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Exploring African Tone Scales

Dirk Moelants, Olmo Cornelis, Marc Leman
2009 Zenodo  
In this paper we will propose a system to explore African scales with applications in Music Information Retrieval and ethnomusicology.  ...  Further research has to be done in these historical aspects as well as on the geographical aspects of African tone scales.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1416338 fatcat:lp3gqso3zrbkjajsbn6yzv43qq

A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003

Ekeoma E. Uzogara, Hedwig Lee, Cleopatra M. Abdou, James S. Jackson
2014 Psychology of men & masulinity  
Future research should explore the influence of these out- and in-group experiences of skin tone discrimination on social and psychological functioning of African American men.  ...  This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men.  ...  Future studies could also explore factors related to why low SES African American men may be particularly influenced by skin tone, as illustrated by larger standardized discrepancies.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0033479 pmid:25798076 pmcid:PMC4365794 fatcat:3sfxfjt5brfzximeul54evanqa

Page 12 of The Journal of Negro Education Vol. 14, Issue 1 [page]

1945 The Journal of Negro Education  
The African, however, sings in the chord and not the scale, thus showing his intervallic sense.  ...  12 THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO EDUCATION sical or otherwise, clapping of hands or clicking of feet, African instruments have been mentioned by the earliest explorers.  ... 

The Effects of Colorism on Self Perception and Self-Esteem

Shanika Lavi Wilson, Shaquila O'Shay Massey, De'Onna Smith, Christopher Solomon, Auctores Publishing LLC
2021 Psychology and Mental Health Care  
Colorism has been a historical racial dilemma for the African American community since slavery.  ...  A survey was conducted to evaluate the effects of colorism on African American women and their self-esteem and self-perception.  ...  Researcher's used a mix of methods and testing including likert-type scales, meta-analysis, visual analogue scales, and The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale all to get both qualitative and quantitative results  ... 
doi:10.31579/2637-8892/120 fatcat:deskja5in5e67e2mjpui6fjdiq

Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes

Antoinette M. Landor, Leslie Gordon Simons, Ronald L. Simons, Gene H. Brody, Chalandra M. Bryant, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ellen M. Granberg, Janet N. Melby
2013 Journal of family psychology  
Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research.  ...  Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans, but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism.  ...  of studies examine gender differences when exploring the effects of skin tone.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0033883 pmid:24040901 pmcid:PMC3970169 fatcat:236f5nk3rffmnm4qkcajrlpfum

Skin tone bias among African Americans: Antecedents and consequences across the life span

Elizabeth A. Adams, Beth E. Kurtz-Costes, Adam J. Hoffman
2016 Developmental Review  
Next we summarize literature regarding African Americans as the target of skin tone bias.  ...  of skin tone bias for African American children, adolescents, and adults (see Figure 1 ).  ...  Participants rated their skin tone on a scale of 1 to 7, and individuals with a rating Running head: AFRICAN AMERICANS AND SKIN TONE BIAS 35 of four or below were labeled dark, whereas the rest were labeled  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dr.2016.03.002 fatcat:c4fvdl4uh5gk5ju25223snrvbe

Microaggressions, Discrimination, and Phenotype among African Americans: A Latent Class Analysis of the Impact of Skin Tone and BMI

Verna M. Keith, Ann W. Nguyen, Robert Joseph Taylor, Dawne M. Mouzon, Linda M. Chatters
2017 Sociological inquiry  
Microaggressions, Everyday Discrimination, and Phenotype among African Americans: A Latent Class Analysis of the Impact of Skin Tone and BMI  ...  These findings indicate that skin tone and body weight are two phenotypic characteristics that influence the type and frequency of discrimination experienced by African Americans.  ...  For example, in preliminary analyses we found no association between skin tone and discrimination using a summed scale score.  ... 
doi:10.1111/soin.12168 pmid:28603300 pmcid:PMC5464745 fatcat:h6falfqzmzd3bi5lwqpqlti4uu

Dark faces in white spaces: The effects of skin tone, race, ethnicity, and intergroup preferences on interpersonal judgments and voting behavior

Patrizia Chirco, Tonya M. Buchanan
2022 Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy  
Across three experimental studies, we explored how a political candidate's intersections of skin tone, race, and ethnicity affect voting preferences and interpersonal judgments (e.g., warmth, trustworthiness  ...  Study 1 assessed whether White participants would favor a lightskinned (vs. dark-skinned) African American candidate.  ...  Therefore, the objective of Study 2 was to explore how skin tone (lighter vs. darker), race/ethnicity (Mexican American vs.  ... 
doi:10.1111/asap.12304 fatcat:25oefsalhzfqthgo4wm6xldviy

The Face of Crime: Viewers' Memory of Race-Related Facial Features of Individuals Pictured in the News

Mary Beth Oliver, Ronald L. Jackson, Ndidi N. Moses, Celnisha L. Dangerfield
2004 Journal of Communication  
., noses, mouths, skin tones) presented on a computer screen.  ...  Given the considerable amount of research that reports that news stories associate criminality with African Americans, coupled with research reporting people's greater fear of and assumed guilt of Blacks  ...  This photograph was composed of the features and skin tone of the midpoints on each of the three scales.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02615.x fatcat:wa6jiqwetjay7g55fphshbtvs4

Counselor Education Students' Perceptions of Wellness and Mental Health in African American Men: The Effects of Colorism

Tiffany R. Hairston, John M. Laux, Caroline O'Hara, Christopher P. Roseman, Shanda Gore
2018 Journal of multicultural counseling and development  
SRQ9 Are there differences in counseling students' ratings of client "psychological wellness", as measured by the Perceived Wellness Scale (PWS) across 4 shades of African American skin tone?"  ...  SRQ9: Are there differences in counseling students' ratings of client "psychological wellness", as measured by the Perceived Wellness Scale (PWS) across 4 shades of African American skin tone?"  ...  Appendix A Client Case Study Michael, a 36 year old African American male, has been unemployed for about 9 months and is currently seeking employment but reports not being able to find a job anywhere.  ... 
doi:10.1002/jmcd.12100 fatcat:32g25pzgtbb6vnmlfridgtcaxe

Analysis of Manual and Automated Skin Tone Assignments for Face Recognition Applications [article]

KS Krishnapriya, Michael C. King, Kevin W. Bowyer
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The Fitzpatrick scale is widely used in dermatology to classify sensitivity to sun exposure and skin tone.  ...  News reports have suggested that darker skin tone causes an increase in face recognition errors.  ...  Related Work Due to space limits, we give only a brief overview of how skin tone has been used in exploring accuracy differences in face image analysis.  ... 
arXiv:2104.14685v1 fatcat:c3rhb6yhcrckncbwew36szvusq

Editorial

2013 English Today  
matters of code-mixing in West African and Southern African contexts respectively.  ...  Hover your mouse pointer over any of the words on the screen, and the collocations of that word are instantly highlighted in colour, with darker tones indicating stronger associations, and lighter tones  ...  matters of code-mixing in West African and Southern African contexts respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0266078413000461 fatcat:il7vqe2iqnbehknvkrppddyupu

Sunburn Prevalence is Underestimated in UK-Based People of African Ancestry

Olayemi Bello, Holger Sudhoff, Peter Goon
2021 Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology  
Our survey explored the lifetime prevalence of sunburn in people of African Ancestry based in the UK (Black African or Black Caribbean).  ...  Interestingly, there was a significant increase in frequency of sunburn in those with a lighter skin tone (self-classified from dark, medium and light - 47.3%, 53.5% and 71.4%, respectively).  ...  has shown the dearth of data on sunburn and sun protection measures amongst people of African ancestry • More urgent research needed on UV protection from melanin, skin tone and skin cancer incidence  ... 
doi:10.2147/ccid.s334574 pmid:34853522 pmcid:PMC8628036 fatcat:kkkbn52u4rcqzmw4cjhogxsgui

Ethnicity and body image: Quantitative and qualitative analysis

Madeline Altabe
1998 International Journal of Eating Disorders  
African-Americans had the most positive general appearance body image.  ...  Method: Participants were college students who self-identified as African, Asian, Caucasian, or Hispanic-American.  ...  Similarly, the differences among ethnic groups in preference for lighter skin point out the need to expand exploration of the issue beyond just African-Americans.  ... 
doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-108x(199803)23:2<153::aid-eat5>3.0.co;2-j pmid:9503240 fatcat:qwuo4nxm3rfnlmt2wremu7vbnq

Ethnicity and body image: Quantitative and qualitative analysis

Madeline Altabe
1998 International Journal of Eating Disorders  
African-Americans had the most positive general appearance body image.  ...  Method: Participants were college students who self-identified as African, Asian, Caucasian, or Hispanic-American.  ...  Similarly, the differences among ethnic groups in preference for lighter skin point out the need to expand exploration of the issue beyond just African-Americans.  ... 
doi:10.1002/(sici)1098-108x(199803)23:2<153::aid-eat5>3.3.co;2-v fatcat:mrb6ifj3qfe6hcyug3vlepgdx4
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