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Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective

Francesco A Massucci, Mauro DiNuzzo, Federico Giove, Bruno Maraviglia, Isaac Castillo, Enzo Marinari, Andrea Martino
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xua5vbjwszdirewaoqnikiu5zm" style="color: black;">BMC Systems Biology</a> </i> &nbsp;
These findings suggest that, in absence of ad hoc activity-related constraints on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism, the glutamate-glutamine cycle does not control the relative energy demand of neurons  ...  We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which  ...  In brief, denoting by A and B the matrices of input and output stoichiometric indices respectively (so that S = B − A), let ρ > 0 be a real parameter, let S ρ = B − ρA, and consider the system S ρ ν ≥  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-0509-7-103">doi:10.1186/1752-0509-7-103</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24112710">pmid:24112710</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC4021976/">pmcid:PMC4021976</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/igy4ir4gzbc43fe2yfb5yp467a">fatcat:igy4ir4gzbc43fe2yfb5yp467a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170818190006/https://www.biomedcentral.com/content/supplementary/1752-0509-7-103-s1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f1/4f/f14fcb9fd0aa5ca24f43e72f039a179f3c91105d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-0509-7-103"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021976" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Cellular mechanisms of brain energy metabolism and their relevance to functional brain imaging

P. J. Magistretti, L. Pellerin
<span title="1999-07-29">1999</span> <i title="The Royal Society"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/p7stgfom7rbkheuw5cc6avanwu" style="color: black;">Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
Within the astrocyte, one ATP molecule fuels one'turn of the pump' while the other provides the energy needed to convert glutamate to glutamine by glutamine synthase.  ...  Recent studies, including those of neurotransmitter-regulated metabolic £uxes in puri¢ed preparations and analyses of the cellular localization of enzymes and transporters involved in energy metabolism  ...  , has provided novel perspectives to interpret brain energy metabolism and the nature of the signals detected by functional brain imaging.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1999.0471">doi:10.1098/rstb.1999.0471</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10466143">pmid:10466143</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC1692634/">pmcid:PMC1692634</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lduqkb3fcvcozgx2bmo7qxsfxq">fatcat:lduqkb3fcvcozgx2bmo7qxsfxq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200504120356/http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC1692634&amp;blobtype=pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/eb/80/eb80cffa17c0b0d3a2e247d80eda2f3291ddece9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1999.0471"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692634" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

13C NMR spectroscopy applications to brain energy metabolism

Tiago B. Rodrigues, Julien Valette, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hiqprq4spjbo3nirp4izltpxe4" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Neuroenergetics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Finally, new perspectives and applications offered by 13 C hyperpolarization are described. gic neurotransmission flux; V TCA , TCA cycle flux; V X , rate of exchange between α-ketoglutarate and glutamate  ...  In the first part of this review, we present the metabolic fate of 13 C-labeled substrates in the brain in a detailed way, including an overview of some general neurochemical principles.  ...  Rodrigues was in receipt of an Intra-European Marie Curie (FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IEF, Imaging Lymphoma) and a Long-Term EMBO (EMBO-ALT-1145-2009) fellowships.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnene.2013.00009">doi:10.3389/fnene.2013.00009</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367329">pmid:24367329</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC3856424/">pmcid:PMC3856424</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/oyavdczy3rgshkmpzrjibwv7gu">fatcat:oyavdczy3rgshkmpzrjibwv7gu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150715171138/http://journal.frontiersin.org:80/article/10.3389/fnene.2013.00009/pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a0/18/a0187a29af09caf1858bbe09021d5eed445ca07d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnene.2013.00009"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> frontiersin.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3856424" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Brain glutaminases

Javier Márquez, Mercedes Martín-Rufián, Juan A. Segura, José M. Matés, José A. Campos-Sandoval, Francisco J. Alonso
<span title="2010-01-01">2010</span> <i title="Walter de Gruyter GmbH"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/5q27z5mqqjdurimgw2ow2occ6u" style="color: black;">Biomolecular Concepts</a> </i> &nbsp;
The differential distribution and regulation of glutaminase are key factors to modulate the metabolism of glutamate and glutamine in brain.  ...  Glutamine-derived glutamate and ammonia, the products of glutaminase reaction, fulfill crucial roles in energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of basic metabolites, such as GABA, proteins and glutathione  ...  ), and Grant RD06/1012 of the RTA RETICS network from the Spanish Health Institute Carlos III.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1515/bmc.2010.006">doi:10.1515/bmc.2010.006</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25961981">pmid:25961981</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rjp3qsll4jbzvj5mhezu6clyym">fatcat:rjp3qsll4jbzvj5mhezu6clyym</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180727190043/https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/bmc.2010.1.issue-1/bmc.2010.006/bmc.2010.006.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ca/02/ca0283520e29492494470689d0deea4279e35679.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1515/bmc.2010.006"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> degruyter.com </button> </a>

Systematic analysis of transcription-level effects of neurodegenerative diseases on human brain metabolism by a newly reconstructed brain-specific metabolic network

Mustafa Sertbaş, Kutlu Ülgen, Tunahan Çakır
<span title="2014-01-01">2014</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/i2e77cheafb6xlc2hn66fbnaqy" style="color: black;">FEBS Open Bio</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our model indicated perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism including TCA cycle and lipid metabolism as well as several amino acid related pathways, in agreement with the role of these pathways  ...  The developed stoichiometric model correctly represents healthy brain metabolism, and includes 630 metabolic reactions in and between astrocytes and neurons, which are controlled by 570 genes.  ...  Emrah Özcan (Gebze Institute of Technology) is acknowledged for his help in reorganizing the reconstructed model.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fob.2014.05.006">doi:10.1016/j.fob.2014.05.006</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061554">pmid:25061554</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC4104795/">pmcid:PMC4104795</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/e56selaxgndd5dpz3rlqk5mzza">fatcat:e56selaxgndd5dpz3rlqk5mzza</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190323120237/https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82558511.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/72/2b/722b0e371fd2f4d76c4a1ebff34063e986d3e751.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fob.2014.05.006"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4104795" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Localizedin vivo13C NMR spectroscopy of the brain

Rolf Gruetter, Gregor Adriany, In-Young Choi, Pierre-Gilles Henry, Hongxia Lei, Gülin Öz
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rr3xugvwirasdcilw2b3upxqpi" style="color: black;">NMR in Biomedicine</a> </i> &nbsp;
action in the brain; (b) the demonstration of significant anaplerotic fluxes in the brain; (c) the demonstration of a highly regulated malate-aspartate shuttle in brain energy metabolism and isotope flux  ...  ; (d) quantification of neuronal and glial energy metabolism; and (e) brain glycogen metabolism in hypoglycemia in rats and humans.  ...  Acknowledgments The encouragement and support from colleagues at the Center for MR Research is appreciated, in particular Drs Ugurbil, Garwood, Seaquist, Chen, Vaughan and Kim.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/nbm.841">doi:10.1002/nbm.841</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14679498">pmid:14679498</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC1513184/">pmcid:PMC1513184</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/t4z5dwawljeurjqfczg5gtnvh4">fatcat:t4z5dwawljeurjqfczg5gtnvh4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170817154909/https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/177546/files/NMRBiomedRev.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b0/ec/b0eccf624d4c3019f80350a9b6544eba301b63d5.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1002/nbm.841"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> wiley.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1513184" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Brain Glucose Metabolism: Integration of Energetics with Function

Gerald A. Dienel
<span title="">2019</span> <i title="American Physiological Society"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/yyps7nsgzngdlnxq7zhtlsei5y" style="color: black;">Physiological Reviews</a> </i> &nbsp;
Exact details of neuron-astrocyte glutamate-glutamine cycling remain to be established, and the specific roles of glucose and lactate in the cellular energetics of these processes are debated.  ...  to astrocytic metabolism, particularly glycogen turnover, which has a high impact on the oxygen-carbohydrate mismatch.  ...  Neuronal assignment of rapid glutamate labeling and delayed astrocytic glutamine labeling by glucose via the glutamate-glutamine cycle was based on 13 C-MRS studies and metabolic modeling (see Section  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00062.2017">doi:10.1152/physrev.00062.2017</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/bh2gezzbuved3mylb6epexj73y">fatcat:bh2gezzbuved3mylb6epexj73y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200322231034/https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/physrev.00062.2017" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/bd/be/bdbe2d71e976d77f044d61a84ab47c84b7730c07.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00062.2017"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Reconstruction and flux analysis of coupling between metabolic pathways of astrocytes and neurons: application to cerebral hypoxia

Tunahan Çakιr, Selma Alsan, Hale Saybaşιlι, Ata Akιn, Kutlu Ö Ülgen
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/gdqzxgkaenh3xnqi2umstfxgva" style="color: black;">Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling</a> </i> &nbsp;
To simplify this task and make it more practicable, we undertook stoichiometric modeling of brain energy metabolism with the major aim of including the main interacting pathways in and between astrocytes  ...  It is a daunting task to identify all the metabolic pathways of brain energy metabolism and develop a dynamic simulation environment that will cover a time scale ranging from seconds to hours.  ...  Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Boğaziçi University Research Fund through project 04A501, 04S101 and by DPT through 03K120250.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-4-48">doi:10.1186/1742-4682-4-48</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18070347">pmid:18070347</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC2246127/">pmcid:PMC2246127</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uymyxxawovfxdcjgycifnghpie">fatcat:uymyxxawovfxdcjgycifnghpie</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170820000121/https://tbiomed.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1742-4682-4-48?site=tbiomed.biomedcentral.com" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d3/cc/d3cc5d2e346eb79b76c228b5aa40a18bbf35fb0b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-4-48"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2246127" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Energy for Neurotransmission

L. Hertz
<span title="1999-07-30">1999</span> <i title="American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/qirzh7firjdsjhg4tutxtir6ey" style="color: black;">Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
There is little doubt that transmitter glutamate in the brain is continuously synthesized from glucose in astrocytes, transferred to neurons (3), probably by way of glutamine (4, 5), and eventually degraded  ...  Interruption of this metabolic exchange leads to an impairment of glutamatergic neurotransmission (7) , a depletion of neuronal glutamate (4, 8) and an inability to consolidate memories (9).  ...  So perhaps the biggest intrigue to this thesis may be why glutamine-glutamate cycling appears to be so tightly coupled to cerebral metabolism. The brain is still a mysterious box.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.285.5428.639a">doi:10.1126/science.285.5428.639a</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/22eu2t57v5edddmkp6sofkgjvy">fatcat:22eu2t57v5edddmkp6sofkgjvy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170815220403/http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/285/5428/639.full.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a9/9f/a99f01daa42ee1a242aeaf9ef57028903621fc4e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.285.5428.639a"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> sciencemag.org </button> </a>

Lactate Shuttling and Lactate use as Fuel after Traumatic Brain Injury: Metabolic Considerations

Gerald A Dienel
<span title="2014-09-10">2014</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/zh7dem5jnfbevczyfq7zr6yhme" style="color: black;">Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism</a> </i> &nbsp;
However, a large body of evidence demonstrates that metabolic changes during activation of living brain disprove essential components of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model.  ...  Extension of the notion that lactate is a preferential fuel into the traumatic brain injury (TBI) field has important clinical implications, and the concept must, therefore, be carefully evaluated before  ...  the glutamate-glutamine cycle (A).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.153">doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.153</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204393">pmid:25204393</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC4269761/">pmcid:PMC4269761</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hm4bqvy2vzfcnppirpj4hdyhc4">fatcat:hm4bqvy2vzfcnppirpj4hdyhc4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200209042551/http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC4269761&amp;blobtype=pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/69/98/69988130151b8472dd78187e4d3231c5a8d27c1f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.153"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269761" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Cerebral glucose metabolism and the glutamine cycle as detected by in vivo and in vitro 13C NMR spectroscopy

Marı́a A Garcı́a-Espinosa, Tiago B Rodrigues, Alejandra Sierra, Marina Benito, Carla Fonseca, Heather L Gray, Brenda L Bartnik, Marı́a L Garcı́a-Martı́n, Paloma Ballesteros, Sebastián Cerdán
<span title="">2004</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/w7ey64vjgva4tbfeqvc3tlcnkm" style="color: black;">Neurochemistry International</a> </i> &nbsp;
Mathematical modeling analysis of in vivo 13 C turnover experiments from the C4 carbons of glutamate and glutamine are consistent with: (i) the glutamine cycle being the major cerebral metabolic route  ...  a considerable portion of the energy required to support glutamine synthesis is derived from the oxidative metabolism of glucose in the astroglia and that a significant amount of the neurotransmitter glutamate  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by grants SAF 2001-2245, FIS network grants C03/10, C03/155 and C03/08, a core grant from JUSTESA Imagen and a strategic group grant from the Community  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2003.08.014">doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2003.08.014</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15145545">pmid:15145545</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/m5jsvokdtnhfzeodo7dd72pa4e">fatcat:m5jsvokdtnhfzeodo7dd72pa4e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190220153651/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/25d2/b90f2dc4a3f3fb6f5207fdf1471dcf48082a.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/25/d2/25d2b90f2dc4a3f3fb6f5207fdf1471dcf48082a.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2003.08.014"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Computational Flux Balance Analysis Predicts that Stimulation of Energy Metabolism in Astrocytes and their Metabolic Interactions with Neurons Depend on Uptake of K+ Rather than Glutamate

Mauro DiNuzzo, Federico Giove, Bruno Maraviglia, Silvia Mangia
<span title="2016-09-14">2016</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pncjnihh6rempdfj744jw3pm7q" style="color: black;">Neurochemical Research</a> </i> &nbsp;
In order to examine the participation of astrocytic energy metabolism in brain ion homeostasis, here we attempted to devise a simple stoichiometric relation linking glutamatergic neurotransmission to Na  ...  Astrocytes are commonly thought to be primarily involved in transmitter glutamate cycling, a mechanism that however only accounts for few % of brain energy utilization.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank Dr. Markus Triska (TU Wien,  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-2048-0">doi:10.1007/s11064-016-2048-0</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27628293">pmid:27628293</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC5283516/">pmcid:PMC5283516</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/qc2ruoiztncabncugqbpl5ep7y">fatcat:qc2ruoiztncabncugqbpl5ep7y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180726150927/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11064-016-2048-0.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cb/47/cb4722188dd3484db2c8360a7480c9ce8aa1012c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-2048-0"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5283516" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Fueling and Imaging Brain Activation

Gerald A Dienel
<span title="2012-07-20">2012</span> <i title="SAGE Publications"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3tjfeh2ee5e6rkgqqcxevbrcby" style="color: black;">ASN Neuro</a> </i> &nbsp;
The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid.  ...  Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The content is solely the responsibility of the author and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute Of Diabetes And Digestive And Kidney Diseases, National  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1042/an20120021">doi:10.1042/an20120021</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612861">pmid:22612861</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC3401074/">pmcid:PMC3401074</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gjwzdnn4brhvbjkq4rjmtoeaui">fatcat:gjwzdnn4brhvbjkq4rjmtoeaui</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170812193134/https://www.scienceopen.com/document_file/14629458-fe80-4c11-9ae4-fe8881e6ab7b/PubMedCentral/14629458-fe80-4c11-9ae4-fe8881e6ab7b.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/9f/9a/9f9a1783ea51e8fd12bbaa33fffc88463b5c1b6d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1042/an20120021"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> sagepub.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3401074" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Quantitative in silico Analysis of Neurotransmitter Pathways Under Steady State Conditions

Daniela Calvetti, Erkki Somersalo
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lrxowc5ubndyzpoqeyubgpzigm" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Endocrinology</a> </i> &nbsp;
The modeling of glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycling in the brain tissue involving astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons leads to a complex compartmentalized metabolic network that comprises neurotransmitter  ...  More specifically, we consider the joint action of the alanine-lactate shuttle, the branched chain amino acid shuttle, and the glutamine-glutamate cycle, as well as the role of glutamate dehydrogenase  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was partially supported by grant from the Simons Foundation (# 246665 to Daniela Calvetti). The work of Erkki Somersalo was supported in part by NSF grant DMS 1016183.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00137">doi:10.3389/fendo.2013.00137</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24115944">pmid:24115944</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC3792486/">pmcid:PMC3792486</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/gla3rqdgxzgsrfsiw6whwp5zyy">fatcat:gla3rqdgxzgsrfsiw6whwp5zyy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170830030746/https://fjfsdata01prod.blob.core.windows.net/articles/files/58187/pubmed-zip/.versions/1/.package-entries/fendo-04-00137/fendo-04-00137.pdf?sv=2015-12-11&amp;sr=b&amp;sig=dvpO4WVADOWvuSecgMveVhBJChM04PmrwbjZ%2BOgSWgA%3D&amp;se=2017-08-30T03%3A07%3A48Z&amp;sp=r&amp;rscd=attachment%3B%20filename%2A%3DUTF-8%27%27fendo-04-00137.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d2/e8/d2e89a6b8e399ad8cc0b27f28b937d01ccdcdc0f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00137"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> frontiersin.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3792486" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Astrocytic Control of Biosynthesis and Turnover of the Neurotransmitters Glutamate and GABA

Arne Schousboe, Lasse K. Bak, Helle S. Waagepetersen
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lrxowc5ubndyzpoqeyubgpzigm" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Endocrinology</a> </i> &nbsp;
Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively.  ...  This cycling is brought about by the glutamate/GABA -glutamine cycle the operation of which involves the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and phosphate-activated glutaminase together with the plasma membrane  ...  cycle cannot operate in a stoichiometric fashion, i.e., that there is a 1:1 exchange of glutamate and glutamine (Figure 4) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00102">doi:10.3389/fendo.2013.00102</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23966981">pmid:23966981</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC3744088/">pmcid:PMC3744088</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dq3dzv5cwvdj3mekz6ihlojor4">fatcat:dq3dzv5cwvdj3mekz6ihlojor4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/download/pubmed-PMC3744088/PMC3744088-fendo.2013.00102.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> File Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b2/84/b284884658003d81f465c6e9fbf9fd145da76954.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2013.00102"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> frontiersin.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744088" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>
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