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Automatically Locating ARM Instructions Deviation between Real Devices and CPU Emulators [article]

Muhui Jiang, Tianyi Xu, Yajin Zhou, Yufeng Hu, Ming Zhong, Lei Wu, Xiapu Luo, Kui Ren
2021 arXiv   pre-print
To understand this problem, we aim to automatically locate inconsistent instructions, which behave differently between emulators and real devices.  ...  We generate 2,774,649 representative instruction streams and conduct differential testing with these instruction streams between four ARM real devices in different architecture versions (i.e., ARMv5, ARMv6  ...  In this work, we aim to automatically locate inconsistent instructions between real devices and the CPU emulator for the ARM architecture.  ... 
arXiv:2105.14273v2 fatcat:7apz3eyr5vf2jip4pk5a67ehhq

Key Sensor Technology Components: Hardware and Software Overview [chapter]

Michael J. McGrath, Cliodhna Ní Scanaill
2013 Sensor Technologies  
The action of sensing creates an output signal, via a transduction process, that must be processed and transmitted in some manner in order for a person or another device to do something useful with it.  ...  In this chapter, we will examine the key hardware and software features that are important in the design of sensors and sensor systems.  ...  For example, a 16-bit address bus can access 2 16 = 65,536 locations (or 64K memory). The data bus carries information between the CPU and memory, or between the CPU and I/O devices.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4302-6014-1_3 fatcat:lhdsg7uicfenhnj5pkkvo4jtrq

Mini-NOVA: A Lightweight ARM-based Virtualization Microkernel Supporting Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration

Tian Xia, Jean-Christophe Prevotet, Fabienne Nouvel
2015 2015 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshop  
In this context, adding a run-time reconfigurable FPGA device to the ARM processor into a single chip makes it possible to combine high performance and flexibility.  ...  Today, ARM is becoming the mainstream family of processors in the high-performance embedded systems domain.  ...  Executing privilege instructions at lower privilege level will cause CPU exceptions. In this case, the privilege instruction is trapped and will then be detected and emulated by the VMM.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ipdpsw.2015.72 dblp:conf/ipps/XiaPN15 fatcat:e2fxsb6urbeqfavov4yv52efae

Hardware Support for Embedded Java [chapter]

Martin Schoeberl
2011 Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems  
It accelerates, according to ARM, some 95% of the executed bytecodes. 140 bytecodes are executed directly in hardware, while the remaining 94 are emulated by sequences of ARM instructions.  ...  [47] and object cache [53] , the extension module for hardware accelerators, and a scratchpad memory. Main memory and I/O devices are connected via the SimpCon interface to the CPU core.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-8158-5_7 fatcat:jnk6dqak3bg67jmyflimvw3i24

Microkernel Mechanisms for Improving the Trustworthiness of Commodity Hardware

Yanyan Shen, Kevin Elphinstone
2015 2015 11th European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC)  
) and closely-coupled redundant co-execution (CC-RCoE), for the ARM and x86 architectures.  ...  or CC-RCoE), and conclude that the approach is applicable for real-world applications.  ...  The delay time between two fault injections is also chosen randomly between 3,489,660,928 to 4,294,901,760 CPU cycles for x86-64 and between 268,435,456 to 4,294,901,760 cycles for ARM, as reported  ... 
doi:10.1109/edcc.2015.16 dblp:conf/edcc/ShenE15 fatcat:xq65e72x7zcnjbbmrwpgebqnxa

Synthesis of networks of custom processing elements for real-time physical system emulation

Chen Huang, Bailey Miller, Frank Vahid, Tony Givargis
2013 ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems  
Emulating a physical system in real-time or faster has numerous applications in cyber-physical system design and deployment.  ...  The custom PEs are still programmable, thus enabling for example insertion of instructions for profiling or debugging.  ...  For general purpose processors (PC, ARM, DSP), only the quad-core PC meets the real-time constraint for the physical models.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2442087.2442092 fatcat:grizpjcxqfccrd5ukrqwy3hubq


Grant Hernandez, Farhaan Fowze, Dave (Jing) Tian, Tuba Yavuz, Kevin R.B. Butler
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '17  
USB's greatest feature, its openness and expandability, is also its weakness, and attacks such as BadUSB exploit the unconstrained functionality afforded to these devices as a vector for compromise.  ...  Embedded USB devices use microcontrollers that have not been well studied by the binary analysis community, and our work demonstrates how lifters into popular intermediate representations for analysis  ...  runtime on a real device.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3133956.3134050 dblp:conf/ccs/HernandezFTYB17 fatcat:egqo62ulcbhj7ghwdbrc5rohjm

A Survey on Recent Advanced Research of CPS Security

Zhenhua Wang, Wei Xie, Baosheng Wang, Jing Tao, Enze Wang
2021 Applied Sciences  
, smart transportation, smart homes, and general grids); and (3) MADC (Measure, Attack, Defense, and Control) types.  ...  Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are next-generation intelligent systems that integrate computing, communication, and control. Malicious attacks on CPSs can lead to both property damage and casualties.  ...  Nevertheless, the various instruction sets and CPU architectures present new challenges.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11093751 fatcat:fxby2wjzpnchrfshvilxalmptm

VICI Virtual Machine Introspection for Cognitive Immunity

Timothy Fraser, Matthew R. Evenson, William A. Arbaugh
2008 2008 Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC)  
memory of past engagements, and the potential cost of each technique.  ...  After detecting kernel-modifying rootkit infections using Virtual Machine Introspection, the VICI Agent applies a collection of novel repair techniques to automatically restore infected kernels to a healthy  ...  It prevents the writing of kernel text and the execution of kernel data by the CPU even when in kernel-mode or by devices doing DMA, thereby defeating rootkits that modify kernel instructions or depend  ... 
doi:10.1109/acsac.2008.33 dblp:conf/acsac/FraserEA08 fatcat:e2uvx2krpvd5tei3kutf7os6qm

Investigating Performance Portability Of A Highly Scalable Particle-In-Cell Simulation Code On Various Multi-Core Architectures

Benjamin Worpitz, Prof. Dr. Wolfgang E. Nagel, Dr. Michael Bussmann, Dr. Guido Juckeland, Dr. Andreas Knüpfer, Dr. Bernd Trenkler
2015 Zenodo  
All hardware types (multi- and many-core CPUs, GPUs and other accelerators) are treated and can be programmed in the same way.  ...  The C++ template interface provided allows for straightforward extension of the library to support other accelerators and specialization of its internals for optimization.  ...  Another problem is the unrestricted relation between the thread index and the locations of global memory the results are written to.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.49768 fatcat:gw53fnzwxfa53n2xqg6dpohqle

To What Extent is Stress Testing of Android TV Applications Automated in Industrial Environments?

Bo Jiang, Peng Chen, Wing Kwong Chan, Xinchao Zhang
2016 IEEE Transactions on Reliability  
Our study shows that the industry required test automation supports on high-level GUI object controls and status checking, setup of resource conditions and the interplay between the two.  ...  We summarize the find-ings collected from 10 industrial test engineers to have tested 20 such TV applications in a real production environment.  ...  The Testdroid Cloud provides an online service for testing applications on real Android devices at the backend.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tr.2015.2481601 fatcat:perf5ogjibbwlgog7ijrho4ysm

On the Effectiveness of Virtualization Based Memory Isolation on Multicore Platforms

Siqi Zhao, Xuhua Ding
2017 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P)  
Our study reveals that memory isolation by itself is inadequate for security.  ...  By virtue of its architectural niche, FIMCE offers stronger assurance and greater versatility than memory isolation. We have built a prototype of FIMCE and measured its performance.  ...  Acknowledgments We especially thank Virgil Gligor for his constructive insights into positioning our work. We also appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/eurosp.2017.25 dblp:conf/eurosp/ZhaoD17 fatcat:4og7nnfmmfhn7m5r2sqmmqzmqe

A Survey of Techniques for Improving Security of GPUs [article]

Sparsh Mittal and S.B. Abhinaya and Manish Reddy and Irfan Ali
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Due to these, the GPU can act as a safe-haven for stealthy malware and the weakest 'link' in the security 'chain'.  ...  In this paper, we present a survey of techniques for analyzing and improving GPU security. We classify the works on key attributes to highlight their similarities and differences.  ...  Further, their approach allows tracking data transfers between CPU and GPU, which is especially useful in fused CPU-GPU systems.  ... 
arXiv:1804.00114v1 fatcat:u3363wls3fh3te2vvfvjzra25q

tQUAD - Memory Bandwidth Usage Analysis

S. Arash Ostadzadeh, Marco Corina, Carlo Galuzzi, Koen Bertels
2010 2010 39th International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops  
In this paper, we present tQUAD, a new tool for the memory bandwidth usage analysis.  ...  Together with an accurate description of the tool, the paper presents a real case study from the multimedia domain to detail all features of the proposed tool.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research is partially supported by Artemisia iFEST project (grant 100203), Artemisia SMECY (grant 100230), and FP7 Reflect (grant 248976).  ... 
doi:10.1109/icppw.2010.39 dblp:conf/icppw/OstadzadehCGB10 fatcat:u6isczen7zh37hcpvnaafzw2xu

IoT Software Security Building Blocks [chapter]

Sunil Cheruvu, Anil Kumar, Ned Smith, David M. Wheeler
2019 Demystifying Internet of Things Security  
The CPUs are also virtualized and maintain the NS (not-secure) bit used in ARM to switch between two different contexts in the vCPU.  ...  QeMu is also an emulator that does binary translation and can even run programs compiled for different Cpus or oSs on that host. So, QeMu is really good at emulation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4842-2896-8_4 fatcat:5ffon6fjtnh6rfkpnbtwoxk7ou
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