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Shortest transistor made

<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer Nature America, Inc"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/drfdii35rzaibj3aml5uhvr5xm" style="color: black;">Nature</a> </i> &nbsp;
Even unsprayed ELECTRONICS Shortest transistor made Researchers have built a transistor with a 'gate' just one nanometre long -one-fifth of the smallest length thought to be possible in silicon transistors  ...  The nanotube's one-nanometre width makes it the shortest transistor gate ever built, Javey says.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/538293e">doi:10.1038/538293e</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27762360">pmid:27762360</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7ndjvo7ihfhtlpao6vuimq7ira">fatcat:7ndjvo7ihfhtlpao6vuimq7ira</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200311124547/https://www.nature.com/articles/538293e.pdf?error=cookies_not_supported&amp;code=30374388-acb3-4130-a057-10f7f606b028" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/05/0e/050e3da9f1bddf073c5f89f31fa34bd697c39296.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1038/538293e"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> nature.com </button> </a>

Neuromorphic Electronic Systems [chapter]

<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer New York"> Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience </i> &nbsp;
That trend took us from vacuum tubes to transisitors, and from transistors to integrated circuits.  ...  When the Whirlwind computer was first built back at M.I.T., they made a movie about it, which was called "Faster than Thought."  ...  Nerve membranes use populations of channels, rather than individual channels, to change their conductances, in much the same way that transistors use populations of electrons rather than single electrons  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6675-8_100408">doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6675-8_100408</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/l6ex6ys24ffo3gs32nbbhneniq">fatcat:l6ex6ys24ffo3gs32nbbhneniq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170921232225/http://www.ini.uzh.ch/~tobi/introneuroscience/meadNeuromorphicElectronicSystemsIEEE1990.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/45/9c/459c554583c9a2f70dd36e84149989fde1e9f833.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6675-8_100408"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Neuromorphic electronic systems

C. Mead
<span title="">1990</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/yfvtieuumfamvmjlc255uckdlm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the IEEE</a> </i> &nbsp;
That trend took us from vacuum tubes to transisitors, and from transistors to integrated circuits.  ...  When the Whirlwind computer was first built back at M.I.T., they made a movie about it, which was called "Faster than Thought."  ...  Nerve membranes use populations of channels, rather than individual channels, to change their conductances, in much the same way that transistors use populations of electrons rather than single electrons  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/5.58356">doi:10.1109/5.58356</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/reqjmpgo5zhkthkkv6qf6dhi2e">fatcat:reqjmpgo5zhkthkkv6qf6dhi2e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170921232225/http://www.ini.uzh.ch/~tobi/introneuroscience/meadNeuromorphicElectronicSystemsIEEE1990.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/45/9c/459c554583c9a2f70dd36e84149989fde1e9f833.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/5.58356"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Reliability in electronics

<span title="">1978</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/wifafrwnbje2nhefblix5i3tcq" style="color: black;">Microelectronics and reliability</a> </i> &nbsp;
These capacitors have the shortest lifespan due to usage and the nature of the materials. The process behind the aluminum fail is also very important.  ...  So far, silicon has been the main base material for semiconductor devices and has been an industry standard since the invention of the transistor as well as other solid state electronics.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-2714(78)90608-x">doi:10.1016/0026-2714(78)90608-x</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tse3bi4tsvb5ffbuk5qbfdt274">fatcat:tse3bi4tsvb5ffbuk5qbfdt274</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180722072618/https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700024/m2/1/high_res_d/thesis.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/43/aa/43aaccafdfb03d75f3ea176dd6095cfad248a076.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-2714(78)90608-x"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> elsevier.com </button> </a>

Hot-electron transport in heterostructure devices

Serge Luryi, Alexander Kastalsky
<span title="">1985</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/srgil6oaffe5vcbptt2mvcj3kq" style="color: black;">Physica B+C</a> </i> &nbsp;
As far as we know, the first proposal of a hot-electron injection device was made by Mead 4.  ...  As discussed in the Introduction, our main conceptual classification is made according to the kind of a hot-electron ensemble employed in the device operation.  ...  An attempt to circumvent (2) was made in a recent proposal 2z of an induced-base transistor (IBT).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4363(85)90387-0">doi:10.1016/0378-4363(85)90387-0</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/b6vjfmhztbcpdizbrcismqcyoa">fatcat:b6vjfmhztbcpdizbrcismqcyoa</a> </span>
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Power electronic converters without electrolytic capacitors

Mourad Mordjaoui, Alex P.M. Van Den Bossche, Salim Haddad
<span title="">2019</span> <i title="Inderscience Publishers"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/3rsyenckcrg6zjyjyy4ta4aui4" style="color: black;">International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology</a> </i> &nbsp;
Power electronic converters may have a quite long lifetime, but some applications such as converters for automotive and photovoltaic could even desire a longer life.  ...  Electrolytic capacitors are one of the elements that reduce the lifetime of power electronic converters gradually an adapted design can avoid that electrolytic capacitors have to be used in converters.  ...  Introduction A lifetime is determined by the shortest life of a component which cannot be easily repaired.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1504/ijret.2019.10017693">doi:10.1504/ijret.2019.10017693</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2266o65bprcizg3aigmnfrw3mu">fatcat:2266o65bprcizg3aigmnfrw3mu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181103193325/https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/8532006/file/8532020" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/90/3c/903ce47c0b77cbca5821f0de482bb0d5a79e3f50.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1504/ijret.2019.10017693"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Boston MRS: Part 2 — Nitride electronics

Alan Mills
<span title="">2000</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/56icyc5gbzfpvnq3n5adzcnypm" style="color: black;">III-Vs review</a> </i> &nbsp;
In addition, significant advances in bulk growth processes, electronic device technology and performance, and contact resistance were also reported, covered here in Part 2.  ...  In the p-contact process, 5OA of palladium and lOOA of gold were electron-beam deposited, followed a 30 s rapid thermal anneal in oxygen.  ...  , with 4.6 W/mm being milestones toward commercial achieved on a sapphire substrate at gallium nitride-based electronic 6 GHz and 7.1 W/mm on silicon devices. carbide.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/s0961-1290(00)80003-4">doi:10.1016/s0961-1290(00)80003-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hnvkirjusvgyrli62c3bd247p4">fatcat:hnvkirjusvgyrli62c3bd247p4</a> </span>
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A Thermally Stable Quasi-CMOS Bipolar Logic

Wieslaw Kuzmicz
<span title="2021-12-21">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ikdpfme5h5egvnwtvvtjrnntyy" style="color: black;">Electronics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Logic gates made of pairs of NPN and PNP bipolar transistors, similar to CMOS logic gates, have been proposed and patented long ago but did not find any practical application until now.  ...  In this paper it is shown that now, when truly complementary pairs of bipolar transistors can be made, properly biased bipolar gates similar to CMOS gates are feasible, can be thermally stable and find  ...  Such transistors are small and symmetric, complementary pairs of NPN and PNP devices can be made.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010006">doi:10.3390/electronics11010006</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/m33mivkylze2rput5oy2shelly">fatcat:m33mivkylze2rput5oy2shelly</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220504222507/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/electronics/electronics-11-00006/article_deploy/electronics-11-00006-v3.pdf?version=1640176260" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/16/a9/16a93e5804cd990c0c9ebb1d285b78964be93764.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010006"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Flexible Transition Metal Oxide Electronics and Imprint Lithography [chapter]

Warren B. Jackson
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer US"> Flexible Electronics </i> &nbsp;
The entire transistor including the electrodes and the active material can have visible transmittances of 70% or greater.  ...  Thus, for applications such as displays, the active electronics would not impact the visual appearance of device and the fill factor of displays with such electronics could approach 100%.  ...  Hoffman introducing me to the field of transition metal oxide transistors and for making various samples, and C. Taussig, P. Mei, and C. Perlov for many consultations and support during this work.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-74363-9_5">doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74363-9_5</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/oubqw5mo6fembcrmco5aj2bvcm">fatcat:oubqw5mo6fembcrmco5aj2bvcm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808091307/http://www.beck-shop.de/fachbuch/leseprobe/9780387743622_excerpt_001.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/29/76/2976d66b14cbcff4dac9ebe60d312d61df773f4d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-74363-9_5"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Graphene Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Circuits

Yanqing Wu, Damon B. Farmer, Fengnian Xia, Phaedon Avouris
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/yfvtieuumfamvmjlc255uckdlm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the IEEE</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we discuss briefly the basic electronic structure and transport properties of graphene, its large scale synthesis, the role of metal-graphene contact, field-effect transistor (FET) device  ...  make graphene an excellent candidate for advanced applications in future electronics.  ...  Inset: corresponding cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of a graphene transistor with L G ¼ 80 nm and L A ¼ 15 nm.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/jproc.2013.2260311">doi:10.1109/jproc.2013.2260311</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ev3ze2ijprezddldug5pbb2pna">fatcat:ev3ze2ijprezddldug5pbb2pna</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180724104418/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/5/6532325/06519298.pdf?tp=&amp;arnumber=6519298&amp;isnumber=6532325" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/97/a8/97a8b6e121ef2f27f10867e5bd275ae37eaa5e65.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/jproc.2013.2260311"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Radiation Tolerant Electronics

Paul Leroux
<span title="2019-06-27">2019</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ikdpfme5h5egvnwtvvtjrnntyy" style="color: black;">Electronics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Research on radiation tolerant electronics has increased rapidly over the last few years, resulting in many interesting approaches to model radiation effects and design radiation hardened integrated circuits  ...  I would like to acknowledge the editorial board of MDPI Electronics, who invited me to guest edit this Special Issue.  ...  I am also grateful to all of the reviewers who helped in the evaluation of the manuscripts and made very valuable suggestions to improve the quality of the contributions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070730">doi:10.3390/electronics8070730</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wjo5prr5xjeqtlhxlj4kqz5st4">fatcat:wjo5prr5xjeqtlhxlj4kqz5st4</a> </span>
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Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

Z. Staliulionis, Z. Zhang, R. Pittini, M. A. E. Andersen, P. Tarvydas, A. Noreika
<span title="2014-01-14">2014</span> <i title="Publishing House Technologija"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/bishtdtn3zhktdv7vdnexo5kly" style="color: black;">Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika</a> </i> &nbsp;
1 Abstract-Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry.  ...  MEASUREMENTS UNDER FORCED CONVECTION Measurements with fan were made when the distance between the transistor and the diode is shortest (16.51 mm), because from earlier results it could be seen that it  ...  Images made by thermo-camera for this are shown in Fig. 12. Fig. 13 . Dissipated power of the transistor vs. temperature.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.eee.20.1.6167">doi:10.5755/j01.eee.20.1.6167</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/itp53c7pnnhhznjkzsc3aqpzzm">fatcat:itp53c7pnnhhznjkzsc3aqpzzm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190329222017/https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/13804282.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/8f/52/8f52a4dc631e304d085ddda8523164b9fa118e33.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.eee.20.1.6167"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Computational Electronics

Dragica Vasileska, Stephen M. Goodnick
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Morgan &amp; Claypool Publishers LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/u5kb7a6peza7dkswp2bbflmg7m" style="color: black;">Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics</a> </i> &nbsp;
effect transistors.  ...  The prerequisite knowledge is a fundamental understanding of basic semiconductor physics, the physical models for various device technologies such as pn diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field  ...  Early transistors were made from germanium but most modern BJTs are made from silicon. An npn bipolar transistor can be considered as two diodes connected anode to anode.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2200/s00026ed1v01y200605cem006">doi:10.2200/s00026ed1v01y200605cem006</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fyti5u2gizbyxjnpgsadhph7uq">fatcat:fyti5u2gizbyxjnpgsadhph7uq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190226170926/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7060/859d525ed4e69220b13154ea0915136504a9.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/70/60/7060859d525ed4e69220b13154ea0915136504a9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2200/s00026ed1v01y200605cem006"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Development of High Electron Mobility Transistor

Takashi Mimura
<span title="2005-12-08">2005</span> <i title="Japan Society of Applied Physics"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pucchvqa2nd23o2rzoaa3xmd7u" style="color: black;">Japanese Journal of Applied Physics</a> </i> &nbsp;
The development of the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) provides a good illustration of the way a new device emerges and evolves toward commercialization.  ...  Introduction It has been more than 25 years since the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was first proposed in 1979. 1) The key concept of the HEMT is the field-effect modulation of the high-mobility  ...  The measured switching delay was 17 ps at 77 K and, in spite of a relatively long gate length of 1.7 mm, was the shortest in any semiconductor device at that time.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.44.8263">doi:10.1143/jjap.44.8263</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rvbznmmupzhrffhibnlym6luci">fatcat:rvbznmmupzhrffhibnlym6luci</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180719022248/http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1143/JJAP.44.8263/pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/38/c4/38c46c531f70a530becea9a36ccc35667b2161da.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1143/jjap.44.8263"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

The Electron in the Maze [article]

Simon Ayrinhac
<span title="2018-03-07">2018</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
To avoid failures, processors or power transistors need to be cooled by fans or Peltier modules, for example.  ...  However, there are fundamental differences between electrons and water: electrons do not interact with one another and energy is not carried by the free electrons.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.02594v1">arXiv:1803.02594v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zmlj6nvlkrbd7m6ozezbc352zm">fatcat:zmlj6nvlkrbd7m6ozezbc352zm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200905171541/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.02594v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e8/81/e881ce725644abdca1afc0a6c95744dcbd638ebb.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.02594v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>
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