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Exploring the Use of Control Packets in LoRa Medium Access: A Scalability Analysis

Rui Fernandes, Rui Oliveira, Miguel Luis, Susana Sargento
2020 2020 IEEE 21st International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM)  
In this work, we propose a distinct way of dealing with the Medium Access Control (MAC) in LoRa, through the use of control packets to enhance the technology performance in urban city scenarios, where  ...  a large number of nodes is expected.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is supported by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), through the Regional Operational Programme of Lisbon (POR LISBOA 2020) and the Competitiveness and Internationalization  ... 
doi:10.1109/wowmom49955.2020.00016 dblp:conf/wowmom/FernandesOLS20 fatcat:rhaoekehxbex7f45m7eq2qwxja

Design and Implementation of Open LoRa for IoT

Qihao Zhou, Kan Zheng, Lu Hou, Jinyu Xing, Rongtao Xu
2019 IEEE Access  
Under the architecture, LoRa network server is divided into four decoupled modules and uses the messaging system based on streaming data for the interaction between modules to guarantee scalability and  ...  Finally, the extensive experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of LoRa networks in typical environments. INDEX TERMS LoRa, LPWA, IoT, microservice, open source.  ...  On the other hand, LoRaWAN is proposed by LoRa Alliance, which defines the network protocol in the medium access control (MAC) and network layers [2] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2930243 fatcat:fmrd4qvo45du7omo6pqzqplife

Synchronous LoRa mesh network to monitor processes in underground infrastructure

Christian Ebi, Fabian Schaltegger, Andreas Rust, Frank Blumensaat
2019 IEEE Access  
In this paper, we first discuss the range limitations of the LoRaWAN standard based on a systematic evaluation of a long-term operation of a sensor network monitoring in-sewer process dynamics.  ...  Test results show that the synchronous LoRa mesh network approach clearly outperforms the standard LoRaWAN technique with regard to the reliability of packet delivery when transmitting from range-critical  ...  Without their great efforts in the field tests and the completion of the hardware and software, we would not have been able to realize the project.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2913985 fatcat:kul77726yrbsblorwx23era55y

Performance Evaluation of LoRaWAN for Green Internet of Things

Zulfiqar Ali, Shagufta Henna, Adnan Akhunzada, Mohsin Raza, Sung Won Kim
2019 IEEE Access  
Considering these limitations, we evaluate the performance of slotted Aloha in LoRaWAN using extensive simulations.  ...  LoRa is a long-range, low power and single-hop wireless technology that has been envisioned for Internet of Things (IoT) applications having battery driven nodes.  ...  Hybrid MAC techniques use a combination of contention-based and scheduled medium access.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2943720 fatcat:2eaex5g54nfhjo2ljh6nulbyk4

A Survey on Long-Range Wide-Area Network Technology Optimizations

Felipe S. Dantas Silva, Emidio P. Neto, Helder Oliveira, Denis Rosario, Eduardo Cerqueira, Cristiano Both, Sherali Zeadally, Augusto V. Neto
2021 IEEE Access  
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, which helped us improve the quality, content, and presentation of this paper.  ...  This work is supported by the R&D project entitled "IoT-Cloud  ...  Finally, in Section IV-C, we summarize the MAC layer protocols analyzed. A. OVERVIEW A basic feature of the LoRaWAN architecture relates to medium access control in the transmission interface.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3079095 fatcat:dstgjjke4rdtnjgnpcvjoqcyba

Comparison of the Device Lifetime in Wireless Networks for the Internet of Things

Elodie Morin, Mickael Maman, Roberto Guizzetti, Andrzej Duda
2017 IEEE Access  
We consider the case of an energy constrained node that uploads data to a sink, analyzing the physical (PHY) layer under medium access control (MAC) constraints, and assuming IPv6 traffic whenever possible  ...  This paper presents a comparison of the expected lifetime for Internet of Things (IoT) devices operating in several wireless networks: the IEEE 802.15.4/e, Bluetooth low energy (BLE), the IEEE 802.11 power  ...  Nodes in beacon-enabled mode use a slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access scheme. In our analysis, we neglect the backoff mechanism to simplify the model.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2017.2688279 fatcat:kjaw6qbahrdqzaqdsbqbs2pk4a

A Comparative Study of LoRa and IEEE 802.15.4-based IoT Deployments inside School Buildings

Lidia Pocero, Stelios Tsampas, Georgios Mylonas, Dimitrios Amaxilatis
2020 IEEE Access  
Pocero We also plan to continue our work in assembling related datasets and releasing them to the community, since currently there is a relative lack of datasets produced by real-world deployments.  ...  [22] explores its scalability in the context of large-scale sensor networks, commenting that in the usual scenario where the SF with the lowest data rate and largest range is used, collisions deteriorate  ...  To put it in other words, a LoRa device can occupy the medium only for 36 seconds for every hour [53] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3020685 fatcat:yo2aqm5rj5d2njrh2qrqsjlnaq

Analysis and Performance Optimization of LoRa Networks With Time and Antenna Diversity

Arliones Hoeller, Richard Demo Souza, Onel L. Alcaraz Lopez, Hirley Alves, Mario de Noronha Neto, Glauber Brante
2018 IEEE Access  
This paper is concerned with the performance and scalability of LORA networks, a leading LPWAN technology.  ...  Message replication has an optimum number of message copies for each network configuration, and its utilization is more beneficial in low-density networks, while the use of multiple receive antennas at  ...  Citation information: DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2839064, IEEE Access A LORA sub-band is a set of frequency channels that devices in a network are configured to use.2169-3536 (c) 2018 IEEE.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2839064 fatcat:ckgnhhrvqjdufgp7ly7jyh66vm

Low-Power Wireless for the Internet of Things: Standards and Applications

Ali Nikoukar, Saleem Raza, Angelina Poole, Mesut Gunes, Behnam Dezfouli
2018 IEEE Access  
We primarily focus on the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers because they directly impact several performance metrics, such as reliability, latency, scalability, and energy consumption  ...  However, the practical use of these standards in different IoT applications has resulted in several limitations.  ...  BLE has only a single packet type, instead of the 17 types of packets that are used in the BR/EDR.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2879189 fatcat:okr3pjazo5gu7i5fdh5eo4jzdy

Low Power Wide Area Networks: A Survey of Enabling Technologies, Applications and Interoperability Needs

Qahhar Muhammad Qadir, Tarik A. Rashid, Nawzad K. Al-Salihi, Birzo Ismael, Alexander A. Kist, Zhongwei Zhang
2018 IEEE Access  
Compared with other work in the field, this survey focuses on the need for integration among different LPWA technologies and recommends the appropriate LPWA solutions for a wide range of IoT application  ...  and service use-cases.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions which have improved the quality of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2883151 fatcat:numfoiq5effuznbktnntrl4cma

Radio Access Mechanism for Massive Internet of Things Services over White Spaces

Monica Espinosa, Manuel Perez, Angela Zona, Xavier Lagrange
2021 IEEE Access  
Regarding the evaluation of the radio access mechanism, we explore different types of deployments and coverage areas.  ...  The radio access mechanism is based on regulatory policies by interacting with TVWS Geolocation Database through the Protocol to Access White-Space (PAWS) and on the use of several Master Devices (MD)s  ...  His areas of interest include resource allocation, medium access control and performance analysis for 4G and 5G cellular networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3105131 fatcat:jgbm3bplcjakjcwu3gz26qmode

A Survey on 5G Networks for the Internet of Things: Communication Technologies and Challenges

Godfrey Anuga Akpakwu, Bruno J. Silva, Gerhard P. Hancke, Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz
2018 IEEE Access  
The challenges and open research directions pertinent to the deployment of massive to critical IoT applications are also presented in coming up with an efficient context-aware congestion control mechanism  ...  SILVA (S'14) received the B.Eng., B.Eng., (Hons.) and M.Eng. degrees in computer engineering from the University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, in 2011 2013 to 2014, he was a Visiting Researcher  ...  Therefore, the medium access control (MAC) layer in industrial wireless networks usually make use of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) such that medium access by sensor nodes is deterministic.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2017.2779844 fatcat:dfnk4oe2ifhqrnbn3gk6td64wy

Communication Requirements in Microgrids: a Practical Survey

Ioan Serban, Sandra Cespedes, Corneliu Marinescu, Cesar Azurdia-Meza, Juan S. Gomez, Doris Saez
2020 IEEE Access  
In this work, we discuss the impact of communications on MG performance, establishing the requirements of data exchanges and system response in the three levels of a hierarchical control approach: primary  ...  Moreover, we undertake an experimental analysis of the influence of wired and wireless communication networks on MG performance, revealing the importance of designing future smart control solutions more  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Alfonso Carvajal for his valuable help in conducting the experimental study.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2977928 fatcat:yiynejz5zncttor63dbbz43pki

A Survey on the Viability of Confirmed Traffic in a LoRaWAN

Jaco Morne Marais, Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz, Gerhard P. Hancke
2020 IEEE Access  
However, this comes at a cost as downlink traffic severely impacts scalability due to in part a gateway's duty cycle restrictions.  ...  Additionally, the following aspects negatively impact the viability of confirmed traffic in large networks: the duty cycle restrictions placed on gateways, the use of spreading factor 12 for receive window  ...  The LoRaWAN standard adds the required Medium Access Control (MAC) functionality and specifies that the network has a star-of-stars topology which supports uplink and downlink messages.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2964909 fatcat:5vir2lkk4razlo3mkvxtscvkyq

IoT Connectivity Technologies and Applications: A Survey

Jie Ding, Mahyar Nemati, Chathurika Ranaweera, Jinho Choi
2020 IEEE Access  
In this survey, we provide a broad view of the existing wireless IoT connectivity technologies and discuss several new emerging technologies and solutions that can be effectively used to enable massive  ...  Finally, a classification of IoT applications is considered in terms of various service requirements. For each group of classified applications, we outline its suitable IoT connectivity options.  ...  In the first type, a single beam is used to serve a single user application/user within a room and hence the implementation of medium access control protocols can be avoided as no shared medium is used  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2985932 fatcat:fc3rbqlakfc7pbdcd7fo7xlera
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