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Design The study design was described elsewhere (Elmenhorst et al., 2017) . ... Sustained attention was tested with a Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT; Elmenhorst et al., 2012) . ...doi:10.1111/jsr.12641 pmid:29171170 fatcat:xeeerikklfgqbeeznkhfs4o4ru
| www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1614677114 Elmenhorst et al. | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1614677114 Elmenhorst et al. ... To ensure comparability with our own previous data and other neuroreceptor imaging studies of sleep-wake regulation, the selection of ROI was done as described in Elmenhorst et al. ...doi:10.1073/pnas.1614677114 pmid:28373571 pmcid:PMC5402442 fatcat:lxtm4hfi7beqnmuhwo3u53ad5e
| www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1803770115 Elmenhorst et al. | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1803770115 Elmenhorst et al. ... 25 (6) 0.003 1 (3) 0.742 Thalamus 22 (5) 0.003 2 (2) 0.440 Temporal 23 (5) 0.002 3 (2) 0.185 Parietal 22 (5) 0.001 3 (2) 0.261 | www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1803770115 Elmenhorst ...doi:10.1073/pnas.1803770115 pmid:30012607 fatcat:rdh6g4u725gprohtlu7dsb44wa
AbstractAdenosine, its interacting A1 and A2A receptors, and particularly the variant rs5751876 in the A2A gene ADORA2A have been shown to modulate anxiety, arousal, and sleep. In a pilot positron emission tomography (PET) study in healthy male subjects, we suggested an effect of rs5751876 on in vivo brain A1 receptor (A1AR) availability. As female sex and adenosinergic/dopaminergic interaction partners might have an impact on this rs5751876 effect on A1AR availability, we aimed to (1) furtherdoi:10.1038/s41398-020-01085-w pmid:33235193 pmcid:PMC7686488 fatcat:wj2xaqn6x5cijctecon43gt7sq
more »... nvestigate the pilot male-based findings in an independent, newly recruited cohort including women and (2) analyze potential modulation of this rs5751876 effect by additional adenosinergic/dopaminergic gene variation. Healthy volunteers (32/11 males/females) underwent phenotypic characterization including self-reported sleep and A1AR-specific quantitative PET. Rs5751876 and 31 gene variants of adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, adenosine deaminase, and dopamine D2 receptor were genotyped. Multivariate analysis revealed an rs5751876 effect on A1AR availability (P = 0.047), post hoc confirmed in 30 of 31 brain regions (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P values < 0.05), but statistically stronger in anxiety-related regions (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Additional effects of ADORA1 rs1874142 were identified; under its influence rs5751876 and rs5751876 × sleep had strengthened effects on A1AR availability (Pboth < 0.02; post hoc FDR-corrected Ps < 0.05 for 29/30 regions, respectively). Our results support the relationship between rs5751876 and A1AR availability. Additional impact of rs1874142, together with rs5751876 and sleep, might be involved in regulating arousal and thus the development of mental disorders like anxiety disorders. The interplay of further detected suggestive ADORA2A × DRD2 interaction, however, necessitates larger future samples more comparable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based samples.
Am., Vol. 135, No. 1, January 2014 Elmenhorst et al.: Traffic noise, performance, and annoyance ... Elmenhorst et al. (2010) have reported significant exposure-response relationships of performance decrements depending on number of nocturnal noise events as well as L AS,eq . ...doi:10.1121/1.4842475 pmid:24437761 fatcat:vvvlx4yzh5cuvpjq5ilql7rohe
OBJECTIVES: Polysomnography is the gold standard for investigating noise effects on sleep, but data collection and analysis are sumptuous and expensive. We recently developed an automatic algorithm for the identification of cardiac activations associated with cortical arousals, which uses heart rate information derived from a single electrocardiogram (ECG) channel (Basner et al. 2007a) . We hypothesized that cardiac arousals can be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. METHODS: Polysomnographicdoi:10.1088/0967-3334/29/9/007 pmid:18756029 fatcat:x2grz3pzcjgcvphlrzcevblvxq
more »... EEG awakenings and automatically detected cardiac activations were systematically compared using laboratory data of 112 subjects (47 male, mean ± SD age 37.9 ± 13 years), 985 nights and 23,855 aircraft noise events (ANEs). RESULTS: The overall agreement was higher in control (81.9 %) compared to noise nights (76.4 %). However, if corrected for chance expected agreement according to Landis and Koch (1977) , agreement was higher in noise (к=0.60) compared to control nights (к=0.33), representing "moderate to substantial" and "fair" agreement respectively. The probability of automatically detected cardiac arousals increased monotonously with increasing maximum sound pressure levels of ANEs, exceeding the probability of EEG awakenings by up to 18.1 %. If spontaneous reactions were taken into account, exposure-response curves were practically identical for EEG awakenings and cardiac arousals. CONCLUSIONS: Automatically detected cardiac arousals can be used as estimates for EEG awakenings. This inexpensive, objective, and non-invasive method facilitates large scale field studies on the effects of traffic noise on sleep. More investigations are needed to further validate the ECG algorithm in the field and to investigate interindividual differences in its ability to predict EEG awakenings.
EXTENDED ABSTRACT Background: Traffic noise is a growing and serious environmental problem due to its association with health risk, sleep disturbances and annoyance. In particular, annoyance is seen as the most important adverse effect (1) and as one of the first and widespread reactions to noise (2). Since many traffic noise studies are based on laboratory surveys or exhibit shortcomings in noise measurement, there is a lack of valid exposure-response relationships between traffic noise anddoi:10.18154/rwth-conv-239651 fatcat:cyvcbx3d55hwpfrz4sphcj2eai
more »... oyance. To fill this gap for road traffic, precise measurements of noise parameters (e.g. A -weighted energy equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ]) are needed. In addition to the acoustical characteristics of the noise event itself also non-acoustical moderators have an important effect on the development of annoyance (3). Therefore we were interested in effects of both non-acoustical and acoustical influences of road traffic noise on short-term annoyance. Furthermore we intended to explore the effect of different noise sources on annoyance by comparing data of road traffic with those of aircraft and railway traffic.
Recuperation during sleep on board of commercial long-haul flights is a safety issue of utmost importance for flight crews working extended duty periods. We intended to explore how sleep and blood oxygenation (in wake versus sleep) are affected by the conditions in an airliner at cruising altitude. Healthy participants' sleep was compared between 4-h sleep opportunities in the sleep laboratory (n = 23; sleep lab, ie, 53 m above sea level) and in an altitude chamber (n = 20; flight level, ie,doi:10.2147/nss.s339196 pmid:35177944 pmcid:PMC8846622 fatcat:ribe4hqud5bupmnsf5trmfvtnq
more »... hPa, corresponding to 2438 m above sea level). A subgroup of 12 participants underwent three additional conditions in the altitude chamber: 1) 4-h sleep at ground level, 2) 4-h sleep at flight level with oxygen partial pressure equivalent to ground level, 3) 4-h monitored wakefulness at flight level. Sleep structure and blood oxygenation were analysed with mixed ANOVAs. Total sleep time at flight level compared to in the sleep laboratory was shorter (Δ mean ± standard error -11.1 ± 4.2 min) and included less N3 sleep (Δ -17.6 ± 5.4 min), while blood oxygenation was decreased. Participants spent 69.7% (± 8.3%) of the sleep period time but only 13.2% (± 3.0%) of monitored wakefulness in a hypoxic state (<90% oxygen saturation). Oxygen enrichment of the chamber prevented oxygen desaturation. Sleep - but not wakefulness - under flight conditions induces hypobaric hypoxia which may contribute to impaired sleep. The results caution against the assumption of equivalent crew recovery in-flight and on the ground but hold promise for oxygen enrichment as a countermeasure. The present results have implications for flight safety and possible long-term consequences for health in crews.
Objectives: Air, road, and railway traffic, the three major sources of traffic noise, have been reported to differently impact on annoyance. However, these findings may not be transferable to physiological reactions during sleep which are considered to decrease nighttime recovery and might mediate long-term negative health effects. Studies on awakenings from sleep indicate that railway noise, while having the least impact on annoyance, may have the most disturbing properties on sleep compareddoi:10.3390/ijerph16061073 pmid:30917492 pmcid:PMC6466444 fatcat:tf7pgbgdtvaixiwhne5d7cwbt4
more »... aircraft noise. This study presents a comparison between the three major traffic modes and their probability to cause awakenings. In combining acoustical and polysomnographical data from three laboratory studies sample size and generalizability of the findings were increased. Methods: Data from three laboratory studies were pooled, conducted at two sites in Germany (German Aerospace Center, Cologne, and Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund). In total, the impact of 109,836 noise events on polysomnographically assessed awakenings was analyzed in 237 subjects using a random intercept logistic regression model. Results: The best model fit according to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) included different acoustical and sleep parameters. After adjusting for these moderators results showed that the probability to wake up from equal maximum A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPL) increased in the order aircraft < road < railway noise, the awakening probability from road and railway noise being not significantly different (p = 0.988). At 70 dB SPL, it was more than 7% less probable to wake up due to aircraft noise than due to railway noise. Conclusions: The three major traffic noise sources differ in their impact on sleep. The order with which their impact increased was inversed compared to the order that was found in annoyance surveys. It is thus important to choose the correct concept for noise legislation, i.e., physiological sleep metrics in addition to noise annoyance for nighttime noise protection.
result, that railway traffic did not differ significantly from air traffic when the effect of number of nocturnal events on short-term annoyance was taken into account, is in accordance with findings by Elmenhorst ...doi:10.3390/ijerph18094647 pmid:33925579 fatcat:xp452orxkfe3lftwbvipox4jqe
Undisturbed and sufficiently long sleep is a prerequisite for a healthy life as well as for the prevention of fatigue-induced accidents. Especially the increasing air and freight rail traffic is more and more shifted to shoulder and night-time hours due to missing capacity and infrastructure during daytime. Thus, the sleep of residents near airports or railway tracks is increasingly affected by traffic noise. Only very few main airports, such as Frankfurt (Germany), implemented a night flightfatcat:hy52ag34nfcqtpifii5q3abltu
more »... n in order to countervail this trend. Since 1999 the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has investigated these night time noise effects in several field studies in which the sound pressure levels L AS and L AF and sound files were continuously measured with class one sound level meters at the sleeper's ear. Sleep structure was recorded with polysomnography (simultaneous measurement of brain waves, eye movements, and muscle tone), the gold-standard to quantify sleep objectively. The results on sleep quality and additional awakening reactions due to traffic noise from former studies performed at Cologne/Bonn airport (high night time traffic) and a busy railway track in the Rhine valley (high night time freight traffic) are compared with the results of the recently completed NORAH (Noise-Related Annoyance, Cognition, and Health) study at Frankfurt airport. In the latter study data were collected both before as well as after the implementation of a ban of night flights between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.. Sound exposure distributions, average sound levels and sound level rise time distributions at the sleepers' ear are presented for all three studies.
Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Jülich Denise Lange 1,2 , Eva Hennecke 1 , Judith Fronczek 3 , Andreas Bauer 3 , Daniel Aeschbach 1 , David Elmenhorst 3 , Eva-Maria Elmenhorst ...doi:10.1093/sleepj/zsx050.259 fatcat:4obkwxqjjvc6fk7kkxri4sj3py
Abd Eleftheriou, Eleftherios El-Geneidy, Ahmed Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M. ... Barlow, Karen Maria Barnes, Jo M. ...doi:10.3390/ijerph120100455 fatcat:njiomcvicrebrj5prcolbg4nq4
Elia, Antonia Concetta Elliott, Susan Ellis, Kate Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria Elsharafi, Mahmoud Elstad, Jon Ivar Emerson, Eric Enders, Achim Engelen, Lina Engelman, Alina English, Paul ... Segovia-Siapco, Gina Segura-Egea, Juan José Segura-Ortí, Eva Seifert, John G. Seixas, Noah S. ...doi:10.3390/ijerph13010150 fatcat:fzyfxgrwnjd4rfgqxzdua5f2oe
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