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Reproductive Cloning: Can Cloning Harm the Clone?

S. D. Pattinson
2002 Medical Law Review  
provided that: • a full bibliographic reference is made to the original source • a link is made to the metadata record in DRO • the full-text is not changed in any way The full-text must not be sold in  ...  any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.  ...  It is argued that advocates of right-based moral theories must reject this claim, even if the clone is likely to have a terrible life.  ... 
doi:10.1093/medlaw/10.3.295 pmid:14986663 fatcat:cyw4jziv7bdsznvwe4nyfxj4ka

Cloning practices: Why developers clone and what can be changed

Gang Zhang, Xin Peng, Zhenchang Xing, Wenyun Zhao
2012 2012 28th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance (ICSM)  
The results of our study suggest that cloning is not simply a technical issue; it must be interpreted and understood in larger context in which code clones occur and evolve.  ...  Within these contexts, there are several adjustable factors and two critical points that affect the introduction, existence, and removal of clones.  ...  One of such improvements is to encourage high-quality code and abandon size-based effort evaluation, e.g. by lines of code.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icsm.2012.6405284 dblp:conf/icsm/ZhangPXZ12 fatcat:6pstzugpq5cnbja5og22vnbuwa

Extracting Clone Genealogies for Tracking Code Clone Changes

Chun-Hui Wang, Ying Tu, Li-Ping Zhang, Dong-Sheng Liu
2016 International Journal of Security and Its Applications  
We firstly find the clones and clone groups in multiple versions of a software system using a clone detector FCD, and construct the mapping of every adjacent version basing on the similarity of code clones  ...  How to determine the clones' attribute of effective or unsafe, it need to track clone changes in the evolution versions of a software system.  ...  Basing on the above method, we implement the tools of clone genealogy extractor cGen and clone genealogy show cGenShow. Using these tools we performed an experiment on a software system Bluefish.  ... 
doi:10.14257/ijsia.2016.10.3.03 fatcat:c6hgby3kyney7jvua7ledtk5si

Can I clone this piece of code here?

Xiaoyin Wang, Yingnong Dang, Lu Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Erica Lan, Hong Mei
2012 Proceedings of the 27th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering - ASE 2012  
Based on a number of features extracted from the cloned code and the context of the code cloning operation, we use Bayesian Networks, a machine-learning technique, to predict the harmfulness of an intended  ...  Our insight is that the potential harmfulness of a code cloning operation may relate to some characteristics of the code to be cloned and the characteristics of its context.  ...  to experience changes due to revisions in other parts of the code base.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2351676.2351701 dblp:conf/kbse/WangD0ZLM12 fatcat:qaowazc7engiji4d3bh7ug4tmm

Cloning Californians? Report of the California Advisory Committee on Human Cloning and recent cloning-related legislation

Maria S Quintero
2002 Santa Clara computer and high-technology law journal  
The Committee also noted, however, that a "subsequent Legislature and Governor could, of course, allow human reproductive cloning based on new information or changed views," but that "the burden of going  ...  Although proponents argue that such harms are speculative, a cloned child and the DNA donor may risk the feeling of the loss of uniqueness, while parents of cloned children may impose unfair expectations  ... 
pmid:15212073 fatcat:radehw3yb5cs7dcwxp6dlrtq5i

Evaluation of Harm Associated with High Dose-Range Clinical Decision Support Overrides in the Intensive Care Unit

Adrian Wong, Christine Rehr, Diane L. Seger, Mary G. Amato, Patrick E. Beeler, Sarah P. Slight, Adam Wright, David W. Bates
2018 Drug Safety  
Dose-range checking alerts are a type of CDS alert that could have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting.  ...  However, these alerts are frequently overridden, with limited data linking these overrides to harm.  ...  and clinical experience of a multidisciplinary group [9, 17] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40264-018-0756-x pmid:30506472 fatcat:j5apgk7jebgonopeyt57mrxtke

Dispersion of changes in cloned and non-cloned code

Manishankar Mondal, Chanchal K. Roy, Kevin A. Schneider
2012 2012 6th International Workshop on Software Clones (IWSC)  
Comparative stability analysis of cloned and non-cloned regions of a subject system is a well-known way of measuring the impacts where the hypothesis is that, the more a region is stable the less it is  ...  Change dispersion of a particular region quantifies the extent to which the changes are scattered over that region.  ...  Our experimental results suggest that, the changes in the cloned regions are more dispersed than the changes in the non-cloned regions of a subject system. III.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iwsc.2012.6227863 dblp:conf/iwsc/MondalRS12 fatcat:vjvq2kc52jds3mmnfqmq3mm66m

Comparative Stability of Cloned and Non-cloned Code: A Replication Study [article]

Oualid El Halimi and Trith Patel and Zohaib S. Kiyani and Naresh. Kumar and Ankit Singh
2015 arXiv   pre-print
The paper we are addressing evaluates the impact of code cloning on code stability using three different stability-measuring methods.  ...  In this paper, we are replicating a previous study done on cloning by the original author. We are repeating his work using the same methods and metrics but with different subjects and experimenters.  ...  Thus, knowing which type of clone is harmful would make the system less frequent to changes and add a continuous stability feature.  ... 
arXiv:1504.07713v1 fatcat:bzhqsups2jgybkao2o5kwrb34e

Do code clones matter?

Elmar Juergens, Florian Deissenboeck, Benjamin Hummel, Stefan Wagner
2009 2009 IEEE 31st International Conference on Software Engineering  
The clone detection tool used in the case study implements a novel algorithm for the detection of inconsistent clones.  ...  For the analyzed commercial and open source systems we not only found that inconsistent changes to clones are very frequent but also identified a significant number of faults induced by such changes.  ...  This work has partially been supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the project QuaMoCo (01 IS 08023B).  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2009.5070547 dblp:conf/icse/JurgensDHW09 fatcat:yhmrykrs4fbavf3jls76y2jpf4

Optimal Clone Number for Seed Orchards with Tested Clones

D. Lindgren, F. Prescher
2005 Silvae Genetica  
A sensitivity analyses was performed to evaluate the importance of the likely uncertainty and variation in different entries. Quantification of the benefit of gene diversity is important.  ...  The optimal number of clones in seed orchards is discussed. A model is constructed to maximize a goodness criterion ("benefit") for seed orchards.  ...  The actual value of the entries for Swedish Scots pine was discussed with OLA ROSVALL and CURT ALMQUIST, the values for loblolly with TIM MULLIN.  ... 
doi:10.1515/sg-2005-0013 fatcat:7y474m5qjjcpzlaf2n35tiisni

Cloning and the Constitution, cloning and the Constitution, cloning and the Constitution, cloning and ..

Daniel Mark Cohen
2002 Nova law review  
Part II evaluates cloning in the light of constitutional law and principles. Section A of Part II reviews the present legal status of cloning in the United States.  ...  of the FDA stated that the agency can prohibit human cloning experiments based upon public safety concerns. 99 Violators, according to the FDA, could face fines up to $100,000.00, and be sentenced to  ...  Such regulation will serve not only the prospective parents of a cloned child, and the cloned child him or herself from the moment of conception; it will also protect society as a whole by upholding the  ... 
pmid:12627563 fatcat:g4g25owl25gbdepgqaqjtimlfi

Tracking clones' imprint

Angela Lozano, Michel Wermelinger
2010 Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Software Clones - IWSC '10  
We found that cloned methods are cloned most of their lifetime, cloned methods have a higher density of changes, and that changes in cloned methods tend to be customizations to the clone environment.  ...  This paper aims to analyze the clone imprint over time, in terms of the extension of cloning, the persistence of clones in methods, and the stability of cloned methods.  ...  Extension The analysis of the extension permits to identify the magnitude of cloning in the application, and at the level of methods. This is a first approach to assess its potential harmfulness.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1808901.1808910 dblp:conf/iwsc/LozanoW10 fatcat:fdlabhezwve4lpdgxz4zzmucqi

A Comparative Study of Test Code Clones and Production Code Clones

Brent Van Bladel, Serge Demeyer
2021 figshare.com  
Clones are one of the most widespread code smells, known to negatively affect the evolution of software systems.  ...  While there is a large body of research on detecting, managing, and refactoring clones in production code, clones in test code are often neglected in today's literature.  ...  Krinke as well studied the changes applied to a clone class over time and noticed that clones are not always changed consistently [45] .  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.14134901.v1 fatcat:ufrqoaa2ovdjdgogcam5dkq3fu

Attack of the Clones: Detecting Cloned Applications on Android Markets [chapter]

Jonathan Crussell, Clint Gibler, Hao Chen
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We describe a case of malware being added to an application and show how DNADroid was able to detect two variants of the same malware.  ...  Using DNADroid, we found at least 141 applications that have been the victims of cloning, some as many as seven times.  ...  This paper is partially based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. 0644450 and 1018964.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33167-1_3 fatcat:puhscgetpncajpu5qdjwjbpfku

Clone-Aware Configuration Management

Tung Thanh Nguyen, Hoan Anh Nguyen, Nam H. Pham, Jafar M. Al-Kofahi, Tien N. Nguyen
2009 2009 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering  
Recent research results show several benefits of the management of code clones. In this paper, we introduce Clever, a novel clone-aware software configuration management (SCM) system.  ...  The key techniques of Clever include the algorithms to compute tree editing scripts; to detect and update code clones and their groups; and to analyze the changes of cloned code to validate their consistency  ...  This project was funded in part by a grant from Vietnam Education Foundation (VEF) for the first author.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ase.2009.90 dblp:conf/kbse/NguyenNPAN09 fatcat:xkn2x7hezfcd5fuzsizxyh22ey
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