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A document can be in various formats, from text, photo and drawing to audio or multimedia (Khazraee et al., 2008) . The information architecture must meet three main criteria. ... Aratta is being developed as a web-based research tool which allows note taking along with establishment of semantic relations between notes as well as providing reference management services (Khazraee ...doi:10.1108/00012531111103777 fatcat:dxbi5tybwjhsbp47vnxx5jojfu
Emad Khazraee Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. ... We previously argued (Khazraee & Novak, 2015) that MSF, by its nature, is an exemplar of connective action. ... It also can be considered as a digital repertoire in the context of contentious politics in Iran (Khazraee & Losey, 2016) . ...doi:10.1177/2056305118765740 fatcat:76w2jjcohfhffec4xctkipd5cu
This study argues that the relationship between new information and communication technologies (ICT) and social movements should be done from a socio-technical perspective. In the present study, we broaden this perspective and use Actor-Network Theory (ANT) to better understand the relationship between social media (as a new ICT) and social movements. From the perspective of ANT, one cannot define unidirectional causal relationships between the social and the technical. New technicaldoi:10.29173/irie303 fatcat:p7qc4i6d6fdavfiu73j37yskbu
more »... s create opportunities to change the social order and in the meantime technologies are transformed and are adapted differently by humans. Preliminary findings examining the use of Facebook among Iranians, applying the aforementioned relational sociology perspective based on ANT, suggest that the role new ICTs play in social movements and social change is not linear and constant through time. The impact of new ICTs might be different considering different stages in a social movement timeline. In fact, there may be a stage where ICTs actually function as a sort of pressurerelease value, allowing individuals to remain content within the status quo rather than choosing to pursue more radical goals. We propose the utilization of the two concepts of "durability" and "mobility", from ANT literature, to better understand the potential of online social networking technologies for social change. We suggest three different time stages as short (emergence of movements), mid (development or decline of movements), and late stage (the movement's continuation, survival or disappearance through time) to be considered in the study of relationship between social media and social change.
Communications in Computer and Information Science
Data production in history and archaeology far outpaces data processing. In order to apply computers to this problem, historical data must be converted to machine-readable forms. This process is easy for domains of knowledge that have explicit terminology, but history and archaeology lack these characteristics. This study therefore proposes a phenomenological approach to requirements gathering for knowledge representation and ontology systems for historians and archaeologists. The approachdoi:10.1007/978-3-642-24731-6_38 fatcat:7mtpx6ru3zfddco44reu6qmoge
more »... zes qualitative and ethnographic research methods to gather data on practitioners' reasoning and knowledge practices. The design requirements for ontology design can be extracted from the 'thick description' produced by this process, and used to build 'practice-based ontologies.' This paper presents the theoretical framework and early outcomes of ethnographic research with archaeologists in practice at the University of Pennsylvania.
During the Egyptian protests, the government shut down the entire Internet for almost five days (Interact SpA) In a provocatively titled article, Emad Khazraee and Kristene Unsworth propose that the relationship ... Following this approach in an exploratory analysis of the use of Facebook among Iranians, Khazraee and Unsworth conclude that social media can have counter-effects in the mid-stage of a social movement ...doi:10.29173/irie323 fatcat:ligap47yone6nggxj23bfwtgoy
In a provocatively titled article, Emad Khazraee and Kristene Unsworth propose that the relationship between new ICTs and social movements should be examined from a socio-technical perspective. ... Finding a Way: How Iranians Reach for News International Review of Information Ethics Vol. 18 (12/2012) Emad Khazraee, Kristene Unsworth: Social media: The new opiate of the masses? ...fatcat:r7zkmr72affbdm6dr42nmeoiby