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Electric vehicles as flexible loads: Algorithms to optimize aggregate behavior

Xiaojun Geng, Pramod P. Khargonekar
2012 2012 IEEE Third International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm)  
This paper considers load shifting for electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce the peak value of the total power consumption.  ...  These ideas are potentially useful in harnessing flexibility in electric loads. I.  ...  As electric vehicles (EVs) become popular [5] - [7] , consider the hypothetical situation where millions of consumers plug in their electric vehicles for recharging after returning from work around dinner  ... 
doi:10.1109/smartgridcomm.2012.6486022 dblp:conf/smartgridcomm/GengK12 fatcat:a7kt5wfki5e53jzrf3lerlc5pa

Integrating electric vehicles as flexible load in unit commitment modeling

D. Madzharov, E. Delarue, W. D'haeseleer
2014 Energy  
Fully electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted much attention in recent years.  ...  It is demonstrated that optimized charging (centrally controlled) is cheaper and allows for higher EV penetration, compared to random charging.  ...  Simulation results Vehicle aggregation validation As a first step, the correctness of the algorithm aggregating individual EVs in groups is verified.  ... 
doi:10.1016/ fatcat:2bsyb3eksrf5jbw53lekrbvdau

Electric Vehicles as a Flexibility Provider: Optimal Charging Schedules to Improve the Quality of Charging Service

Kalle Rauma, Alexander Funke, Toni Simolin, Pertti Järventausta, Christian Rehtanz
2021 Electricity  
For the flexibility from privately owned electric vehicles to be offered to the electricity market, customer participation is crucial; however, the impacts of sub-aggregation on customers have not been  ...  The sub-aggregation of electric vehicles provides significant potential to power systems in the form of ancillary services.  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Parking Energy Ltd. and IGL Technologies Oy for providing the charging data.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electricity2030014 fatcat:6xbbvct6pfd6xbxz5q2utq6rvi

Study on Load-Participated Demand Response Model Based on Load Aggregator

Zixia Pei, Yunlong Ma, Mengyun Wu, Jianlan Yang
2021 Frontiers in Energy Research  
To efficiently utilize the residential load resources, new market participants, such as load aggregator (LA) have emerged.  ...  In the reform of the electricity market, along with the gradual opening of the electricity sales side as well as the increase in the proportion of residential electricity consumption, the user load of  ...  When there are many uncertain factors in the model, intelligent algorithms, such as artificial bee colony algorithm, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, dragonfly optimization algorithm  ... 
doi:10.3389/fenrg.2021.797979 fatcat:dhendwvnjzanjazitmtmnj2xwa

Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

Jianqiang Hu, Jinde Cao, Taiyou Yong, Josep M. Guerrero, Michael Z. Q. Chen, Yaping Li
2017 IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology  
Based on the evaluation results, the dispatch center optimizes the real time load following trajectories for the generating units and the flexible load agents via look-ahead optimization by considering  ...  Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation capacities and regulation rates of aggregators.  ...  Future work includes utilizing the distributed pinning algorithm to realize the charge or discharge control of multiple aggregate electric vehicles with inerter [43] , and management of multiple virtual  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcst.2016.2615087 fatcat:p52zstve6zhjnpwfnfghrqt5lm

Benchmarking Flexible Electric Loads Scheduling Algorithms

Koos van der Linden, Natalia Romero, Mathijs M. de Weerdt
2021 Energies  
For example, the electrification of transportation significantly adds to the amount of flexible electricity demand. Several methods have been developed to schedule such flexible energy consumption.  ...  This paper presents a new benchmarking framework designed to bridge this gap. Surveys that classify flexibility planning algorithms were an input to define this benchmarking standard.  ...  This paper focuses on the optimization from the perspective of flexible load consumers, and in particular, owners of electric vehicles or aggregators acting on their behalf.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en14051269 fatcat:zo3wlx2dqbg3boonl3qhduk5gi

Load Flexibility Forecast for DR Using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring in the Residential Sector

Alexandre Lucas, Luca Jansen, Nikoleta Andreadou, Evangelos Kotsakis, Marcelo Masera
2019 Energies  
However, due to the high contribution of the residential sector to electricity consumption, there is huge potential when considering the aggregated load flexibility of this sector.  ...  This study presents a methodology to estimate such flexibility by integrating a non-intrusive load monitoring approach to load disaggregation algorithms in order to train a machine-learning model.  ...  Authors observe that the flexibility of shiftable and curtailable loads, such as electric vehicles (EV) and pool pumps, depend highly on the time of the day.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en12142725 fatcat:md54i7yfvnh47oidulf4w3zsm4

Load Scheduling and Dispatch for Aggregators of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

Di Wu, Dionysios C. Aliprantis, Lei Ying
2012 IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid  
This paper proposes an operating framework for aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).  ...  Simulation results are used to evaluate the proposed algorithms, and to demonstrate the potential impact of an aggregated PEV fleet on the power system.  ...  At time slot , if , the aggregator charges PEV with rate . It should be noted that Algorithm 2 is not an optimization algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsg.2011.2163174 fatcat:bbbdelqjfzf5jgn6hkplxwdsbe

Electric Vehicle Load Management: An Architecture for Heterogeneous Nodes

Kun Qian, Robert Brehm, Thomas Ebel, Rebecca Adam
2022 IEEE Access  
INDEX TERMS Electric vehicles, scheduling strategy, aggregator, control architecture.  ...  Load management systems aim at computing coordinated charging schedules for electric vehicles based on predetermined charging objectives.  ...  In a centralized architecture, as shown in Fig. 1 (a), the centralized aggregator gathers charging behavior information from all the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)/EV nodes and computes the  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2022.3180493 fatcat:5yh6svtclvd6xgdcjj5swcy7lm

Optimal price-based control of heterogeneous thermostatically controlled loads under uncertainty using LSTM networks and genetic algorithms

Taha Abdelhalim Nakabi, Pekka Toivanen
2019 F1000Research  
We propose a long-short-term memory (LSTM) network to learn the individual behaviors of TCL units. We use the aggregated information to predict the response of the TCL cluster to a pricing policy.  ...  In this paper, we consider the problem of thermostatically controlled load (TCL) control through dynamic electricity prices, under partial observability of the environment and uncertainty of the control  ...  Demand-side resources such as thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), electric vehicles and strategic storage can contribute to ancillary services by acting as a source of flexibility to the grid.  ... 
doi:10.12688/f1000research.20421.1 fatcat:q67xsko5xrc3hfqiczqgwne2gi

Restricted Neighborhood Communication Improves Decentralized Demand-Side Load Management

Alessandro Giusti, Matteo Salani, Gianni A. Di Caro, Andrea E. Rizzoli, Luca M. Gambardella
2014 IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid  
Through extensive simulation experiments, we observed that even communication neighborhoods constituted by as few as 3-4 households are sufficient to effectively stabilize the aggregate network load profile  ...  Controllers simultaneously optimize two possibly conflicting objectives: minimization of energy costs for the end user (considering a known, timedependent tariff) and stabilization of the aggregate load  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work has been sponsored by Swiss Electric Research and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE project nr.103162).  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsg.2013.2267396 fatcat:ej4urc3tmrgq7ciucetbatavyq

Model-Based Quantification of Load Shift Potentials and Optimized Charging of Electric Vehicles

Tobias Hahn, Martin Schönfelder, Patrick Jochem, Vincent Heuveline, Wolf Fichtner
2013 Smart Grid and Renewable Energy  
Using efficient mathematical optimization techniques, the charging behavior of electric vehicles shall be optimally controlled taking into account network, vehicle, and customer requirements.  ...  Managing the charging process of a large number of electric vehicles to decrease the pressure on the local electricity grid is of high interest to the utilities.  ...  The authors would like to thank EnSoC for the continuous support and the professional project management.  ... 
doi:10.4236/sgre.2013.45046 fatcat:pufomro2njd6nixx66tex52naa

Simulation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Load Profiles in Office Buildings Based on Occupancy Data

Semen Uimonen, Matti Lehtonen
2020 Energies  
The approach allows one to simulate load profiles and to find how many chargers are necessary to suffice the approximate demand of EV charging from the traffic characteristics, such as arrival time, duration  ...  Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a promising solution to reduce the CO2 emissions which, however, requires the right electric power production mix for the largest impact.  ...  This is an opportunity to use them as individual and flexible loads which may be considered for grid-support to mitigate load variation and load peaks.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en13215700 fatcat:qhttwtyrdvehjdyllsjzek3fcm

A concise, approximate representation of a collection of loads described by polytopes [article]

Suhail Barot, Josh A. Taylor
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Aggregations of flexible loads can provide several power system services through demand response programs, for example load shifting and curtailment.  ...  In this paper, we propose a novel approximation for concisely representing the capabilities of a heterogeneous aggregation of flexible loads.  ...  In [10] , charging electric vehicles are modeled as deferrable loads, and analytical generalized storage expressions for their aggregate capabilities are obtained.  ... 
arXiv:1412.0939v3 fatcat:whc47ass7nanffi7u4jd7j2kxy

Scheduling Flexible Non-Preemptive Loads in Smart-Grid Networks [article]

Nathan Dahlin, Rahul Jain
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Considering each load as representative of a population of identical loads with scaled characteristics, we demonstrate that the relaxed social planner's problem gives an exact solution to the original  ...  , and allows for probabilistic allocation of power to loads.  ...  Water heaters and electric vehicles (EV) typify loads characterized by such flexibility.  ... 
arXiv:2003.13220v3 fatcat:7cq4hufkqzcfrkf7av6zoe7rq4
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