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Embracing Events in Causal Modelling: Interventions and Counterfactuals in CP-Logic [chapter]

Joost Vennekens, Maurice Bruynooghe, Marc Denecker
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Using the language of CP-logic, it transposes Pearl's analysis of interventions and counterfactuals to the semantic context of Shafer's probability trees.  ...  There are some tangible benefits to our approach: we can elegantly handle counterfactuals in the context of cyclic causal relations, and are able to consider interventions that are both more fine-grained  ...  In the same way as Shafer's account of causality in terms of Humean events can be seen as a refinement of the RV-based model employed by Pearl, our account of interventions and counterfactuals in CP-logic  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15675-5_27 fatcat:rczwy7lntfbgxe3mjvws3agkce

A Survey of Contrastive and Counterfactual Explanation Generation Methods for Explainable Artificial Intelligence

Ilia Stepin, Jose M. Alonso, Alejandro Catala, Martin Pereira-Farina
2021 IEEE Access  
Moreover, we define a taxonomy regarding both theoretical and practical approaches to contrastive and counterfactual explanation.  ...  We first examine theoretical foundations of contrastive and counterfactual accounts of explanation.  ...  Indeed, counterfactuals are argued to represent a causal relation between the event happened in reality and its imaginary counterpart.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3051315 fatcat:3zupk4jfdncuvj5osdkk7rykdm

Reply to My Friendly Critics

William Hasker
2022 Roczniki Filozoficzne  
I take the essays in the order as printed; as we proceed through them, it will be apparent that there are some interesting, and perhaps unexpected, overlaps in the issues considered.  ...  All of them, however, have things to say that enhance our appreciation and understanding of issues that are important to me, and I trust to many of our readers as well.  ...  She offers an example, stated in terms of an event 1 that occurs at t 1 , and event 2 that occurs at t 2 : It is true that there is a logical dependence between event 2 at time t 2 and God's knowledge  ... 
doi:10.18290/rf2201.12 fatcat:xbxlgdlf6bacxmh4k2423kfjfy

Predictive coding and the strong thesis of cognitive penetrability

Sergio Cermeño-Aínsa
2021 THEORIA : an International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science  
In this paper, I discuss the strong thesis of cognitive penetrability (CPs), to wit, that the perceptual states (P) of a subject (S) are pervasively influenced, affected, or caused by cognitive factors  ...  (C) as expectations, memories, thoughts, goals, and so on, at all levels of perceptual processing.  ...  I would like to thank those in attendance for their critical feedback, as well as to Olga Fernandez Prat for her useful comments and advise.  ... 
doi:10.1387/theoria.21949 fatcat:75n7omxblvftrme4i36id7htoi

Causality Is Logically Definable—Toward an Equilibrium-Based Computing Paradigm of Quantum Agent and Quantum Intelligence (QAQI) (Survey and Research)

Wen-Ran Zhang, Karl E. Peace
2014 Journal of Quantum Information Science  
In the survey, Aristotle's causality principle and its historical extensions by , and the causal set initiative are reviewed; bipolar dynamic logic (BDL) is introduced as a causal logic for bipolar inductive  ...  Despite the widely held view that causality is undefinable with regularity, it is shown that equilibrium-based bipolar causality is logically definable using BDL and BQLA for causal inference in physical  ...  Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge all reviewers of earlier versions of this work for their critical and constructive comments.  ... 
doi:10.4236/jqis.2014.44021 fatcat:no4u6ddglvcsxbjnhh3dcqnouy

Universal vs. particular reasoning: a study with neuroimaging techniques

V. M. Abrusci, C. Casadio, M. T. Medaglia, C. Porcaro
2013 Logic Journal of the IGPL  
and negative polarity of logical operators (connectives and quantifiers).  ...  The theoretical framework of the proposed research is given by recent formulations of linear logic and ludics (Abrusci 2002, 2009, Casadio 2001, in which particular attention is paid to the intrinsic positive  ...  Conclusively, in section III, I shall analyze the manipulationist approach to intervention, and I shall conclude with possible perspectives that can be embraced for future studies. LICENSE TO KILL.  ... 
doi:10.1093/jigpal/jzt008 fatcat:in3heigktvba3p6rt33jnbplgq

Four Theses on Probabilities, Causes, Propensities [chapter]

Mauricio Suárez
2010 Probabilities, Causes and Propensities in Physics  
In other words TP and CP j are not equivalent in the fundamental sense that they do not express the probability of the same event.  ...  This is obvious in the case of logical entailment among properties, which may be modelled as deterministic causation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9904-5_1 fatcat:s42c2fqifzddzjejuspomu65me

Challenges, solutions and future directions in the evaluation of service innovations in health care and public health

Rosalind Raine, Ray Fitzpatrick, Helen Barratt, Gywn Bevan, Nick Black, Ruth Boaden, Peter Bower, Marion Campbell, Jean-Louis Denis, Kelly Devers, Mary Dixon-Woods, Lesley Fallowfield (+24 others)
2016 Health Services and Delivery Research  
HeadlineEvaluating service innovations in health care and public health requires flexibility, collaboration and pragmatism; this collection identifies robust, innovative and mixed methods to inform such  ...  Acknowledgements For their financial support for the meeting in London in 2015 and the subsequent management of the proceedings, the following are very gratefully acknowledged and thanked: The Health Foundation  ...  We would also like to thank Jane Dennett for her help in copy-editing and preparing this manuscript. Any errors and omissions are the responsibility of the authors.  ... 
doi:10.3310/hsdr04160 fatcat:6g54uipbzbgvtjbhlphe3n5t3e

Delivering the aims of the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care: understanding their strategies and contributions

Bryony Soper, Saba Hinrichs, Samuel Drabble, Ohid Yaqub, Sonja Marjanovic, Stephen Hanney, Ellen Nolte
2015 Health Services and Delivery Research  
interventions.  ...  All the CLAHRCs (as collaborations) adopted relationship models.  ...  et al. suggest that many streams of research have explored research diffusion in parallel and attempt to identify the interactions and linkages between them, developing 'a unifying conceptual model' to  ... 
doi:10.3310/hsdr03250 fatcat:bjms74ansjd7pmjgv5j3v3edja

The cognitive and behavioral sciences: Real patterns, real unity, real causes, but no supervenience

Don Ross, David Spurrett
2004 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
It further contends that the problem lies in functionalism itself, and that, to save the causal significance of mind, it is necessary to re-embrace reductionism.  ...  When the different notions of causality are properly distinguished, it is clear that functionalism is in no serious philosophical trouble, and that we need not choose between reducing minds or finding  ...  about the causal network in which an event is embedded.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x04330141 fatcat:kmzyfv52hreaxj4j36pijr5yci

Beyond Descartes and Newton: Recovering life and humanity

Stuart A. Kauffman, Arran Gare
2015 Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology  
Implications for patterns in evolution include historical reconstruction, and statistical laws such as the distribution of extinction events, or species per genus, and the use of formal cause, not efficient  ...  Recent efforts to naturalize phenomenology have both opened new directions in cognitive science and revived interest in phenomenology.  ...  In the case above, however, the Newtonian behavior of the particles is "causal", and General Relativity concerns causally linked events in space-time.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.06.003 pmid:26143598 fatcat:iga4zmhwurcxrprlfnoz45oswy

On the Compatibility of Terror Management Theory and Perspectives on Human Evolution

Mark J. Landau, Sheldon Solomon, Tom Pyszczynski, Jeff Greenberg
2007 Evolutionary Psychology  
; and c) CP is not theoretically plausible and cannot provide a convincing empirical account of evidence supporting TMT.  ...  In this paper, we argue that: a) Navarrete and Fessler do not adequately present either TMT or the empirical evidence in support of it; b) TMT is in no way inconsistent with modern evolutionary biology  ...  In order to control death-related anxiety, worldviews help people comprehend tragedies and other survival-related events by explaining them within a broader system of meaning and causal order.  ... 
doi:10.1177/147470490700500303 fatcat:rvdt7cuckve4ros7ta2d7g2gny

General Remarks on the Theory of Dispositions

Alexius Meinong
2020 1 | 1 | 2020  
application, rather than looking for a peculiar logical form of cp laws.  ...  , prediction and counterfactual reasoning.  ...  also be found in other fields of inner events [inneren Geschehens] and very possibly in every case of such events.  ... 
doi:10.30687/jolma//2020/01/006 fatcat:slytkt4oprh3leohtongqlnqwi

The measurement problem [chapter]

Klaas Landsman
2017 Fundamental Theories of Physics  
Or should we believe that the agreement between theory and experiment concerning our inability to give conditions for a causal course of events is some pre-established harmony that is based on the non-existence  ...  not involve any causal relationship.  ...  , as in the Spehner-Haake model in §11.4.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51777-3_11 fatcat:gn57te653fg73lhqw6zz4zasii

The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping

Berit D. Brouer, Jakob Dirksen, David Pisinger, Christian E.M. Plum, Bo Vaaben
2013 European Journal of Operational Research  
This talk provides an overview of major modeling and computational challenges in the development of deterministic and stochastic linear/nonlinear mixedinteger optimization models for planning and scheduling  ...  In considering the interests of users and investors, the proposed model attempts to determine the number and locations of bike stations, the network structure of bike paths connected between the stations  ...  This model considers future scenarios including high-impact disruptive events and recourse variables anticipating response policies in case of disruptions.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ejor.2012.08.016 fatcat:c27kagfnxnhjfbil2rydhjhomm
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