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Embodiment in conversational interfaces

J. Cassell, T. Bickmore, M. Billinghurst, L. Campbell, K. Chang, H. Vilhjálmsson, H. Yan
1999 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems the CHI is the limit - CHI '99  
Rea supports both social and task-oriented dialogue. We discuss issues that need to be addressed in creating embodied conversational agents, and describe the architecture of the Rea interface.  ...  We demonstrate how to implement this approach in Rea, an embodied conversational agent that is capable of both multimodal input understanding and output generation in a limited application domain.  ...  We then present Rea, and describe how we have begun to implement conversational function in an embodied interface agent.  ... 
doi:10.1145/302979.303150 dblp:conf/chi/CassellBBCCVY99 fatcat:vjinbkrgrjdjzjlbq4ujrbmmpy

Embodied Conversational Agents: Representation and Intelligence in User Interfaces

Justine Cassell
2001 The AI Magazine  
Acknowledgments Thanks to the other members of the REA team-in particular, Timothy Bickmore and Hannes Vilhjálmsson-for their contribution to the work and comments on this article.  ...  in the interface for the embodied interface to be successful.  ...  Other researchers have created embodied interfaces that do rely on the functions of conversation.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v22i4.1593 dblp:journals/aim/Cassell01 fatcat:ortpdclqrrgfbnklgj57hqub7u

Coordination and context-dependence in the generation of embodied conversation

Justine Cassell, Matthew Stone, Hao Yan
2000 Proceedings of the first international conference on Natural language generation - INLG '00  
We describe the generation of communicative actions in an implemented embodied conversational agent.  ...  ways representative of natural human conversation.  ...  In this paper, we have summarized the evidence for this view of human conversation, and shown how it informs the generation of communicative action in our artificial embodied conversational agent, REA.  ... 
doi:10.3115/1118253.1118277 dblp:conf/inlg/CassellSY00 fatcat:k3bbz2rpqrhkpbjw3vu33tmxie

Nonverbal Behavior Generator for Embodied Conversational Agents [chapter]

Jina Lee, Stacy Marsella
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Believable nonverbal behaviors for embodied conversational agents (ECA) can create a more immersive experience for users and improve the effectiveness of communication.  ...  The system works in real-time and is userextensible so that users can easily modify or extend the current behavior generation rules.  ...  Embodied conversational agents (ECA) with appropriate nonverbal behaviors can support interaction with users that ideally mirrors face-to-face human interaction.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11821830_20 fatcat:wj3drk2qjbh4rb4eoeqawhperm

Towards Believable Behavior Generation for Embodied Conversational Agents [chapter]

Andrea Corradini, Morgan Fredriksson, Manish Mehta, Jurgen Königsmann, Niels Ole Bernsen, Lasse Johannesson
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In its first prototype, the system allows for fun and experientially rich interaction between primarily 10 to 18 years old human users and 3D-embodied fairy tale author H.C. Andersen in his study.  ...  User input consists of domainoriented spoken conversation combined with 2D input gesture, entered via a mouse-compatible device.  ...  These interfaces, termed embodied conversational agents (ECAs) [3] , aim both to use and to realize cues inherently peculiar to human-human communication, such as sense of presence, mixed initiative and  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24688-6_121 fatcat:po7jqvygfzc5njmrjgv2b45moq

Multimodal Backchannels for Embodied Conversational Agents [chapter]

Elisabetta Bevacqua, Sathish Pammi, Sylwia Julia Hyniewska, Marc Schröder, Catherine Pelachaud
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
One of the most desirable characteristics of an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) is the capability of interacting with users in a human-like manner.  ...  In this work we propose an improvement of our previous system to generate multimodal backchannel signals on visual and acoustic modalities.  ...  Introduction In the past twenty years several researchers in the human-machine interface field have concentrated their efforts in the development of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs): virtual humanoid  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15892-6_21 fatcat:npxhzpskwzbttozpk22eyuw4y4

Gamble — A Multiuser Game with an Embodied Conversational Agent [chapter]

Matthias Rehm, Michael Wissner
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this article, we present Gamble 1 , a small game of dice that is played by two users and an embodied conversational agent (ECA).  ...  By its abilities to communicate and collaborate, an ECA is well suited for engaging users in entertaining social interactions. Gamble is used as a test bed for such multiuser interactions.  ...  Apart from their conversational skills, the nonverbal behavior and the appearance of embodied interface agents become more and more realistic.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11558651_18 fatcat:yifmzsie2zgdtnvppfii56otm4

Contextual Factors and Adaptative Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction: Multi-level Specification of Emotion and Expressivity in Embodied Conversational Agents [chapter]

Myriam Lamolle, Maurizio Mancini, Catherine Pelachaud, Sarkis Abrilian, Jean-Claude Martin, Laurence Devillers
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) model able to display rich verbal and non-verbal behaviors.  ...  not only on factors related to her individuality such as her culture, her social and professional role, her personality, but also on a set of contextual variables (such as her interlocutor, the social conversation  ...  We are very grateful to Bjoern Hartmann for implementing the expressive behavior module and to Vincent Maya for his help in this project.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11508373_17 fatcat:363bu2qhmvcffawrokmea32zzu

Analysis of Empathic Dialogue in Actual Doctor-Patient Calls and Implications for Design of Embodied Conversational Agents

Sana Salman, Deborah Richards, Patrina Caldwell
2021 Italian Journal of Computational Linguistics  
Children's Hospital at Westmead Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are virtual agents that exhibit humanlike verbal and non-verbal behaviours.  ...  In order to make ECAs more effective, humanlike empathy expressed during conversation through relational cues is essential.  ...  Introduction Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are virtual agents that exhibit humanlike verbal and non-verbal behaviours.  ... 
doi:10.4000/ijcol.862 fatcat:fh24sntyxzdu5dkalojqedixzy

External manifestations of trustworthiness in the interface

Justine Cassell, Timothy Bickmore
2000 Communications of the ACM  
Here we are going to argue that interaction rituals among humans, such as greetings, small talk and conventional leavetakings, along with their manifestations in speech and in embodied conversational behaviors  ...  Introduction This article is about the kind of trust that is demonstrated in human face-to-face interaction, and approaches to and benefits of having our computer interfaces depend on these same manifestations  ...  Embodied Conversational Agents In the Gesture and Narrative Language Group at the MIT Media Lab, we have been developing Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) for the last several years.  ... 
doi:10.1145/355112.355123 fatcat:2kx2ikmo3rczrpt5jnfcn7hv5m

The READY Model: Patterns of Dynamic Behavior in REA-Based Accounting Applications

Dinesh Batra, Thant Sin
2008 Information systems management  
The actor interacts with the interface, and the interface communicates with the control object, which acts as a director managing the exchange of messages and data.  ...  This underlying pattern can The READY Model 209 be found in the key revenue, expenditure, and conversion accounting cycles.  ... 
doi:10.1080/10580530802151103 fatcat:hwwkgdremfgj5dzcztxgcvxeja

Financial Information Systems: Teaching REA semantics within an Information Engineering framework

J. Callaghan, A. Savage, E. Peacock
2002 South African Journal of Accounting Research  
The purpose of this paper is to describe how the accounting REA model can be incorporated into the Information Engineering set of methodologies in the Accounting or Financial Information Systems classroom  ...  We contrast the traditional Information Engineering approach with one that includes REA modeling.  ...  We evaluated the content of our courses against the standards of the International Federation of Accountants' International Education Guideline No. 11, "Information Technology In The Accounting Curriculum  ... 
doi:10.1080/10291954.2002.11435102 fatcat:7cj27ln3bvadtp2zoulech6vjy

More than just a pretty face

J. Cassell, T. Bickmore, H. Vilhjálmsson, H. Yan
2000 Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces - IUI '00  
In this paper, we argue that embodiment can serve an even stronger function if system designers use actual human conversational protocols in the design of the interface.  ...  We discuss how these protocols are integrated into Rea, an embodied, multi-modal conversational interface agent who acts as a real-estate salesperson, and we show why embodiment is required for their successful  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to the other members of the Rea team -Lee Campbell, David Mellis and Nina Yu -and to Jennifer Smith for their contribution to the work and comments on this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/325737.325781 dblp:conf/iui/CassellBVY00 fatcat:cbjigveprzc7bjvurwjdjaslpi

Still Not Solved: A Call for Renewed Focus on User-Centered Teleoperation Interfaces

Daniel J. Rea, Stela H. Seo
2022 Frontiers in Robotics and AI  
Teleoperation is one of the oldest applications of human-robot interaction, yet decades later, robots are still difficult to control in a variety of situations, especially when used by non-expert robot  ...  Research has made great progress by improving the capabilities of robots, and exploring a variety of interfaces to improve operator performance, but many non-expert applications of teleoperation are limited  ...  Interfaces could even present information to create a specific state in the operator to affect future teleoperation (Rea and Young, 2019a; Rea et al., 2020) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/frobt.2022.704225 pmid:35425813 pmcid:PMC9002051 fatcat:wbci5dl5bzakbjya25uq3ts54i


Luca Chittaro, Fabio Buttussi, Daniele Nadalutti
2006 Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces - AVI '06  
Embodied agents are employed in several applications (e.g. computer-based presentations, help systems, e-learning and training, sign language communication for the deaf), but the process of developing  ...  Moreover, although mobile devices have recently reached a performance level that allows them to manage 3D graphics, most embodied agents run on desktop computers only.  ...  Rea has been designed to respond to visual, audio and speech cues normally used in face to face conversation and to generate these cues when it talks.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1133265.1133337 dblp:conf/avi/ChittaroBN06 fatcat:dks3jxv35va33cjwswuuirm4z4
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