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Enhancing the Transformer with Explicit Relational Encoding for Math Problem Solving
[article]

2020
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

We incorporate Tensor-Product Representations within

arXiv:1910.06611v2
fatcat:z6ejzqytzrbgbdrk5yzxrztao4
*the**Transformer*in order to better support*the**explicit*representation of*relation*structure. ... Our Tensor-Product*Transformer*(TP-*Transformer*) sets a new state of*the*art on*the*recently-introduced Mathematics Dataset containing 56 categories of free-form*math*word-*problems*. ... Acknowledgments We thank*the*anonymous reviewers*for*their valuable comments. This research was supported by an European Research Council Advanced Grant (no: 742870). ...##
###
Page 2955 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 92e
[page]

1992
*
Mathematical Reviews
*

In order to

*solve*these*problems**the*authors consider channels*with*and without noiseless feedback.*For*each case they obtain an optimal*encoding*/decoding scheme and opti- mal transmission protocols. ...*The*zero-crossings of a wavelet*transform*define a representation which is well adapted*for**solving*pattern recognition*problems*. ...##
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DISK: Domain-constrained Instance Sketch for Math Word Problem Generation
[article]

2022
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

Besides,

arXiv:2204.04686v1
fatcat:6bm5igvwafcbtmjoelfzmzocqi
*the*QCG also interacts*with**the*equation*encoder*to*enhance**the*alignment between*math*tokens (e.g., quantities and variables) and MWP text. ... A*math*word*problem*(MWP) is a coherent narrative which reflects*the*underlying logic of*math*equations. Successful MWP generation can automate*the*writing of mathematics questions. ... This instance can be regarded as to constrain*the*scene*with*which*the**math**problem*text to be generated would be*related*. ...##
###
GeoQA: A Geometric Question Answering Benchmark Towards Multimodal Numerical Reasoning
[article]

2022
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

Automatic

arXiv:2105.14517v3
fatcat:rhn2mugfwrbyfaz2ztk5d2dhy4
*math**problem**solving*has recently attracted increasing attention as a long-standing AI benchmark. ... Therefore, we propose a Geometric Question Answering dataset GeoQA, containing 4,998 geometric*problems**with*corresponding annotated programs, which illustrate*the**solving*process of*the*given*problems*... Joint Reasoning Module Given*the*text feature H P and*the*diagram feature H D , it is crucial*for**solving*geometric prob- H P is first*encoded*by 6 self-attention units (i.e., original*Transformer*), and ...##
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Page 3562 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 90, Issue 11
[page]

2003
*
Psychological Abstracts
*

*The*participants

*solved*

*problems*presented in a vertical format significantly faster than

*problems*presented in a horizon- tal format. ... They also

*solved*double digit first

*problems*(e.g., 52+3) more quickly than

*the*reverse (e.g., 3+52), but only when

*the*

*problems*were pre- sented horizontally. ...

##
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MWP-BERT: Numeracy-Augmented Pre-training for Math Word Problem Solving
[article]

2022
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

*Math*word

*problem*(MWP)

*solving*faces a dilemma in number representation learning. ... In order to avoid

*the*number representation issue and reduce

*the*search space of feasible solutions, existing works striving

*for*MWP

*solving*usually replace real numbers

*with*symbolic placeholders to focus ... To our knowledge, this is

*the*first approach that surpasses human performance in terms of MWP

*solving*.

*Related*Works

*Math*Word

*Problems*

*Solving*. ...

##
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The Gap of Semantic Parsing: A Survey on Automatic Math Word Problem Solvers
[article]

2019
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

We also cover automatic solvers

arXiv:1808.07290v2
fatcat:spurptk2cjdw5lsqqejzfkfkqa
*for*other types of*math**problems*such as geometric*problems*that require*the*understanding of diagrams. ... Finally, we identify several emerging research directions*for**the*readers*with*interests in MWPs. ... Context-*related*Features*The*information embedded in*the*text window centered at a particular quantity can also provide important clues*for**solving**math*word*problems*. ...##
###
Stereotype-based stressors facilitate emotional memory neural network connectivity and encoding of negative information to degrade math self-perceptions among women

2018
*
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
*

Findings provide an emotional memory

doi:10.1093/scan/nsy043
pmid:29939344
fatcat:fywmihthtfeq3e533cu5xyzzfe
*encoding*-based mechanism*for*well-established findings indicating that women have more negative*math*self-perceptions compared*with*men regardless of actual performance ... A total of 160 men and women completed a*math*test that provided veridical positive and negative feedback, a memory test*for*feedback, and*math*self-*enhancing*and valuing measures in a stereotype threatening ... Unexpectedly, stereotype threat did not uniquely*enhance*recall*for*information associated*with**solving**problems*incorrectly, at least behaviorally. ...##
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Template-Based Math Word Problem Solvers with Recursive Neural Networks

2019
*
PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTIETH AAAI CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE TWENTY-EIGHTH INNOVATIVE APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE
*

Then, we design a recursive neural network to

doi:10.1609/aaai.v33i01.33017144
fatcat:abxav75phbbklljdx4hv4afqd4
*encode**the*quantity*with*Bi-LSTM and self attention, and infer*the*unknown operator nodes in a bottom-up manner. ...*The*design of automatic solvers to arithmetic*math*word*problems*has attracted considerable attention in recent years and a large number of datasets and methods have been published. ...*For*example, (Wang, Liu, and Shi 2017) used LSTM as*the**encoder*and GRU as*the*decoder*for**math**problem**solving*. ...##
###
Mining Numbers in Text: A Survey
[chapter]

2021
*
Information Systems - Intelligent Information Processing Systems [Working Title]
*

In this survey, we provide a quick overview of

doi:10.5772/intechopen.98540
fatcat:mhzwc2ykcvcglfsh3ltxzvzq5q
*the*history and recent advances of*the*research of mining such*relations*between numerals and words found in text data. ... However, relatively little attention has been paid in numerals found in texts and many systems treated*the*numbers found in*the*document in ad-hoc ways, such as regarded them as mere strings in*the*same ... Table 8 . 8 Numeracal Reading Comprehension Systems. 9 Table 9 . 9 Systems*for**Math*Word*Problem**Solving*. Data Table 10 . 10*Math*Word*Problem*Datasets. ...##
###
Effects of Mathematical Word Problem—Solving Instruction on Middle School Students with Learning Problems

2005
*
The Journal of special education
*

Next, students learned to

doi:10.1177/00224669050390030501
fatcat:pxzyryaw5vdgbdwltner3tlqzm
*transform**the*information in*the*diagram into a*math*sentence and*solve**for**the*unknown (Step 4). That is, they derived*the*following*math*equation, 12 ? ... type, and use*the*schema • Draw a picture to represent*the**problem*diagram to represent*the**problem*•*Transform**the*diagram to a*math*sentence, •*Solve**the**problem*and*solve**the**problem*• Look back to ... Sydney Zentall*for*her feedback on an earlier draft of this paper. ...##
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Translating Math Formula Images to LaTeX Sequences Using Deep Neural Networks with Sequence-level Training
[article]

2019
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

To better capture

arXiv:1908.11415v2
fatcat:3so7fujz4be7hluften6nbroqq
*the*spatial relationships of*math*symbols,*the*feature maps are augmented*with*2D positional*encoding*before being unfolded into a vector. ...*The**encoder*is a convolutional neural network (CNN) that*transforms*images into a group of feature maps. ...*The*attention mechanism [23] has been introduced to*solve*this*problem*and has now become a widely adopted approach to*enhance**the*performance on longer sequences. ...##
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Making children gesture brings out implicit knowledge and leads to learning

2007
*
Journal of experimental psychology. General
*

*The*authors found that, when told to gesture, children who were unable to

*solve*

*the*

*math*

*problems*often added new and correct

*problem*-

*solving*strategies, expressed only in gesture, to their repertoires ...

*The*authors also found that when these children were given instruction on

*the*

*math*

*problems*later, they were more likely to succeed on

*the*

*problems*than children told not to gesture. ... Noticing aspects of

*the*world that are easily

*encoded*in gesture seemed to help children learn how to

*solve*

*the*

*math*

*problems*in our study. ...

##
###
Supporting Tutorial Feedback to Student Help Requests and Errors in Symbolic Differentiation
[chapter]

2006
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

SLOPERT's capabilities thus support

doi:10.1007/11774303_35
fatcat:h4wlrwtctrhutafv35esilapiq
*the*generation of natural*problem*-*solving*hints and scaffolding help. ... SLOPERT can provide natural step-by-step solutions*for*any given*problem*as well as diagnosis support*for*typical student errors. ... While these expert reasoning engines can*solve*a vast number of*math**problems*, their algorithms are optimised*for*generality and efficiency, and thus, rarely mirror or mechanise human/student*problem**solving*...##
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Mathematical Word Problem Generation from Commonsense Knowledge Graph and Equations
[article]

2021
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

There is an increasing interest in

arXiv:2010.06196v3
fatcat:ej3adgz5wzcxzam24wl3xfnbza
*the*use of mathematical word*problem*(MWP) generation in educational assessment. ...*The*proposed model (1) learns both representations from edge-*enhanced*Levi graphs of symbolic equations and commonsense knowledge; (2) automatically fuses equation and commonsense knowledge information ... In order to well capture such*relations*, we model*the*edge la- bels as*explicit*nodes. ...
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