environments

Selmer Bringsjord, Naveen Sundar Govindarajulu, Michael Giancola
2021 Paladyn: Journal of Behavioral Robotics  
content, and (ii) must solve an ethical problem on the basis of what it has received.  ...  ethical principles) recommendation based upon such adjudication.  ...  (with a special thanks here to the wise guidance and inspiration of Michael Qin), and for their past support of our R&D in robot/machine ethics (primarily under a MURI to advance the science and engineering  ... 
doi:10.1515/pjbr-2021-0009 fatcat:532cmp5urnf4vmrst2kcttpwty

Ethics and Good Practice in Computational Paralinguistics

Anton Batliner, Simone Hantke, Bjoern W. Schuller
2020 IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing  
In this article, we try to set the scene by (1) giving a short overview of ethics and privacy, (2) describing the field of Computational Paralinguistics, its history and exemplary use cases, as well as  ...  With the advent of 'heavy Artificial Intelligence' -big data, deep learning, and ubiquitous use of the internet, ethical considerations are widely dealt with in public discussions and governmental bodies  ...  In [21] , Jobin et al. find a convergence around ethical principles in Artificial Intelligence (AI) ethics guidelines, however, with "substantive divergence" as far as interpretation and implementation  ... 
doi:10.1109/taffc.2020.3021015 fatcat:gvbk6whi6fd53j24ogf7wtpo2i

Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning: Challenges, Initial Steps, and Future Directions

B.M. McLaren
2006 IEEE Intelligent Systems  
The other program, SIROCCO, accepts a single ethical dilemma and retrieves other cases and ethical principles that might be relevant. Neither program was designed to reach an ethical decision.  ...  Here, I briefly describe a few of these programs and discuss in detail two programs that I developed, both of which employ techniques from the area of AI known as case-based reasoning and implement aspects  ...  Acknowledgments Kevin Ashley contributed greatly to the ideas behind both Truth-Teller and SIROCCO.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mis.2006.67 fatcat:zfeaoe4aibea7gglyoy6mmccje

Ethical Regulation of Robots Must Be Embedded in Their Operating Systems [chapter]

Naveen Sundar Govindarajulu, Selmer Bringsjord
2015 A Construction Manual for Robots' Ethical Systems  
Ob(p) Note that no global ethical principles are enforced.  ...  Robotic Substrate Ethical Substrate Future 1 Future 2 Only "obviously" dangerous higher-level AI modules have ethical safeguards. } Higher-level cognitive and AI modules All higher-level AI modules interact  ...  Figure 4 : DC EC * Syntax and Rules of Inference The final layer in our hierarchy is built upon an even more expressive logic: DC EC * CL .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21548-8_5 dblp:series/cogtech/GovindarajuluB15 fatcat:qroxahdukna4bbtgrbtlshkivy

Consequentialize This

Campbell Brown
2011 Ethics: An International Journal of Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy  
Formal Model I begin by defining a simple formal model. The model will take entities of two sorts as primitives: possible worlds and agents.  ...  The maximal elements in a set X, relative to an order ≤ , may be defined as follows: Ethics July 2011 max (X ) p {x:x X and for all y, ≤ if y X, and x ≤ y then y ≤ x}. (See Sec.  ...  Consider then 'satisficing utilitarianism', defined as follows: an alternative x is right iff the total well-being in x is at least as great as 0.8 times the total well-being in every alternative.  ... 
doi:10.1086/660696 fatcat:pde6sxbhpfeppn5brrsqyyuiby

MicroRNA-1 Accelerates the Shortening of Atrial Effective Refractory Period by Regulating KCNE1 and KCNB2 Expression: An Atrial Tachypacing Rabbit Model

Xiaomeng Jia, Shaohua Zheng, Xinxing Xie, Yujiao Zhang, Weizong Wang, Zhongsu Wang, Yong Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Mei Gao, Yinglong Hou, Xun Ai
2013 PLoS ONE  
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of miR-1 on the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) in a right atrial tachypacing model and to elucidate the potential mechanisms.  ...  The slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) and AERP in atrial cells were measured by whole cell patch clamp in vitro.  ...  KCNB2 is expressed in the heart and affects cardiac K + currents [29] , but the extensional process remains unclear.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085639 pmid:24386485 pmcid:PMC3875574 fatcat:rzcyvebmwbhmbkd3d6g42wq2qe

The Ethical Gravity Thesis: Marrian Levels and the Persistence of Bias in Automated Decision-making Systems

Atoosa Kasirzadeh, Colin Klein
2021 Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society  
Computers are used to make decisions in an increasing number of domains. There is widespread agreement that some of these uses are ethically problematic.  ...  This paper expands and defends the Ethical Gravity Thesis: ethical problems that arise at higher levels of analysis of an automated decision-making system are inherited by lower levels of analysis.  ...  In each case, however, we can view the functionally defined problem through a mathematical lens-and, indeed, we must do so if we are to program a computer to find the answer we seek.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3461702.3462606 fatcat:5gshrc6pr5chpefgcjya4zc6ta

Deontic Counteridenticals and the Design of Ethically Correct Intelligent Agents: First Steps

Selmer Bringsjord, Rikhiya Ghosh, James Pane-Joyce
2016 European Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
We provide a propaedeutic discussion and demonstration of this design strategy (which is at odds with the strategy our own lab has heretofore followed in ethical control), one involving AAIAs in our lab  ...  But counteridenticals of an "ethical" sort apparently haven't been analyzed to speak of, let alone formalized.  ...  AI (e.g., see Bringsjord & Ferrucci 1998 , Bringsjord 2008b ) and its sister field computational cognitive modeling (e.g., see Bringsjord 2008a).  ... 
dblp:conf/ecai/BringsjordGP16 fatcat:a7h4tpv7mzhn5hoff3ykkux4du

Forthcoming Papers

2003 Artificial Intelligence  
Sartor, A model of legal reasoning with cases incorporating theories and values Reasoning with cases has been a primary focus of those working in AI and law who have attempted to model legal reasoning.  ...  Law, learning and representation In machine learning terms, reasoning in legal cases can be compared to a lazy learning approach in which courts defer deciding how to generalize beyond the prior cases  ...  McLaren, Extensionally defining principles and cases in ethics: An AI model Principles are abstract rules intended to guide decision-makers in making normative judgments in domains like the law, politics  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00158-9 fatcat:sze4uoaylzchzbn3lifjjfgtny

Ends to Means

Matt Bedke
2017 Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy  
In short, an action is a means to an end insofar as it raises the probability of the end relative to the worst one could do.  ...  This paper defends a probability-raising theory of what it is to be a means to an end, and how much reason transmits from an end to its means.  ...  modeling reason transmission.  ... 
doi:10.26556/jesp.v12i1.207 fatcat:kmkio7bpencwtogqtafcwydubq

An AI investigation of citation's epistemological role

Kevin D. Ashley, Bruce M. McLaren
2001 Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Artificial intelligence and law - ICAIL '01  
This paper describes how we used an AI model for retrieving ethics cases to investigate empirically the epistemological contributions of a decision-makers' citing cases and code provisions in justifying  ...  After investigating hundreds of professional ethics case opinions, we hypothesized that the decision-makers' explanations extensionally defined principles over time, in effect, operationalizing them.  ...  Here an AI model enables us to do exactly that.  ... 
doi:10.1145/383535.383539 dblp:conf/icail/AshleyM01 fatcat:zju3xq2v4vev3lccm4jl2ebng4
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