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Explaining Reinforcement Learning to Mere Mortals: An Empirical Study [article]

Andrew Anderson, Jonathan Dodge, Amrita Sadarangani, Zoe Juozapaitis, Evan Newman, Jed Irvine, Souti Chattopadhyay, Alan Fern, Margaret Burnett
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We present a user study to investigate the impact of explanations on non-experts' understanding of reinforcement learning (RL) agents.  ...  We designed a 124 participant, four-treatment experiment to compare participants' mental models of an RL agent in a simple Real-Time Strategy (RTS) game.  ...  We believe that, only by our community applying an arsenal of empirical techniques, can we gain the rich insights needed to learn how to explain AI effectively to mere mortals.  ... 
arXiv:1903.09708v2 fatcat:e7b3wft65jb2rlbqoli2z2uc44

Interpreting Rights: An Essay for Robert Cover [chapter]

Martha Minow †
2017 Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Rights  
DWORKIN, LAW'S EMPIRE 413 (1986) .  ...  to the teacher's authority-an invitation which rebellious or even merely spirited teenagers are likely to accept. 37 Implicit in Justice Powell's position are two objections to the assertion and grant  ... 
doi:10.4324/9781315236353-9 fatcat:d7fi5jet3fcmjf3ht7cfu74uoa

The Empire Bites Back: Sherlock Holmes as an Imperial Immune System

Laura Otis
1998 Studies in 20th & 21st Century Literature  
Holmes plays a defensive role, as an imperial intelligence network to detect foreigners "passing" in British society.  ...  Trained as a physician in the bacteriological age, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created a detective-hero who acts both like a masterful bacteriologist and an imperial immune system.  ...  as mortal and vulnerable as their victims.  ... 
doi:10.4148/2334-4415.1433 fatcat:ogfwndcgsvbuhm2vifahz77j4u


H. Bachev
2018 Vìsnik. Kiïvsʹkogo Nacìonalʹnogo Unìversitetu ìmenì Tarasa Ševčenka. Ekonomìka  
Acknowledgement I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility to complete this paper. A special gratitude I give to my professor M.  ...  I would like to thank Saint Joseph University who provided me facilities to complete my research. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr.  ...  Back in the 80s, Morris (1988) notes an "academic" boom that suggests a tendency for studies to follow a template, repeating and reinforcing a specific approach.  ... 
doi:10.17721/1728-2667.2018/198-3/1 fatcat:72dccyppxbgsjgmq6u6t62vt7q

An Empirical Study on Patient Delight and the Impact of Human and Non-Human Factors of Service Quality on Patient Satisfaction in Private Hospitals

2013 IOSR Journal of Business and Management  
The results of this study are limited, as they are based on Indian hospitals. The contribution of this research paper, incorporate patient delight in health care sector.  ...  Patient perceived service quality become the prominent aspect to choose between hospitals. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate patient perceived service quality in Indian hospitals.  ...  delight explained by five factors of emotional attachment chosen for the study.  ... 
doi:10.9790/487x-1242027 fatcat:n7i3g2mcpbac5nkrhbfyfdvyyq

An Empirical Study of Leader Ethical Values, Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and Follower Attitudes Toward Corporate Social Responsibility

Kevin S. Groves, Michael A. LaRocca
2011 Journal of Business Ethics  
, no empirical study to date has assessed the comparative impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on follower CSR attitudes.  ...  However, very little empirical research supports these claims.  ...  The authors would also like to acknowledge the support throughout multiple phases of this research project provided by the Graziadio School of Business and Management's Julian Virtue Professorship.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0877-y fatcat:q26h2wloqrhw5bdss6fyyhyfke

Mortality risk perceptions: a Bayesian reassessment

J K Hakes, W K Viscusi
1997 Journal of Risk and Uncertainty  
"This study uses data on perceived and actual mortality risks to test several alternative Bayesian models of the factors influencing risk beliefs.  ...  The analysis...indicates that while the hazard rate for the individual age group is an influential factor, the overall population death rate and the discounted expected number of life years lost due to  ...  This study uses data on perceived and actual mortality risks to test several alternative Bayesian models of the factors influencing risk beliefs.  ... 
pmid:12321456 fatcat:ba4vmpjpk5dvbdhp6el2mgalua

Sanitary infrastructures and the decline of mortality in Germany, 1877-1913†

2020 The Economic History Review  
This article studies the impact of waterworks and sewerage on mortality in German cities during the period 1877-1913.  ...  Moreover, the study shows that sanitary investments had important heterogeneous effects.  ...  This article aims to provide such an analysis by studying the case of Germany during the period 1877-1913.  ... 
doi:10.1111/ehr.12942 fatcat:3ihv7mddxfaz5n3437uyvwgvmy

Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality [chapter]

Robert A. Hummer, Joseph T. Lariscy
2011 International Handbook of Adult Mortality  
(5 R24 HD042849) awarded to the Population Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin.  ...  Acknowledgments This chapter was supported by an Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) research grant (1 R01 HD053696) and by an NICHD infrastructure grant  ...  Although this review and our empirical examples focus primarily on the United States, we then briefly discuss this relationship in an international context.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9996-9_12 fatcat:3ilpojpjsfbnxcja62yrjyri64

Environmental Toxicants and Infant Mortality in the USA

Davidson Robert M
2016 Open Journal of Biological Sciences  
In general, because of the virtual impossibility of sorting out the myriad interactions that need to be taken into account, it is our considered judgment, for reasons to be explained in this review, that  ...  Among factors that increase infant mortality are environmental toxicants.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Ann Lauritzen for contributions to the research and for reading drafts of this paper and providing feedback.  ... 
doi:10.17352/ojbs.000005 fatcat:rnhmx2ev6bah3cobhe6wgh2soe

Earthquake Propensity and the Politics of Mortality Prevention

Philip Keefer, Eric Neumayer, Thomas Plümper
2011 World Development  
Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Apurva Sanghi, S. Ramachandran and seminar participants at the World Bank for valuable comments.  ...  We then develop our theory in several steps, first explaining why there is an inverse relationship between earthquake propensity and mortality and then demonstrating how income and political incentives  ...  Why, then, would the mere fact of competitive elections lead politicians to invest in pre-disaster risk mitigation?  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.02.010 fatcat:3oup6zupuvbmpfshdpdcnotnaq

The relationship between individual expectations and behaviors: Mortality expectations and smoking decisions

Ahmed Khwaja, Frank Sloan, Sukyung Chung
2007 Journal of Risk and Uncertainty  
Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we assess the accuracy of subjective beliefs about mortality and objectively estimated probabilities for individuals in the same sample.  ...  In the aggregate, individuals accurately predict longevity, but at the individual level, subjective beliefs provide information in addition to the estimated objective probabilities in predicting actual  ...  Bayesian learning process when learning is incomplete, e.g., due to high information costs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11166-007-9019-4 fatcat:jlhjnzsfhzf2fgfeggsdx34o54

The mortality problem of learning and mimetic practice in emerging industries: Dying to be legitimate

Justin I. Miller
2012 Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal  
This study seeks to disentangle claims of institutional and organizational learning theories and to shed light on the impact of Knightian (environmental) uncertainty in discovery opportunities.  ...  High uncertainty interferes with institutional theory's claim of mortality reduction through isomorphism, but leads to superstitious learning, increasing organizational mortality hazard.  ...  I would also like to thank the NYU/Stern Salomon Center for the Study of Financial Institutions and Doug Guthrie for fi nancial support for this work.  ... 
doi:10.1002/sej.1128 fatcat:xjgzvxn54nhq7fgw3dwmimnxg4

From past to present. Effect of lifecourse on mortality, and social class differences in mortality in middle adulthood

Tiina Pensola
2003 Finnish Yearbook of Population Research  
However, it is only rarely that the lifecourse approach has been applied to mortality studies among persons in their middle adulthood.  ...  Parental home had an association with disease mortality from age 20 onwards, indicating a latency effect.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are indebted to the Academy of Finland (grants 41498, 48600 and 70631) for funding the study, to Statistics Finland for granting access to the data set (permission TK 53-1783  ... 
doi:10.23979/fypr.45284 fatcat:6hffgkwi2fagpfm7vfvhslydoq

COVID-19 mortality risk correlates inversely with vitamin D3 status, and a mortality rate close to zero could theoretically be achieved at 50 ng/ml 25(OH)D3: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis [article]

Lorenz Borsche, Bernd Glauner, Julian von Mendel
2021 medRxiv   pre-print
Methods Systematic literature search was performed to identify retrospective cohort as well as clinical studies on COVID-19 mortality rates vs. D3 blood levels.  ...  The aim of this study was to collect further evidence on this topic.  ...  ., comorbidities) and an acute infection are in competition with one another. Risk factors also tend to reinforce each other.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.09.22.21263977 fatcat:vgbhzylzprbtpnxxcl6l6aqkuu
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