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Élisabeth Fournier-Charrière Élisabeth Fournier-Charrière, pédiatre, praticien hospitalier à temps partiel dans l'Unité de prise en charge de la douleur et des soins palliatifs de l'adulte et de l'enfant ...doi:10.3917/spi.042.0034 fatcat:3gorymapljhvzpawwvkx7whojy
The attempts to explain the unpredictability of extent of spinal block provided by plain local anesthetic solutions have resulted in many clinical reports; however, causes of this uncertainty are as yet unknown. Recently, normal values of the human cerebrospinal fluid densities have been studied showing important interindividual variations, especially between females and males. The current study was designed to evaluate as primary endpoint the influence of cerebrospinal fluid density values ondoi:10.1097/00000542-200206000-00010 pmid:12170043 fatcat:fxfi63ot4vd6fgpklewnda4s2u
more »... he extent of spinal block with plain bupivacaine. The ancillary endpoints were search of factors explaining the interindividual differences in cerebrospinal fluid density values reported and determination of the relation between upper extent and regression of spinal anesthesia. Methods: Sixty-four consecutive patients undergoing peripheral orthopedic surgery with spinal block were enrolled. Spinal anesthesia was performed in the lateral decubitus position with the operated side upward. Two milliliters of cerebrospinal fluid was sampled before injection of 3 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%. The patient was immediately turned supine and remained in the horizontal position until the end of the study. Maximal sensory block level and time to sensory regression to L4 were determined for each patient enrolled. Cerebrospinal fluid and bupivacaine densities as well as cerebrospinal proteins, glucose, sodium, and chloride concentrations were measured. Results: A highly significant correlation between cerebrospinal fluid density and maximal sensory block level was found (P ؍ 0.0004). However, this correlation was poorly predictive (R 2 ؍ 0.37). Cerebrospinal fluid density, proteins, and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in men than in women: 1.000567 ؎ 0.000091 versus 1.000501 ؎ 0.000109 g/ml (P ؍ 0.014), 0.46 ؎ 0.18 versus 0.32 ؎ 0.13 g/l (P ؍ 0.001), and 3.27 ؎ 0.7 versus 2.93 ؎ 0.5 mM (P ؍ 0.023), respectively. A highly significant (P ؍ 0.0004) and predictive (R 2 ؍ 0.73) inverse correlation was found between maximal upper sensory extent and sensory regression to L4. Conclusion: These findings indicate an influence of cerebrospinal fluid density on subarachnoid distribution of 3 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5% and show that with higher cerebrospinal fluid densities, a higher spinal block level can be expected.
Acoustic scattering by N cylinders is studied by extending an approach developed in quantum mechanics by Korringa, Kohn and Rostoker and more recently by Berry.~c S-matrix is constructed from two sets of coefficients defining the partial waves and their gradients on the boundaries of the cylinders. mat me[hod permits us easily to integrate symmetry considerations by expanding the S-matrix on the irreducible representations of the symmetry group of the scatterer Special configurations presentingdoi:10.1121/1.421891 fatcat:fkl6enfronafznpn5u3sg36sta
more »... discrete C2U and C3U symmetries are examined (two identical cylinders, and three identical cylinders located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle).~e scattering resonances (poles of the S-matrix) are then numerically obtained and partially classified for various boundary conditions. Our work is a step towards a complctc study of chaos (linked to statistical properties of the S-matrix) in the context of multiple scattering.
We consider numerically the flow of an electrically conducting fluid in a differentially rotating spherical shell, in a dipolar magnetic field. For infinitesimal differential rotation the flow consists of a super-rotating region, concentrated on the particular field line C just touching the outer sphere, in agreement with previous results. Finite differential rotation suppresses this super-rotation, and pushes it inward, toward the equator of the inner sphere. For sufficiently strongdoi:10.1016/j.euromechflu.2007.02.002 fatcat:vkrxi4tzzrepnkawkc6owqtsvu
more »... l rotation the outer boundary layer becomes unstable, yielding time-dependent solutions. Adding an overall rotation suppresses these instabilities again. The results are in qualitative agreement with the DTS liquid sodium experiment.
The increasing availability of fungal genome sequences provides large numbers of proteins for evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses. However the heterogeneity of data, including the quality of genome annotation and the difficulty of retrieving true orthologs, makes such investigations challenging. The aim of this study was to provide a reliable and integrated resource of orthologous gene families to perform comparative and phylogenetic analyses in fungi. Description: FUNYBASE is a databasedoi:10.1186/1471-2105-9-456 pmid:18954438 pmcid:PMC2600828 fatcat:vedb7iomvrcyfcsflkfvhswnlq
more »... cated to the analysis of fungal single-copy genes extracted from available fungal genomes sequences, their classification into reliable clusters of orthologs, and the assessment of their informative value for phylogenetic reconstruction based on amino acid sequences. The current release of FUNYBASE contains two types of protein data: (i) a complete set of protein sequences extracted from 30 public fungal genomes and classified into clusters of orthologs using a robust automated procedure, and (ii) a subset of 246 reliable ortholog clusters present as single copy genes in 21 fungal genomes. For each of these 246 ortholog clusters, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed based on their amino acid sequences. To assess the informative value of each ortholog cluster, each was compared to a reference species tree constructed using a concatenation of roughly half of the 246 sequences that are best approximated by the WAG evolutionary model. The orthologs were classified according to a topological score, which measures their ability to recover the same topology as the reference species tree. The full results of these analyses are available on-line with a user-friendly interface that allows for searches to be performed by species name, the ortholog cluster, various keywords, or using the BLAST algorithm. Examples of fruitful utilization of FUNYBASE for investigation of fungal phylogenetics are also presented. Conclusion: FUNYBASE constitutes a novel and useful resource for two types of analyses: (i) comparative studies can be greatly facilitated by reliable clusters of orthologs across sets of user-defined fungal genomes, and (ii) phylogenetic reconstruction can be improved by identifying genes with the highest informative value at the desired taxonomic level.
Fournier and Michel Loreau 236 Elisabeth Fournier and Michel Loreau # 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd, Ecological Entomology, 26, 235±244 Elisabeth Fournier and Michel Loreau 244 Elisabeth Fournier ... Fournier, Unite Â PMDV, INRA, Route de Saint-Cyr, F-78000 France. ...doi:10.1046/j.1365-2311.2001.00314.x fatcat:jnjd72efa5c4dftka5fvchclxe
Although they represent powerful genetic markers in many fields of biology, microsatellites have been isolated in few fungal species. The aim of this study was to assess whether obtaining microsatellite markers with an acceptable level of polymorphism is generally harder from fungi than in other organisms. We therefore surveyed the number, nature and polymorphism level of published microsatellite markers in fungi from the literature and from our own data on seventeen fungaldoi:10.1016/j.fgb.2007.05.003 pmid:17659989 fatcat:7aehzjsuxfeixdazplvbjayii4
more »... ed libraries, and in five other phylogroups (angiosperms, insects, fishes, birds and mammals). Fungal microsatellites indeed appeared both harder to isolate and to exhibit lower polymorphism than in other organisms. This appeared to be due, at least in part, to genomic specificities, such as scarcity and shortness of fungal microsatellite loci. A correlation was observed between mean repeat number and mean allele number in the published fungal microsatellite loci. The cross-species transferability of fungal microsatellites also appeared lower than in other phylogroups. However, microsatellites have been useful in some fungal species. Thus, the considerable advantages of these markers make their development worthwhile, and this study provides some guidelines for their isolation.
In a previous study (Fournier and Loreau, 1999 ) P. melanarius was found to be the most abundant species in the study area. ... On this farm, hedges (maximum height: 2 m) were planted during the winter 1994-1995 (Fournier and Loreau, 1999) , and remained totally undisturbed. ...doi:10.1016/s0167-8809(01)00216-x fatcat:5mkw2wgtpvectpzv3crr6kkptq
., Koufopanou et al. 1997; Geiser et al. 1998; O'Donnell et al. 2000; 2001 , Dettman et al. 2003a Kasuga et al. 2003; Staats et al. 2005; Pringle et al. 2005; Fournier et al. 2005) , which use the phylogenetic ...doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00002.x pmid:17300424 fatcat:vcsywygaabf4fffk4ywwck4xaq
Natural variation in plant pathogens has an impact on food security and ecosystem health. The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae, which limits rice production in all rice-growing areas, is structured into multiple lineages. Diversification and the maintenance of multiple rice blast lineages have been proposed to be due to separation in different areas and differential adaptation to rice subspecies. However, the precise world distribution of rice blast populations, and the factors controllingdoi:10.1101/2020.06.02.129296 fatcat:heibigkiifajjab5r7fgupfgti
more »... heir presence and maintenance in the same geographic areas, remain largely unknown. We used genotyping data for 886 isolates from more than 185 locations in 51 countries to show that P. oryzae is structured into one recombining and three clonal lineages, each with broad geographic distributions. No evidence was found for admixture in clonal lineages, and crossing experiments revealed that female sterility and early postmating genetic incompatibilities acted as strong barriers to gene flow between these lineages. An analysis of climatic and geographic data indicated that the four lineages of P. oryzae were found in areas differing in terms of the prevailing environmental conditions and types of rice grown. Pathogenicity tests with representatives of the five main rice subspecies revealed differences in host range between pathogenic lineages, highlighting a contribution of specialization to niche separation between lineages, despite co-existence on the same host species. Our results demonstrate that the spread of a pathogen across heterogeneous habitats and divergent populations of a crop species can lead to niche separation and incipient speciation in the pathogen.
The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae) is both a threat to global food security and a model for plant pathology. Molecular pathologists need an accurate understanding of the origins and line of descent of M. oryzae populations, to identify the genetic and functional bases of pathogen adaptation, and to guide the development of more effective control strategies. We used a whole-genome sequence analysis of samples from different times and places to infer details aboutdoi:10.1101/179895 fatcat:hxxsdj4furbydk2i2c44sngy2a
more »... he genetic makeup of M. oryzae from a global collection of isolates. Analyses of population structure identified six lineages within M. oryzae, including two pandemic on japonica and indica rice, respectively, and four lineages with more restricted distributions. Tip-dating calibration indicated that M. oryzae lineages separated about a millenium ago, long after the initial domestication of rice. The major lineage endemic to continental Southeast Asia displayed signatures of sexual recombination and evidence of DNA acquisition from multiple lineages. Tests for weak natural selection revealed that the pandemic spread of clonal lineages entailed an evolutionary 'cost', in terms of the accumulation of deleterious mutations. Our findings reveal the coexistence of multiple endemic and pandemic lineages with contrasting population and genetic characteristics within a widely distributed pathogen.
Identifying targets to improve parental practices for managing fever in children is the first step to reducing the overloaded healthcare system related to this common symptom. We aimed to study parents' knowledge and practices and their determinants in managing fever symptoms in children in France as compared with current recommendations. Methods: We conducted an observational national study between 2007 and 2008 of French general practitioners, primary care pediatricians and pharmacists. Thesedoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083469 pmid:24391772 pmcid:PMC3877061 fatcat:nbwthqtteva6ta2rxbtvei3mmy
more »... healthcare professionals (HPs) were asked to include 5 consecutive patients from 1 month to 12 years old with fever for up to 48 hr who were accompanied by a family member. Parents completed a questionnaire about their knowledge of fever in children and their attitudes about the current fever episode. We used a multilevel logistic regression model to assess the joint effects of patient-and HP-level variables. Results: In all, 1,534 HPs (participation rate 13%) included 6,596 children. Parental concordance with current recommendations for temperature measurement methods, the threshold for defining fever, and physical (oral hydration, undressing, room temperature) and drug treatment was 89%, 61%, 15%, and 23%, respectively. Multivariate multi-level analyses revealed a significant HP effect. In general, high concordance with recommendations was associated with high educational level of parents and the HP consulted being a pediatrician. Conclusions: In France, parents' knowledge and practices related to managing fever symptoms in children frequently differ from recommendations. Targeted health education interventions are needed to effectively manage fever symptoms in children.
Fournier & T. Giraud, pers. commun.) . ... Moreover, the genotyping with microsatellite markers (Fournier et al., 2002) of 10 French populations of B. cinerea Group II sampled on grapevine and bramble showed that gene flow was slightly but significantly ...doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00930.x pmid:17986079 fatcat:h2cmxfuhdbdbhno4yoojdcaszm
Wheat blast is a devastating disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Pyricularia oryzae. Wheat blast first emerged in South America before more recently reaching Bangladesh. Even though the pathogen can spread locally by air-dispersed spores, long-distance spread is likely to occur via infected wheat seed or grain. Wheat blast epidemics are caused by a genetic lineage of the fungus, called the Triticum lineage, only differing from the other P. oryzae lineages by less than 1% genetic divergence.doi:10.3390/plants9020277 pmid:32098075 fatcat:hbsjzwjbonde3krdkhcdm7wzfq
more »... In order to prevent further spread of this pathogen to other wheat-growing areas in the world, sensitive and specific detection tools are needed to test for contamination of traded seed lots by the P. oryzae Triticum lineage. In this study, we adopted a comparative genomics approach to identify new loci specific to the P. oryzae Triticum lineage and used them to design a set of new markers that can be used in conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of the pathogen, with improved inclusivity and specificity compared to currently available tests. A preliminary biological enrichment step of the seeds was shown to improve the sensitivity of the tests, which enabled the detection of the target at an infection rate as low as 0.25%. Combined with others, this new toolkit may be particularly beneficial in preventing the trade of contaminated seeds and in limiting the spread of the disease.
Fournier ( ) · G. Hulot A. Fournier et al. ... Alexandre Fournier, Dominique Jault, Elisabeth Canet and Nicolas Gillet have been supported by a grant from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Research program VS-QG (grant number BLAN06-2.155316 ... Alexandre Fournier also thanks gratefully Olivier Talagrand, Pierre Brasseur and Emmanuel Cosme for kindly and pedagogically distilling their knowledge of data assimilation over the past few years. ...doi:10.1007/s11214-010-9669-4 fatcat:44gp772g5re3nkem4ltjzhhkyq
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