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Law, learning and representation

Kevin D. Ashley, Edwina L. Rissland
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
The HYPO family of systems implements a "lazy" approach since they defer making arguments how to decide a problem until the programs have positioned a new problem with respect to similar past cases.  ...  Empirical evidence from diverse experiments shows that for purposes of teaching legal argumentation and performing legal information retrieval, HYPO-style systems' lazy learning approach and implementation  ...  Legal problems span the gamut of ordinary experience, but legal argumentation offers AI researchers a framework for constraining how to model reasoning about that experience: a wealth of online textual  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00109-7 fatcat:auvoui74czaund2se277mn5toa

A hybrid CBR-IR approach to legal information retrieval

Edwina L. Rissland, Jody J. Daniels
1995 Proceedings of the fifth international conference on Artificial intelligence and law - ICAIL '95  
We deseribe our CBR-IR approach and report on on-going experiments performed in two different legal domains.  ...  In this paper we discuss a hybrid approach combining Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Information Retrieval (IR) for the retrieval of legal documents.  ...  In the BankXX project [Rissland et al., , 1994 , we explored the use of heuristic search as a program architecture for legal information retrieval.  ... 
doi:10.1145/222092.222125 dblp:conf/icail/RisslandD95 fatcat:xcg3nmgh7fcspk4xy2zq77oyou

HYPO'S legacy: introduction to the virtual special issue

T. J. M. Bench-Capon
2017 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
I am also grateful to all the members of the AI and Law community, too numerous to mention individually, with whom I have worked on, and talked about, reasoning with legal cases over the past thirty years  ...  , and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.  ...  It considers several different forms of the BankXX program, and the evaluation is conducted from several perspectives, and a number of issues relating specifically to the evaluation of programs in the  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-017-9201-1 fatcat:sk66tzozc5gxpalm6jtqg7f6pm

A history of AI and Law in 50 papers: 25 years of the international conference on AI and Law

Trevor Bench-Capon, Michał Araszkiewicz, Kevin Ashley, Katie Atkinson, Floris Bex, Filipe Borges, Daniele Bourcier, Paul Bourgine, Jack G. Conrad, Enrico Francesconi, Thomas F. Gordon, Guido Governatori (+12 others)
2012 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
We provide a retrospective of 25 years of the International Conference on AI and Law, which was first held in 1987.  ...  Fifty papers have been selected from the thirteen conferences and each of them is described in a short subsection individually written by one of the 24 authors. These subsections attempt to place the  ...  An extensive series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the program (Rissland et al. 1997 ) and these yielded positive results, cementing this thread of work on strategies for legal argument within  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-012-9131-x fatcat:g4qgrfrwyjcphdghpqlgfarxdy

Evaluating a learning environment for case-based argumentation skills

Vincent Aleven, Kevin D. Ashley
1997 Proceedings of the sixth international conference on Artificial intelligence and law - ICAIL '97  
Also, the CAT0 Tools reduce some of the distracting complexity of the students' task.  ...  to organize multi-case arguments by issues.  ...  First, the subjects were enrolled in a program that provides extra-intensive legal writing instruction.  ... 
doi:10.1145/261618.261650 dblp:conf/icail/AlevenA97 fatcat:gsx2jcomp5dzxc34ng2ekllkvm

Using background knowledge in case-based legal reasoning: A computational model and an intelligent learning environment

Vincent Aleven
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
In a second evaluation study, carried out in the context of an actual legal writing course, we compared instruction with CATO against the best traditional legal writing instruction.  ...  An evaluation study showed that arguments about the significance of distinctions based on this model help predict the outcome of cases in the area of trade secrets law, confirming the quality of these  ...  , and the University of Pittsburgh ECAC Advanced Instructional Technology Program.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00105-x fatcat:m5a2di7m6jfijmo264nue6nvva

AI and Law: A fruitful synergy

Edwina L. Rissland, Kevin D. Ashley, R.P. Loui
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
For instance, projects tackling legal argument have not only created programs that produce legal arguments but also led to insights and advances in the logic of argumentation.  ...  Currently, work on legal argumentation is having a similar impact on the international non-standard logic and argumentation communities. AI and Law is much more than an applications area.  ...  Acknowledgements The editors appreciate the assistance they have received from Carole Hafner, Anja Oskamp, and others in the AI and Law community in preparing this article.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00122-x fatcat:xhpowlbbtrfota3cjm5dpsrodu

Extensionally defining principles and cases in ethics: An AI model

Bruce M. McLaren
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
This is shown through an ablation experiment, comparing SIROCCO to a version of itself that does not employ operationalization information.  ...  Further, it is shown that SIROCCO's extensionally defined principles and case citations help it to outperform a full-text retrieval program that does not employ such information.   ...  I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers of the paper and the editors of this special edition of the AI Journal, who provided many helpful suggestions and comments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00135-8 fatcat:gdn7pzbhufgxtjav23kjm77zdi

Reasoning with reasons in case-based comparisons [chapter]

Kevin D. Ashley, Bruce M. McLaren
1995 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
TRUTH-TELLER is a program we have developed and tested that compares pairs of cases presenting ethical dilemmas about whether to tell the truth.  ...  accounting for a case's or problem's specific contextual circumstances.  ...  BankXX (Rissland, Skalak, and Friedman, 1993) added high level (legal) theories, standard stories and "family resemblance" into the mix.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-60598-3_13 fatcat:lktosujosbhsrb2h6lviu52sta

A reduction-graph model of precedent in legal analysis

L.Karl Branting
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
This paper identifies the implementation requirements for legal analysis using the reduction-graph model of legal precedents and describes GREBE, a program that satisfies these requirements. (L.K.  ...  Branting). 1 The first use of the term "legal analysis" as a computational task was apparently in [48] , where it was defined as "the logical derivation of a legal conclusion from a particular factual  ...  The experiment was conducted as follows.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00102-4 fatcat:j4xc5uti45fo3fsllh6to2gwzi

Using case-based reasoning for argumentation with multiple viewpoints [chapter]

Nikos Karacapilidis, Brigitte Trousse, Dimitris Papadias
1997 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents a framework where CBR and Argumentation Based Reasoning jointly aid agents to address various discourse instances in group decision making processes.  ...  The paper provides an object-oriented description of the elements involved, and illustrates their dependencies through a comprehensive example.  ...  Jaczynski and the anonymous referees for their helpful comments and suggestions. Nikos Karacapilidis is financed by the Commission of the European Communities through the ERCIM Fellowship Programme.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-63233-6_523 fatcat:guddh7flkbhcfczphi7l4r6zw4

Case Representation, Acquisition, and Retrieval in SIROCCO [chapter]

Bruce McLaren, Kevin Ashley
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
in representation, and an experiment to validate the initial phase of SIROCCO's retrieval algorithm and test its sensitivity to small variations in case description.  ...  I ntelligent R etrieval of O perationalized C ases and CO des), a CBR retrieval and analysis system applied to the domain of engineering ethics.  ...  BankXX (Rissland et al, 1996) searches a legal network including legal theories for information benefiting a side in a dispute.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-48508-2_18 fatcat:un53pzjfhfdttop5ug77tyyxhy

Challenges for a CBR framework for argumentation in open MAS

Stella Heras, Vicente Botti, Vicente Julián
2009 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
Some approaches that apply CBR to manage argumentation in MAS have been proposed in the literature. These improve agents' argumentation skills by allowing them to reason and learn from experiences.  ...  The high dynamism of open MAS gives rise to potential conflicts between agents and thus, to a need for a mechanism to reach agreements.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 under grant CSD2007-00022 and by the Spanish government and FEDER funds under TIN2006-14630-C0301 project.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0269888909990178 fatcat:ilsqei4kfbcknalukjnin6z3k4

Exploring the dialectic between abstract rules and concrete facts: Operationalizing principles and cases in engineering ethics [chapter]

Bruce McLaren, Kevin Ashley
1998 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we present a preliminary design of such a model and outline an experiment to test it.  ...  In such domains, the construction of arguments or explanations does not rely on formal methods or proofs.  ...  In (Rissland et al., 1996a) , legal theories are part of a network that BankXX searches to "harvest" information for one side or another in a legal dispute.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bfb0056320 fatcat:ylirp6l2qnaf3pi7qbcaney65q

Research in progress: report on the ICAIL 2017 doctoral consortium

Maria Dymitruk, Réka Markovich, Rūta Liepiņa, Mirna El Ghosh, Robert van Doesburg, Guido Governatori, Bart Verheij
2018 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
The paper offers a view of what topics are currently engaging students, and shows the diversity of their interests and influences.  ...  There were five students who presented their Ph.D. work, and each of them has contributed a section to this paper.  ...  , and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-018-9220-6 fatcat:rs7rrg7xpjfazmbcbtdcbelypy
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