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Evolution of bot and human behavior during elections

Luca Luceri, Ashok Deb, Silvia Giordano, Emilio Ferrara
2019 First Monday  
Our findings highlight the mutable nature of bots and illustrate the challenges to forecast their evolution.  ...  We show that, in the 2018 midterms, bots changed the volume and the temporal dynamics of their online activity to better mimic humans and avoid detection.  ...  The rationale is to analyze the evolution of human and bot activity, behavior, and interplay.  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v24i9.10213 fatcat:fz3vphnohjfihkzhdrog3rvudm

Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events [article]

Massimo Stella, Marco Cristoforetti, Manlio De Domenico
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Understanding online human behavior and its relevance beyond the digital boundaries is still an open challenge.  ...  Here we show that online social interactions during a massive voting event can be used to build an accurate map of real-world political parties and electoral ranks.  ...  AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS STATEMENT MS, MC and MDD conceived the experiments, MS and MC conducted the experiments, MS and MDD analysed the results. All authors reviewed the manuscript.  ... 
arXiv:1803.08086v2 fatcat:ipc2rrhvxjborkfhrut2qdjvry

Why so Emotional? An Analysis of Emotional Bot-generated Content on Twitter

Ema Kušen, Mark Strembeck
2018 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Complexity, Future Information Systems and Risk  
In recent years, bots have become quite complex and may mimic the behavior of human users. Prior studies have shown that emotional messages may significantly influence their readers.  ...  Our findings show that: 1) bots emotionally polarize during controversial events and even inject polarizing emotions into the Twitter discourse on harmless events such as Thanksgiving, 2) humans generally  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Nikan Chavoshi from the Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, for her kind assistance with the bot detection via DeBot.  ... 
doi:10.5220/0006699500130022 dblp:conf/complexis/KusenS18 fatcat:c6he6eba7ndonnoexu2unpjcl4

Bots, elections, and social media: a brief overview [article]

Emilio Ferrara
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this chapter, we summarize our findings of bot operations in the context of the 2016 and 2018 US Presidential and Midterm elections and the 2017 French Presidential election.  ...  We studied the characteristics and activity of bots around major political events, including elections in various countries.  ...  Acknowledgements The author is grateful to his collaborators and coauthors on the topics covered in this paper, in particular Adam Badawy, Alessandro Bessi, Ashok Deb, and Luca Luceri, who contributed  ... 
arXiv:1910.01720v1 fatcat:6liypsz5xbhjhez27mydhyp2ti

Down the bot hole: Actionable insights from a one-year analysis of bot activity on Twitter

Luca Luceri, Felipe Cardoso, Silvia Giordano
2021 First Monday  
Evolution of bot and human behavior during elections,” First Monday , volume 24, number 9, at https://firstmonday.org/article/view/10213/8073, accessed 11 February 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v24i9.10213  ...  “Bots and automation over Twitter during the U.S. election,” Oxford Project on Computational Propaganda, Data Memo , 2016.4, at https://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/posts/bots-and-automation-over-twitter-during-the-u-s-election  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v26i3.11441 dblp:journals/firstmonday/LuceriCG21 fatcat:2krdpirbhbdszizy5ftn3vnsd4

Spotting political social bots in Twitter: A use case of the 2019 Spanish general election [article]

Javier Pastor-Galindo, Mattia Zago, Pantaleone Nespoli, Sergio López Bernal, Alberto Huertas Celdrán, Manuel Gil Pérez, José A. Ruipérez-Valiente, Gregorio Martínez Pérez, Félix Gómez Mármol
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In the paper at hand, we analyzed the presence and behavior of social bots on Twitter in the context of the November 2019 Spanish general election.  ...  Throughout our study, we classified involved users as social bots or humans, and examined their interactions from a quantitative (i.e., amount of traffic generated and existing relations) and qualitative  ...  Notably, during the ten days before the election day, more than five thousand new social bots popped up, mainly during the night of the electoral debate and the election day.  ... 
arXiv:2004.00931v2 fatcat:uwtxx6y645c45pqzgmoaqcjkb4

Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events

Massimo Stella, Marco Cristoforetti, Manlio De Domenico, Katarzyna Musial-Gabrys
2019 PLoS ONE  
Here we show that online social interactions during a massive voting event can be used to build an accurate map of real-world political parties and electoral ranks for Italian elections in 2018.  ...  Understanding online human behavior and its relevance beyond the digital boundaries is still an open challenge.  ...  Remarkably, the topological and dynamical behavior of humans and bots is very different: during Italian elections, bots are mostly broadcasters (mostly media) and influentials (mostly political leaders  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0214210 pmid:31095589 pmcid:PMC6521989 fatcat:rzz2c23rkjf6tpkd2ho25657tq

Political Elections Under (Social) Fire? Analysis and Detection of Propaganda on Twitter [article]

Ansgar Kellner, Lisa Rangosch, Christian Wressnegger, Konrad Rieck
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Moreover, we develop a detector for finding automated behavior that enables us to identify 2,414 previously unknown bots.  ...  To this end, we use the past German federal election as an indicator and inspect the propaganda on Twitter, based on data from a period of 268 days.  ...  The authors claim that the new generation of bots imitates human behavior, thus making them harder to detect. Walt and Eloff [29] try to detect fake accounts that have been created by humans.  ... 
arXiv:1912.04143v1 fatcat:r5e7d4tnzvejnebd7yt2jhhsie

Political Propagation of Social Botnets: Policy Consequences [article]

Shashank Yadav
2022 arXiv   pre-print
of the bot agency itself.  ...  The article first briefly introduces the nature and evolution of Social Botnets, and then moves over to discussing the policy consequences.  ...  The temporal dimension is very important for cognitive-behavioral aspects of a bot led intervention, as some researchers also discovered that exploiting human traits such as reciprocity and confirmation  ... 
arXiv:2205.04830v1 fatcat:ue2mhdxmy5albegmytqoxhvtw4

Measuring bot and human behavioral dynamics [article]

Iacopo Pozzana, Emilio Ferrara
2018 arXiv   pre-print
To date, much work has focused on social bot detection, but little attention has been devoted to the characterization and measurement of the behavior and activity of bots, as opposed to humans'.  ...  Over the course of the years, bots have become more sophisticated, and capable to reflect some short-term behavior, emulating that of human users.  ...  The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of AFOSR  ... 
arXiv:1802.04286v2 fatcat:4f4o2eoqmjap7px7sanjqicleq

A Decade of Social Bot Detection [article]

Stefano Cresci
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In these times, during the run-up to the 2020 US elections, the question appears as more crucial than ever.  ...  Today, we know that a minority of social bots, automated social media accounts mimicking humans, played a central role in spreading divisive messages and disinformation, possibly contributing to Trump's  ...  Among the reasons for the human-like appearance of many bots is an increased hybridization between automated and human-driven behaviors.  ... 
arXiv:2007.03604v2 fatcat:6dilhijyzzgnhmlrl5ly2vknue

Measuring Bot and Human Behavioral Dynamics

Iacopo Pozzana, Emilio Ferrara
2020 Frontiers in Physics  
Over the course of the years, bots have become more sophisticated, and to some extent capable of emulating the short-term behavior of human users.  ...  To date, much work has focused on social bot detection, but little attention has been devoted to the characterization and measurement of the behavior and activity of bots, as opposed to humans'.  ...  is found of a similar evolution for bot accounts.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fphy.2020.00125 fatcat:ured25oggbg27dcmtlacpzvypa

Insights into elections: An ensemble bot detection coverage framework applied to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections

Ross J. Schuchard, Andrew T. Crooks, Sergio Gómez
2021 PLoS ONE  
This automated interaction proliferation within OSNs has led to the emergence of social bot detection efforts to better understand the extent and behavior of social bots.  ...  methods to keep pace with the constant evolution of bot complexity.  ...  Acknowledgments A special thanks to the DeBot (New Mexico State University) and Bot-hunter research teams for providing access to their bot detection platforms to conduct this scaled analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0244309 pmid:33406092 fatcat:4fs7lm5kojhf5c7vt7zgnerovm

Twitter Campaigning Strategies in Australian Federal Elections 2013–2019

Axel Bruns, Daniel Angus, Timothy Graham
2021 Social Media + Society  
3 years), provides a particularly suitable environment for observing the evolution of social media campaigning approaches.  ...  This special issue of Social Media + Society develops a cross-national, longitudinal perspective on the use of social media in election campaigns.  ...  Rather, Australian elections are won and lost as a result of changes in the behavior of a smaller group of genuine swinging voters who do change their candidate choices (and preference rankings) from election  ... 
doi:10.1177/20563051211063462 fatcat:3227kd3w3nbkpoggu2darmtzsu

Bot stamina: examining the influence and staying power of bots in online social networks

Ross Schuchard, Andrew T. Crooks, Anthony Stefanidis, Arie Croitoru
2019 Applied Network Science  
and persistence of social bots in online social networks (OSNs).  ...  We employ a methodological framework that aggregates and fuses data from multiple global Twitter conversations with an available bot detection platform and ultimately classifies the relative importance  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the DeBot team, led by Nikan Chavoshi, at the University of New Mexico for providing complete access to the DeBot platform bot archive.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s41109-019-0164-x fatcat:shda6ryryfbzfpxw7uaij5c2wu
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