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Encoding Generic Judgments

Dale Miller
2001 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science  
Instead, we present a technique for encoding generic judgments and show two examples where generic judgments need to be treated at the term level: one example is an interpreter for Horn clauses extended  ...  When one wishes to reason about relations defined using term-level abstractions, generic judgment are generally required.  ...  See [MM02] for the correctness proofs of this encoding of generic judgments. Other judgments besides generic judgments can be encoded similarly.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1571-0661(04)00279-8 fatcat:uqr3a5gta5fdfb4oxq5dmodyyi

Encoding Generic Judgments [chapter]

Dale Miller, Alwen Tiu
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Instead, we present a technique for encoding generic judgments and show two examples where generic judgments need to be treated at the term level: one example is an interpreter for Horn clauses extended  ...  When one wishes to reason about relations defined using term-level abstractions, generic judgment are generally required.  ...  See [MM02] for the correctness proofs of this encoding of generic judgments. Other judgments besides generic judgments can be encoded similarly.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-36206-1_3 fatcat:k4mzc345kfd4tlhkfm4d4is7ea

Getting at the source of distinctive encoding effects in the DRM paradigm: evidence from signal-detection measures and source judgments

Glen E. Bodner, Mark J. Huff, Raymond W. Lamontagne, Tanjeem Azad
2016 Memory  
Distinctive encoding in the DRM paradigm 24  ...  Importantly, therefore, we also asked the within group to make a read/generate/imagery source judgment after each "old" recognition judgment.  ...  As a strong test, we examined source-judgment accuracy for participants who had identical d' scores for list items for generate and imagery lists (and thus no detectable Distinctive encoding in the DRM  ... 
doi:10.1080/09658211.2016.1205094 pmid:27387376 fatcat:hypi2utqqzdkxplwh5kpgakkv4

Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment

Amber M. Sprenger, Michael R. Dougherty, Sharona M. Atkins, Ana M. Franco-Watkins, Rick P. Thomas, Nicholas Lange, Brandon Abbs
2011 Frontiers in Psychology  
HyGene makes two important predictions regarding the effect of encoding on hypotheses generation and judgment.  ...  Thus, hypothesis generation is expected to show a positive relationship with encoding.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00129 pmid:21734897 pmcid:PMC3120978 fatcat:nkzk42ddzff2ffvfkoutws3idm

Effects of repetition of mental operations on memory for occurrence and origin

Jan C. Rabinowitz
1990 Memory & Cognition  
At test, they were required to decide whether or not the targets were presented initially (recognition), and if so, whether they were initially read or generated (judgments of origin).  ...  In two experiments, subjects read or generated items at both encoding and retrieval.  ...  repetition and the complexity of the generation operations at encoding affect judgments of origin.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03202648 pmid:2314231 fatcat:wbzkvxd3vvemrcai2uxrui7ghi

Sleep increases explicit solutions and reduces intuitive judgments of semantic coherence

Thea Zander, Kirsten G. Volz, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
2017 Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)  
common associate, or (4) sleep may directly generate the common associate via spreading (re-)activation of the encoded words, etc.  ...  For example, sleep facilitates the generalization and abstraction of schema-like information from single encoded elements (Lewis and Durrant 2011) .  ... 
doi:10.1101/lm.044511.116 pmid:29142060 fatcat:lf2xdt4hqvba5mibl7hvwad5jq

In Search of the Self: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

Fergus I.M. Craik, Tara M. Moroz, Morris Moscovitch, Donald T. Stuss, Gordon Winocur, Endel Tulving, Shitij Kapur
1999 Psychological Science  
It is concluded that the concept of self involves both general schematic structures and further specific components involved in episodic memory retrieval.  ...  The results showed that self-related encoding yielded left frontal activations similar to those associated with other types of semantic encoding, but also specific activations in the right frontal lobe  ...  Table 1 (left column) shows the mean times taken to make the judgments for each encoding condition; the general (social desirability) judgments were made most rapidly (M = 1,321 ms), and the other (Brian  ... 
doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00102 fatcat:mumj5asjhzcsvjpjenks7ii4ua

Dissimilarities as indices of individual perceptual structure

Paul D. Isaac
1970 Perception & Psychophysics  
The generality ofdissimilarity judgments and of configurations obtained by multidimensional scaling (MDS) as indices of perceptual structure was examined.  ...  These additional tasks, an "encoding" and a "decoding" task, required the S to first construct a message by making use ofa set of four photos and, a week later, to decode the messages.  ...  The results for optimality of encoding and decoding support the proposal that similarity (dissimilarity) judgments and configurations are somewhat more general indices of perceptual structure, even though  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03209367 fatcat:fal67fasfbf7lje2twedyomzoa

Predicting memory formation over multiple study episodes

Carolin Sievers, Chris M. Bird, Louis Renoult
2019 Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)  
During the test phase, an old/new judgment task was used to assess item memory, followed by a source memory judgment about the encoding task.  ...  These benefits are however at the expenses of source recollection and memory for details, which are decreased, likely due to interference and generalization across contexts.  ...  Results generally supported these predictions.  ... 
doi:10.1101/lm.049791.119 pmid:31732707 pmcid:PMC6859827 fatcat:7gkywvfwtne3vaibau4xs66jty

On misattributing good remembering to a happy past: An investigation into the cognitive roots of nostalgia

Jason P. Leboe, Tamara L. Ansons
2006 Emotion  
In a series of experiments, we employed an encoding manipulation to cause some words to support more detailed recollections than others.  ...  In contrast, pleasantness judgments appear to be guided primarily by perceptual fluency.  ...  If words that sponsor more detailed recollections encourage participants to make more positive affective judgments in general, the expectation was that words imaged three times during initial encoding  ... 
doi:10.1037/1528-3542.6.4.596 pmid:17144751 fatcat:2ficmpya5bhqfmmptrbgkvn3ny

Context Effects at Encoding and Judgment in Consumption Settings: The Role of Cognitive Resources

Joan Meyers‐Levy, Alice M. Tybout
1997 Journal of Consumer Research  
In this model, the cognitive resources available at encoding determine the type of context effect and the cognitive resources at judgment determine whether the encoding effect of context will be reflected  ...  These encoding effects of context should be evident in later judgments when the nature of either the judgment task or consumers' predisposition toward effortful thought encourage retrieval of the contextencoded  ...  only when either the nature of the judgment encoded information.  ... 
doi:10.1086/209490 fatcat:czsy4zdhozdatko7t3ebfmagv4

The Self-Pleasantness Judgment Modulates the Encoding Performance and the Default Mode Network Activity

Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti, Melanie Cerles, Kylee T. Ramdeen, Naila Boudiaf, Cedric Pichat, Pascal Hot, Monica Baciu
2016 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Thus, we were able to evaluate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant judgments on cerebral activity and incidental encoding.  ...  We discuss these results in terms of the introspective referential of pleasantness judgments and the differential brain modulation based on internally-vs. externally-oriented attention during encoding.  ...  , requires self-generated internal processes rather than processing external cues.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2016.00121 pmid:27047364 pmcid:PMC4796013 fatcat:mlpmwidc4factffahxekf6ywqe

Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information

Stacey L. Danckert, Colin M. MacLeod, Myra A. Fernandes
2011 Memory & Cognition  
In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded  ...  made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study.  ...  Thus, the memory-for-foils effect generalized to an entirely different form of encoding manipulation.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13421-011-0117-9 pmid:21647810 fatcat:xqsmvbqpibaejhxzub7knibcw4

Modality effects in rhythm processing: Auditory encoding of visual rhythms is neither obligatory nor automatic

J. D. Mcauley, M. J. Henry
2010 Attention, Perception & Psychophysics  
A key element of stimulus construction was that the expected pattern of tempo judgments for critical test stimuli depended on a beat-based encoding of the sequence.  ...  A model-based measure of degree of beat-based encoding computed from the pattern of tempo judgments revealed greater beat sensitivity for auditory rhythms than for visual rhythms.  ...  In particular, the pattern of tempo judgments about test rhythms provided us with a novel method for assessing the issue of auditory encoding of visual rhythms and, more generally, modality differences  ... 
doi:10.3758/app.72.5.1377 pmid:20601718 fatcat:7znlqx6xurfdrbqzft4hsy7fai

Error Bars Considered Harmful: Exploring Alternate Encodings for Mean and Error

Michael Correll, Michael Gleicher
2014 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics  
This paper investigates drawbacks with this standard encoding, and considers a set of alternatives designed to more effectively communicate the implications of mean and error data to a general audience  ...  Four encodings for mean and error evaluated in this work.  ...  In order to recommend our alternate encodings for general use, it was important to both confirm that general audiences could generally perform comparison tasks with patterns of uncertainty that were based  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvcg.2014.2346298 pmid:26356928 pmcid:PMC6214189 fatcat:qertnjopvfbbxpazogtpymb6ke
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