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Argumentative XAI: A Survey [article]

Kristijonas Čyras, Antonio Rago, Emanuele Albini, Pietro Baroni, Francesca Toni
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Figure 3 : 3 Complete post-hoc explanations for PageRank [Albini et al., 2020a] . (i) Graphical representation of three webpages as nodes, with edges showing (hyper)links between them.  ...  With regards to probabilistic methods, [Albini et al., 2020a] represent web graphs, with webpages as nodes and (hyper)links as edges, with equivalent QBA frameworks in order to explain PageRank scores  ... 
arXiv:2105.11266v1 fatcat:rnvydntysfa5tdzwzoj52gsac4

Counterfactual Shapley Additive Explanations [article]

Emanuele Albini, Jason Long, Danial Dervovic, Daniele Magazzeni
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Feature attributions are a common paradigm for model explanations due to their simplicity in assigning a single numeric score for each input feature to a model. In the actionable recourse setting, wherein the goal of the explanations is to improve outcomes for model consumers, it is often unclear how feature attributions should be correctly used. With this work, we aim to strengthen and clarify the link between actionable recourse and feature attributions. Concretely, we propose a variant of
more » ... ose a variant of SHAP, CoSHAP, that uses counterfactual generation techniques to produce a background dataset for use within the marginal (a.k.a. interventional) Shapley value framework. We motivate the need within the actionable recourse setting for careful consideration of background datasets when using Shapley values for feature attributions, alongside the requirement for monotonicity, with numerous synthetic examples. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of CoSHAP by proposing and justifying a quantitative score for feature attributions, counterfactual-ability, showing that as measured by this metric, CoSHAP is superior to existing methods when evaluated on public datasets using monotone tree ensembles.
arXiv:2110.14270v2 fatcat:fvefbc5y3nbmvegfjl46xqew5u

Influence-Driven Explanations for Bayesian Network Classifiers [article]

Antonio Rago, Emanuele Albini, Pietro Baroni, Francesca Toni
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Some methods exist for accommodating intermediate components in counterfactual explanations (CFXs) of BCs [Albini et al., 2020] .  ...  For this we adapt the following from [Albini et al., 2020] . De nition 2. The set of in uences is the (acyclic) relation I = {( , ) ∈ X × C ( , ) ∈ D}.  ... 
arXiv:2012.05773v3 fatcat:3gt67wdyh5frlfbbh4fwpfiyyi

Deep Argumentative Explanations [article]

Emanuele Albini, Piyawat Lertvittayakumjorn, Antonio Rago, Francesca Toni
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Some explanation methods, like our DAXs, make use of symbolic representations: whereas we use GAFs, others use, for example, in uences between variables [Albini et al., 2020] , ordered decision diagrams  ...  ; and a form of tripolar argumentation frameworks (TAFs), where = 3, R 1 is attack and R 2 , R 3 are two di erent forms of support (potential and critical, to support counterfactual reasoning as in [Albini  ... 
arXiv:2012.05766v4 fatcat:66qelbm4wzenzbfxllqckxswza

Relation-Based Counterfactual Explanations for Bayesian Network Classifiers

Emanuele Albini, Antonio Rago, Pietro Baroni, Francesca Toni
2020 Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
We propose a general method for generating counterfactual explanations (CFXs) for a range of Bayesian Network Classifiers (BCs), e.g. single- or multi-label, binary or multidimensional. We focus on explanations built from relations of (critical and potential) influence between variables, indicating the reasons for classifications, rather than any probabilistic information. We show by means of a theoretical analysis of CFXs' properties that they serve the purpose of indicating (potentially)
more » ... (potentially) pivotal factors in the classification process, whose absence would give rise to different classifications. We then prove empirically for various BCs that CFXs provide useful information in real world settings, e.g. when race plays a part in parole violation prediction, and show that they have inherent advantages over existing explanation methods in the literature.
doi:10.24963/ijcai.2020/63 dblp:conf/ijcai/AlbiniRBT20 fatcat:kdpixr25nng3xk4w5r5urhbiua

Serological Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Health Care Workers Employed in a Large Tertiary Hospital in Lombardy, Northern Italy

Agnese Comelli, Emanuele Focà, Emanuele Sansone, Cesare Tomasi, Elisa Albini, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Lina Rachele Tomasoni, Emma Sala, Carlo Bonfanti, Francesca Caccuri, Arnaldo Caruso, Giuseppe De Palma (+1 others)
2021 Microorganisms  
(Emanuele Sansone), E.F.: Conceptualization, Data curation, Investigation, Writing-original draft preparation; E.S. (Emma Sala), F.C.  ... 
doi:10.3390/microorganisms9030488 pmid:33669151 pmcid:PMC7996483 fatcat:ccakokbizzakjgpxx5sjop5k2u

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers

Emanuele Sansone, Emma Sala, Mara Tiraboschi, Elisa Albini, Massimo Lombardo, Annamaria Indelicato, Cristina Rosati, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Francesco Castelli, Giuseppe De Palma
2021 La Medicina del lavoro  
The present study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of BNT162b2 among HCWs of a university hospital while a recrudescence of pandemics was hitting the province, with a high rate of the B.1.1.7 variant. Methods: The study was performed in the context of health surveillance at the workplaces. We monitored the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 symptoms among HCWs classified by having received the entire vaccine schedule or not; the latter further classified in not vaccinated workers and
more » ... ated workers and workers who had received the first shot more than 14 days earlier. The SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed by conventional RT-PCR on rhino-pharyngeal swabs, followed by gene sequencing in positive vaccinated HCWs. The cumulative incidence of infections in the period was normalised to 100,000 people. Results: At the end of the observation period, HCWs that had completed the full schedule were at lower infection risk than both unvaccinated HCWs and the workforce who had not yet gained the complete theoretical protection from the vaccine (by 2.4-folds). Overall, ninety-two SARS-CoV-2 infections were observed among HCWs, mostly among not protected workers (52 cases) but none of them showed symptoms requiring hospitalisation. Conclusions: The vaccination campaign effectively reduced the appearance of symptoms and the incidence of infections among vaccinated HCWs. Among vaccinated HCWs, gene sequencing was possible in five cases only, 4 B.1.1.7 and 1 B1.525 variants. The high rate of unsuccessful gene sequencing observed among infected vaccinated workers could be explained by a low viral burden. Vaccination for COVID-19 should be mandatory in occupational settings with a high infective risk.
doi:10.23749/mdl.v112i3.11747 pmid:34142670 pmcid:PMC8223934 fatcat:5inzeb4j4vewrdwv5b7jimrfeu

Factors underlying the development of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy in autoimmune encephalitis

Sara Casciato, Alessandra Morano, Jinane Fattouch, Martina Fanella, Federica Avorio, Mariarita Albini, Luca Manfredi Basili, Emanuele Cerulli Irelli, Alessandro Viganò, Marco De Risi, Liliana G. Grammaldo, Alfredo D'Aniello (+6 others)
2019 Journal of the Neurological Sciences  
A B S T R A C T Purpose: Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune condition characterized by amnestic syndrome, psychiatric features and seizures. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial to avoid long-term sequelae, including psycho-cognitive deficits and persisting seizures. The aim of our study was to analyze the characteristics of 33 LE patients in order to identify possible prognostic factors associated with the development of chronic epilepsy. Methods: This is a retrospective
more » ... a retrospective cohort study including adult patients diagnosed with LE in the period 2010-2017 and followed up for ≥12 months. Demographics, seizure semiology, EEG pattern, MRI features, CSF/ serum findings were reviewed. Results: All 33 LE patients (19 M/14F, mean age 61.2 years) presented seizures. Thirty subjects had memory deficits; 22 presented behavioural/mood disorders. Serum and/or CSF auto-antibodies were detected in 12 patients. In 31 subjects brain MRI at onset showed typical alterations involving temporal lobes. All patients received immunotherapy. At follow-up, 13/33 had developed chronic epilepsy; predisposing factors included delay in diagnosis (p = .009), low seizure frequency at onset (p = .02), absence of amnestic syndrome (p = .02) and absence/rarity of inter-ictal epileptic discharges on EEG (p = .06). Conclusions: LE with paucisymptomatic electro-clinical presentation seemed to be associated to chronic epilepsy more than LE presenting with definite and severe "limbic syndrome".
doi:10.1016/j.jns.2018.10.026 fatcat:ucghd6nclfdxpkg2rjgvbaemne

Survival in HIV-Infected Patients after a Cancer Diagnosis in the cART Era: Results of an Italian Multicenter Study

Daria Gotti, Elena Raffetti, Laura Albini, Laura Sighinolfi, Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Nicoletta Ladisa, Gioacchino Angarano, Giuseppe Lapadula, Angelo Pan, Anna Degli Esposti, Massimiliano Fabbiani (+5 others)
2014 PLoS ONE  
Objectives: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) diagnosis in the modern cART era. Methods: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993
more » ... Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. Results : Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51%) were ADCs and 431 (49%) were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%62.9% vs. 46%64.2%; p = 0.017). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%64.3% vs. 72.8%64.0% vs. 78.5%69.9%; p,0.001). Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%614%) than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%68.7%), liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%66.4%) or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%611.2%). Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. Conclusions: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094768 pmid:24760049 pmcid:PMC3997420 fatcat:5upxbbufl5e6jopzze6kuqdusa

Prospective evaluation of bone markers, parathormone and 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D in HIV-positive patients after the initiation of tenofovir/emtricitabine with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz

Emanuele Focà, Davide Motta, Marco Borderi, Daria Gotti, Laura Albini, Alessandra Calabresi, Ilaria Izzo, Rita Bellagamba, Pasquale Narciso, Laura Sighinolfi, Alberto Clò, Davide Gibellini (+5 others)
2012 BMC Infectious Diseases  
Increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been associated with the use of antiretroviral drugs. There is a paucity of prospective evaluations of bone markers after the initiation of drugs currently recommended to treat HIV infection and results on the evolution of these markers are conflicting. Lastly, the effect of tenofovir on 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D is uncertain. Methods: We performed a prospective study on the evolution of bone markers, parathormone and 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D before
more » ... vitamin D before and after standard antiretroviral regimens. This was a sub-study of a trial conducted in antiretroviral-naïve patients randomized to tenofovir + emtricitabine in combination with either atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). Follow-up lasted 48 weeks. The following bone markers were analyzed: C-terminal cross-laps (CTx), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL). Mixed-factorial analysis of variance with random-coefficient general linear model was used to compare their trends over time and linear multivariable regression was performed with a backward selection method to assess predictors of their variations from baseline to week 48. Trends of parathormone and 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D were also evaluated. Results: Seventy-five patients were studied: 33 received EFV and 42 ATV/r. Significant increases were found for all markers except for RANKL. There was a significant direct association between CTx and OC increases. Multivariable analysis showed that higher glomerular filtration rate (estimated through cystatin C clearance) predicted greater OPG increase, while older age, higher HIV RNA at baseline and use of ATV/r predicted greater CTx increase. A significant increase of parathormone accompanied the evolution of the study markers. 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D remained stable, though a seasonality variation was demonstrated. Conclusions: These data demonstrate CTx increase (bone resorption marker) corresponding to OC increase (bone formation marker) early upon HAART initiation. Moreover, predictors of bone marker increases have been suggested, possibly indicating that a stricter monitoring of bone health and pro-active interventions are needed in older patients, those with higher HIV RNA, prescribed ATV/r rather than EFV, and with decreased renal function at baseline. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for up-regulation of bone turnover markers, as well as to understand if and what markers are best correlated or predictive of pathological fractures.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-38 pmid:22333484 pmcid:PMC3296645 fatcat:qt6rvgz3ijc4rbpabsyxeplxva

A Randomized, Pilot Trial to Evaluate Glomerular Filtration Rate by Creatinine or Cystatin C in Naive HIV-Infected Patients After Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Combination With Atazanavir/Ritonavir or Efavirenz

Laura Albini, Bruno Mario Cesana, Davide Motta, Emanuele Focà, Daria Gotti, Alessandra Calabresi, Ilaria Izzo, Rita Bellagamba, Rita Fezza, Pasquale Narciso, Laura Sighinolfi, Paolo Maggi (+5 others)
2012 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes  
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation based on creatinine or cystatine C may be more accurate methods especially in patients without chronic kidney disease. There is lack of data on GFR estimated by these methods in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients were randomized to tenofovir/emtricitabine in association with atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz
more » ... ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV) Patients had to have an actual creatinine clearance .50 mL/minute (24-hour urine collection) and were followed for 48 weeks. Results: Ninety-one patients (48 ATV/r, 43 EFV) were recruited. Using the CKD-EPI creatinine formula, there was a significant decrease in GFR up to week 48 in patients receiving ATV/r (4.9 mL/minute/m 2 , P = 0.02) compared with a not statistically significant increment in patients prescribed EFV. Using the cystatin C-based equation, we found greater decrease in GFR in both arms, although, in the EFV arm, the decrease was not statistically significant (5.8 mL/minute/m 2 , P = 0.92). At multivariable analysis, ATV/r was a significant predictor of greater decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P = 0.0046) only with CKD-EPI creatinine. Conclusions: ATV/r plus tenofovir caused greater GFR decreases compared with EFV. The evaluation of eGFR by cystatin C confirmed this result, but this method seemed to be more stringent, probably precluding the possibility to detect a significant difference in the pattern of eGFR evolution between the two arms over time. More studies are needed to understand the clinical relevance of these alterations and whether cystatin C is a more appropriate method for monitoring GFR in clinical practice.
doi:10.1097/qai.0b013e31823a6124 pmid:21992924 fatcat:uirrx6yicfh5dihmj5y5g254wm

Argumentative XAI: A Survey

Kristijonas Čyras, Antonio Rago, Emanuele Albini, Pietro Baroni, Francesca Toni
2021 Proceedings of the Thirtieth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence   unpublished
Figure 3 : 3 Complete post-hoc explanations for PageRank [Albini et al., 2020a] . (i) Graphical representation of three webpages as nodes, with edges showing (hyper)links between them.  ...  With regards to probabilistic methods, [Albini et al., 2020a] represent web graphs, with webpages as nodes and (hyper)links as edges, with equivalent QBA frameworks in order to explain PageRank scores  ... 
doi:10.24963/ijcai.2021/600 fatcat:rftaehqwgjg55ph35foswezk5e

PUTOPISNI ZAPIS JEDNOG ITALIJANSKOG DOBROVOLJCA O CRNOJ GORI U VRIJEME BALKANSKIH RATOVA / DIARIO DI VIAGGIO DI UN VOLONTARIO ITALIANO SUL MONTENEGRO DURANTE LE GUERRE BALCANICHE

Olivera Popović, Slavko Burzanović
2020 Folia linguistica et litteraria  
possibili influenze di queste opere sulla rappresentazione del Montenegro e dei Montenegrini nel manoscritto di Albini.  ...  L'articolo tratta il diario di viaggio del volontario italiano Pierluigi Albini, che visitò il Montenegro durante la Prima guerra balcanica (1912-1913).  ...  Od 1896. godine, kada se italijanski princ preslonaslijednik Viktor Emanuel oženio crnogorskom princezom Jelenom Petrović-Njegoš, italijanski mediji su počeli da prate i značajnije događaje na crnogorskom  ... 
doi:10.31902/fll.33.2020.7 fatcat:dv5ye2ankfeb5eqdbccknkw2j4

Page 276 of Notes and Queries Vol. 8, Issue 197 [page]

1883 Notes and Queries  
Emanuel Hospital, Westminster. Saypwicnu Men (6 S§. viii. 204).  ...  This was one of the properties settled by the Conqueror upon William de Albini, Earl of Arundel.  ... 

Page 766 of Nuova Antologia, Revista Di Lettere, Scienze Ed Arti Vol. 175, Issue [page]

1901 Nuova Antologia, Revista Di Lettere, Scienze Ed Arti  
Pullè, Giuseppe Albini e Severino Ferrari, è stato dettato in latino.  ...  Vittorio Emanuele III per mezzo del colonnello d’ artiglieria Silvestre le insegne del Gran Cordone della Legion d’Onore, la maggiore onorificenza francese. — Il Comitato carducciano per le onoranze a  ... 
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