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Evolution-in-materio: evolving computation in materials

Julian F. Miller, Simon L. Harding, Gunnar Tufte
<span title="2014-02-05">2014</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3xv2z4i6nnft5b7x3hk4cjbxsu" style="color: black;">Evolutionary Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
Evolution-in-materio (EIM) is the manipulation of a physical system by computer controlled evolution (CCE).  ...  EIM is most commonly used as a methodology for implementing computation in physical systems.  ...  Evolved computation in Liquid Crystal In 2002, Miller and Downing discussed the concept of evolution-in-materio and suggested that liquid crystal might be a suitable material for attempting to evolve computation  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s12065-014-0106-6">doi:10.1007/s12065-014-0106-6</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xrrha6w3c5hsnocvpblj45ov6a">fatcat:xrrha6w3c5hsnocvpblj45ov6a</a> </span>
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Evolution-in-materio: Solving function optimization problems using materials

Maktuba Mohid, Julian F. Miller, Simon L. Harding, Gunnar Tufte, Odd Rune Lykkebo, Mark K. Massey, Michael C. Petty
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/45jrmsqavfgmrmzqqhlmio3xue" style="color: black;">2014 14th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence (UKCI)</a> </i> &nbsp;
Evolution-in-materio (EIM) is a method that uses artificial evolution to exploit properties of materials to solve computational problems without requiring a detailed understanding of such properties.  ...  In this paper, we show that using a purpose-built hardware platform called Mecobo, it is possible to evolve voltages and signals applied to physical materials to solve computational problems.  ...  Previous work on evolution-in-materio has used either silicon in the form of an FPGA or a liquid crystal display [13] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ukci.2014.6930152">doi:10.1109/ukci.2014.6930152</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ukci/MohidMHTLMP14.html">dblp:conf/ukci/MohidMHTLMP14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7futpzoq2jbprkgh2oybzo2upy">fatcat:7futpzoq2jbprkgh2oybzo2upy</a> </span>
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Evolution In Materio: Investigating the Stability of Robot Controllers Evolved in Liquid Crystal [chapter]

Simon Harding, Julian F. Miller
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In our previous work, we have demonstrated that evolution can be used to program liquid crystal to act as a signal processing device.  ...  In this work we discuss the stability and reconfigurability of a real time robot controller evolved in liquid crystal.  ...  It is expected that such problems will have analogies in evolution in materio.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11549703_15">doi:10.1007/11549703_15</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rwywyj3m2vdjdi2nlxiexjbglq">fatcat:rwywyj3m2vdjdi2nlxiexjbglq</a> </span>
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Evolution in Materio: Exploiting the Physics of Materials for Computation [article]

Simon L. Harding, Julian F. Miller, Edward A. Rietman
<span title="2006-11-17">2006</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In the second example we demonstrate the evolution of a tone discriminator by exploiting the physics of liquid crystals.  ...  Another example we describe exploits the micro-scale physics of charge density waves in crystal lattices.  ...  Miller suggested a good candidate for evolution in materio would be liquid crystals [18] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/0611462v1">arXiv:cond-mat/0611462v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cnlwkw3a4nflxlbp4a5sysj4dm">fatcat:cnlwkw3a4nflxlbp4a5sysj4dm</a> </span>
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Evolution-in-materio: Solving bin packing problems using materials

Maktuba Mohid, Julian F. Miller, Simon L. Harding, Gunnar Tufte, Odd Rune Lykkebo, Mark Kieran Massey, Michael C. Petty
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/745nn4s3yjappp42ivpyjztdzm" style="color: black;">2014 IEEE International Conference on Evolvable Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
Evolution-in-materio (EIM) is a form of intrinsic evolution in which evolutionary algorithms are allowed to manipulate physical variables that are applied to materials.  ...  with a chamber containing single-walled carbon nanotubes and a polymer.  ...  SOLVING BIN PACKING PROBLEMS USING EVOLUTION-IN-MATERIO A. Methodology The experiments were performed with an electrode array having twelve electrodes. Bin-packing problems require no inputs.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ices.2014.7008720">doi:10.1109/ices.2014.7008720</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ices/MohidMHTLMP14.html">dblp:conf/ices/MohidMHTLMP14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/bce6blr7qfcotjlafgwyo5rqxm">fatcat:bce6blr7qfcotjlafgwyo5rqxm</a> </span>
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Reservoir computing in materio: An evaluation of configuration through evolution

Matthew Dale, Susan Stepney, Julian F. Miller, Martin Trefzer
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rcrfzcjoeva4hmwbfmhfolnrfu" style="color: black;">2016 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In the training process, evolution decides the value of analogue control signals (voltages) and the location of inputs and outputs on the substrate that improve the performance of the subsequently trained  ...  The experimental results show evolved configurations across all four test substrates consistently produce reservoirs with greater performance than randomly configured reservoirs.  ...  The authors thank the EU NASCENCE Project for providing the SWCNT materials used in this work.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ssci.2016.7850170">doi:10.1109/ssci.2016.7850170</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ssci/DaleSMT16.html">dblp:conf/ssci/DaleSMT16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sycpmmid2rehlf6jssgkhehu4m">fatcat:sycpmmid2rehlf6jssgkhehu4m</a> </span>
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Mecobo: A Hardware and Software Platform for In Materio Evolution [chapter]

Odd Rune Lykkebø, Simon Harding, Gunnar Tufte, Julian F. Miller
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The platform with features especially for EIM is described together with demonstration experiments using carbon nanotubes in a thick film placed on micro electrode arrays.  ...  Evolution in Materio (EIM) exploits properties of physical systems to compute. "Designs" are evolved instead of a traditional top down design approach.  ...  Harding and Millers [9] did a similar experiment with liquid crystal as material.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08123-6_22">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-08123-6_22</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/qzuga3uxpjflhaiw2wb63bubkq">fatcat:qzuga3uxpjflhaiw2wb63bubkq</a> </span>
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Evolution-in-materio: solving computational problems using carbon nanotube–polymer composites

Maktuba Mohid, Julian F. Miller, Simon L. Harding, Gunnar Tufte, Mark K. Massey, Michael C. Petty
<span title="2015-11-12">2015</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e5brmbb4nne2bb6o5whxervgii" style="color: black;">Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications</a> </i> &nbsp;
Evolution-in-materio uses evolutionary algorithms to exploit properties of materials to solve computational problems without requiring a detailed understanding of such properties.  ...  We also obtain good re-sults in comparison with prior work on the tone discriminator problem.  ...  We also apply Mecobo with the electrode-array to the tone-discriminator problem using same pairs of frequencies that Harding et al. used in the experiments with a liquid crystal display.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-015-1928-6">doi:10.1007/s00500-015-1928-6</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cgykfskcfrcy3chdg5hqzpok3m">fatcat:cgykfskcfrcy3chdg5hqzpok3m</a> </span>
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In-materio neuromimetic devices: Dynamics, information processing and pattern recognition [article]

Dawid Przyczyna, Piotr Zawal, Tomasz Mazur, Pier Luigi Gentili, Konrad Szaciłowski
<span title="2020-02-14">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
This feature article is devoted to various in materio implementation of neuromimetic processes, including neuronal dynamics, synaptic plasticity, and higher-level signal and information processing, along  ...  with more sophisticated implementations, including signal processing, speech recognition and data security.  ...  either the liquid or the solid phase.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.07712v1">arXiv:2002.07712v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/s7fgywfnrbhcrdndggeb7rulfu">fatcat:s7fgywfnrbhcrdndggeb7rulfu</a> </span>
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Spoken Digit Classification by In-Materio Reservoir Computing with Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks [article]

Sam Lilak, Walt Woods, Kelsey Scharnhorst, Christopher Dunham, Christof Teuscher, Adam Z. Stieg, James K. Gimzewski
<span title="2021-03-23">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
characterized and utilized to classify spoken digit audio data, demonstrating the utility of substrate-based device architectures where intrinsic material properties can be exploited to perform computation in-materio  ...  This work demonstrates high accuracy in the classification of temporally analyzed Free-Spoken Digit Data (FSDD).  ...  it (processing) through a relatively new technique known as evolution in-materio [5] [6] [7] [8] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.12835v1">arXiv:2103.12835v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yaulwh24wbfvtjfbekcxyeknxe">fatcat:yaulwh24wbfvtjfbekcxyeknxe</a> </span>
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Spoken Digit Classification by In-Materio Reservoir Computing With Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks

Sam Lilak, Walt Woods, Kelsey Scharnhorst, Christopher Dunham, Christof Teuscher, Adam Z. Stieg, James K. Gimzewski
<span title="2021-05-26">2021</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/vva2ajlcqbanlkezfrlu7viwjm" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Nanotechnology</a> </i> &nbsp;
characterized and utilized to classify spoken digit audio data, demonstrating the utility of substrate-based device architectures where intrinsic material properties can be exploited to perform computation in-materio  ...  This work demonstrates high accuracy in the classification of temporally analyzed Free-Spoken Digit Data These results expand upon the class of viable memristive materials available for the production  ...  Avizienis for their foundation work in chip fabrication, LabView programming and crystal growth, respectively.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnano.2021.675792">doi:10.3389/fnano.2021.675792</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6fjwlxl3lfglpj7z7ezqprtshm">fatcat:6fjwlxl3lfglpj7z7ezqprtshm</a> </span>
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Evolution in materio: a tone discriminator in liquid crystal

S. Harding, J.F. Miller
<i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2dmkezwdzrcofn7zdzzte2h75i" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2004 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (IEEE Cat. No.04TH8753)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we have shown for the first time, that liquid crystal can be used as the physical substrate for evolution.  ...  We demonstrate that it is possible to evolve various functions, including a tone discriminator, in materio.  ...  The Liquid Crystal EM In the experiments presented here, a standard liquid crystal display with twisted nematic liquid crystals was used as the medium for evolution.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/cec.2004.1331114">doi:10.1109/cec.2004.1331114</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/cec/HardingM04.html">dblp:conf/cec/HardingM04</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2qkhjzymvzhazgbkhtcdxcpazu">fatcat:2qkhjzymvzhazgbkhtcdxcpazu</a> </span>
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Evolution in materio: looking beyond the silicon box

J.F. Miller, K. Downing
<i title="IEEE Comput. Soc"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lr23ejkvybfetkc6l3mbrsnzqe" style="color: black;">Proceedings 2002 NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware</a> </i> &nbsp;
Workers in artificial intrinsic hardware evolution have with the best of motives, been abusing such components.  ...  It is suggested that this may be best accomplished in materials not normally associated with electronic functions.  ...  Acknowledgments Thanks to Pauline Haddow, Morten Hartmann, Gunnar Tufte, Piet van Remortel and Diego Federici for stimulating discussions in Røros, Norway.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eh.2002.1029882">doi:10.1109/eh.2002.1029882</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/eh/MillerD02.html">dblp:conf/eh/MillerD02</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zx46bvuhn5hvldg4sky4eabda4">fatcat:zx46bvuhn5hvldg4sky4eabda4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809045211/http://www.cartesiangp.co.uk/papers/eh2002-miller.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/2f/dc/2fdc536b602befdb367b5b02010b3d96d6e7db94.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eh.2002.1029882"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

An Investigation of Underlying Physical Properties Exploited by Evolution in Nanotubes Materials

Stefano Nichele, Odd Rune Lykkebo, Gunnar Tufte
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rcrfzcjoeva4hmwbfmhfolnrfu" style="color: black;">2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we investigate which practical strategies are exploited by evolution on a simple (non-abstract) task: maximize or minimize amplitudes of output signals when square waves are used as input  ...  This allows identifying an evolvability range for materials with different physical characteristics, e.g. nanotubes concentration.  ...  Harding and Miller [6] used liquid crystals displays as computational substrate.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ssci.2015.175">doi:10.1109/ssci.2015.175</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ssci/NicheleLT15.html">dblp:conf/ssci/NicheleLT15</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6nxpemy3afbulayfemdd7rtc5a">fatcat:6nxpemy3afbulayfemdd7rtc5a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160914003634/http://www.nichele.eu/files/nichele_ices2015.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b5/61/b56172838fecb2051599a450771473b532402b0c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ssci.2015.175"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Evolution In Materio : A Real-Time Robot Controller in Liquid Crystal

S. Harding, J.F. Miller
<i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lr23ejkvybfetkc6l3mbrsnzqe" style="color: black;">2005 NASA/DoD Conference on Evolvable Hardware (EH&#39;05)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we show that CCE can use liquid crystal to solve the much harder problem of controlling a robot in real time to navigate in an environment to reach an obstructed destination point.  ...  Last year the authors demonstrated, for the first time, that CCE could manipulate liquid crystal to perform signal processing tasks (i.e frequency discrimination).  ...  The Liquid Crystal EM In the experiments presented here, a standard liquid crystal display with twisted nematic liquid crystals was used as the medium for evolution.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eh.2005.22">doi:10.1109/eh.2005.22</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/eh/HardingM05.html">dblp:conf/eh/HardingM05</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wiszkf77hfflbmqspwcaxmt5ry">fatcat:wiszkf77hfflbmqspwcaxmt5ry</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809045139/http://www.cartesiangp.co.uk/papers/eh2005-harding.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/3c/c9/3cc9fff35d9c963b440411703d9f024ed9f5061f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eh.2005.22"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>
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