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Monitoring the Impact of Spaceflight on the Human Brain

Michael F. Dinatolo, Luchino Y. Cohen
2022 Life  
To date, the use of brain monitoring techniques adopted on Earth in pre/post-spaceflight experimental protocols has proven to be valuable for investigating the effects of space travel on the brain.  ...  We suggest that, while the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and computerized tomography (CT) is limited to analog and pre/post-spaceflight studies on Earth,  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/life12071060 pmid:35888147 pmcid:PMC9323314 fatcat:xe7qb3eoezbxbfohr6ymthzilu

Spaceflight-induced neuroplasticity in humans as measured by MRI: what do we know so far?

Angelique Van Ombergen, Steven Laureys, Stefan Sunaert, Elena Tomilovskaya, Paul M. Parizel, Floris L. Wuyts
2017 npj Microgravity  
Some organ systems have been studied thoroughly under space conditions, however, not much is known on the functional and morphological effects of spaceflight on the human central nervous system.  ...  Obviously, all of the latter can have an impact on human physiology and even induce detrimental changes.  ...  Very recently, a 70-day study investigated the effect of longduration HDBR on brain connectivity and behavior in 17 participants. 71 A behavioral assessment as well as rsfMRI scans were conducted at  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41526-016-0010-8 pmid:28649624 pmcid:PMC5445591 fatcat:yje3oytf7bddxmhggiqpjdgsma

Acclimation during space flight: effects on human emotion

Qing Liu, Ren-Lai Zhou, Xin Zhao, Xiao-Ping Chen, Shan-Guang Chen
2016 Military Medical Research  
Moreover, the review concludes with suggested future research on emotion during spaceflight and its analogs.  ...  In order to reveal the mental challenges that humans face in space, we need practical viewpoints to integrate the psychological effects, behavior, performance and the environment itself for space exploration  ...  Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the complicated reactions of emotional states occurred through the connectivity of multiple brain areas and not the activity of a single brain area [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40779-016-0084-3 pmid:27134755 pmcid:PMC4850672 fatcat:bx2hynrisnajvao3qkirs533ci

Study protocol to examine the effects of spaceflight and a spaceflight analog on neurocognitive performance: extent, longevity, and neural bases

Vincent Koppelmans, Burak Erdeniz, Yiri E De Dios, Scott J Wood, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Igor Kofman, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
2013 BMC Neurology  
The effects of spaceflight on the brain will be investigated in astronauts who will be assessed at two time points pre-, at three time points during-, and at four time points following a spaceflight mission  ...  We are therefore conducting a controlled prospective longitudinal study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor and cognitive performance changes  ...  the effects of spaceflight on cognition in humans reported that dual-tasking of cognitive and motor behaviors is significantly impaired during the initial period of adaptation to a microgravity environment  ... 
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-205 pmid:24350728 pmcid:PMC3878338 fatcat:nymyvbg7hbgqtpoxvc4zzphezy

COVID-19—The largest isolation study in history: the value of shared learnings from spaceflight analogs

Alexander Choukér, Alexander C. Stahn
2020 npj Microgravity  
The effects of these measures on brain, behavior, neuro-humoral and immunological responses in humans are largely unknown.  ...  Life science research for space exploration has a long history in using high-fidelity spaceflight analogs to better understand the effect of prolonged isolation and confinement on genes, molecules, cells  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work was supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology/Energy (BMWi) through grants 50WB1319, 50WB0919, 50WB1622, 50WB1931  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41526-020-00122-8 pmid:33110938 pmcid:PMC7582843 fatcat:ikfjkvvmf5dzzfdzm2olhgr2vi

Future research directions to identify risks and mitigation strategies for neurostructural, ocular, and behavioral changes induced by human spaceflight: A NASA-ESA expert group consensus report

Rachael D. Seidler, Claudia Stern, Mathias Basner, Alexander C. Stahn, Floris L. Wuyts, Peter zu Eulenburg
2022 Frontiers in Neural Circuits  
A team of experts on the effects of the spaceflight environment on the brain and eye (SANS: Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome) was convened by NASA and ESA to (1) review spaceflight-associated  ...  The experts identified 14 critical future research directions that would substantially advance our knowledge of the effects of spending prolonged periods of time in the spaceflight environment on SANS,  ...  Reviewers from the NASA Human Factors and Behavioral Performance and Human Health Countermeasures Elements provided helpful feedback on the document.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fncir.2022.876789 pmid:35991346 pmcid:PMC9387435 fatcat:rvviz2qga5hd5ebtaeg6ri5pde

A review of alterations to the brain during spaceflight and the potential relevance to crew in long-duration space exploration

Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Thomas Williams
2021 npj Microgravity  
However, the effects of long-duration spaceflight on the CNS and the resulting impact to crew health and operational performance remain largely unknown.  ...  During spaceflight, the central nervous system (CNS) is exposed to a complex array of environmental stressors.  ...  Space is a unique environment, making the investigation of spaceflight-associated changes to the brain a complex task.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41526-021-00133-z pmid:33594073 fatcat:c5wlx6af2beq7eb6q65qzaba2q

BRAIN IN SPACE. HOW DOES SPACE AFFECT THE HUMAN BRAIN?

Arkadiusz Kołodziej, Gabriela Zdunek
2021 Issues of Rehabilitation, Orthapaedics, Neurophysiology and Sport Promotion - IRONS  
Results Space radiation can damage neuronal connections with both acute and chronic effects, manifested as altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes.  ...  Aim and method In this review, the negative effects from space radiation, microgravity and the factor of isolation on the central nervous system will be described in relation to space neuroscience and  ...  The environment of the spaceflights is what has a major influence on the mental health of astronauts.  ... 
doi:10.19271/irons-000144-2021-36 fatcat:xbr2kfwh3jd77df6vmnkvabjnu

Neuroplasticity as a Foundation for Decision-Making in Space

Margaret Boone Rappaport, Christopher J. Corbally
2022 NeuroSci  
A final section addresses healthcare, medical intervention, and remediation that could help to "harness" neuroplasticity before, during, and after spaceflight.  ...  The future of research on both neuroplasticity and human decision-making promises to be full of surprises, both welcome and otherwise. It is an exciting time in research on space medicine.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/neurosci3030033 fatcat:cvj4wq2oybamxmobqqtrvbdvsy

Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

Rachael D. Seidler, Ajitkumar P. Mulavara, Jacob J. Bloomberg, Brian T. Peters
2015 Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience  
Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation.  ...  For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke.  ...  Acknowledgments This work is supported by grants from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NASA NCC 9-58) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; NNX11AR02G).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00100 pmid:26217197 pmcid:PMC4491631 fatcat:qxwoghi77rf6toi4vz635vcmgq

Ophthalmic changes in a spaceflight analog are associated with brain functional reorganization

Heather R McGregor, Jessica K Lee, Edwin R Mulder, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Beltran, Igor S Kofman, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Rachael D Seidler
2021 Human Brain Mapping  
Optic disc edema is a common sign of SANS. The origin and effects of SANS are not understood as signs of SANS have not manifested in previous spaceflight analog studies.  ...  The SANS and NoSANS subgroups also exhibited different resting-state functional connectivity prior to HDBR+CO2 within a visual cortical network and within a large-scale network of brain areas involved  ...  The effects of spaceflight are often studied using ground-based analogs, with head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) being one of the most widely used (Cassady et al., 2016; Pavy-Le Traon, Heer, Narici, Rittweger  ... 
doi:10.1002/hbm.25546 pmid:34105833 pmcid:PMC8357001 fatcat:oukhm2fn7vabxarg4ajneapnga

Teamwork and collaboration in long-duration space missions: Going to extremes

Lauren Blackwell Landon, Kelley J. Slack, Jamie D. Barrett
2018 American Psychologist  
We discuss the unique challenges of effective teamwork in a Mars mission scenario, and the difficulties of studying teamwork using analogs of the space environment.  ...  The scientific study of teamwork in the context of spaceflight has uncovered a considerable amount of knowledge over the past 20 years.  ...  Due to lack of data from spaceflight and spaceflight analog environments, meta-analysis is simply not a viable option for examining many of the different factors that will be critical to teams on a Mars  ... 
doi:10.1037/amp0000260 pmid:29792468 fatcat:cikeofglfvhhtjqfh3xor64ctq

Expedition Cognition: A Review and Prospective of Subterranean Neuroscience With Spaceflight Applications

Nicolette B. Mogilever, Lucrezia Zuccarelli, Ford Burles, Giuseppe Iaria, Giacomo Strapazzon, Loredana Bessone, Emily B. J. Coffey
2018 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
We will not attempt to distinguish between the purviews of these fields here; research questions from any domain that concern environment-brain-behavior relationships that affect human performance are  ...  For references on medical and physiological matters (i.e., bone loss, radiation, extravehicular activities, balance, motion sickness and nutrition), and for information on physiological and neurophysiological  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank ESA CAVES instructor Francesco Sauro for discussion and advice concerning operational considerations.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2018.00407 pmid:30425628 pmcid:PMC6218582 fatcat:yzbtov6q3ncyhcd7ouagssqlaa

Brain Connectivity and Behavioral Changes in a Spaceflight Analog Environment with Elevated CO2 [article]

Heather R McGregor, Jessica Lee, Edwin Mulder, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Beltran, Igor Kopfman, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Here we examined changes in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and sensorimotor behavior associated with a spaceflight analog environment.  ...  This knowledge will further improve HDBR as a model of microgravity exposure and contribute to our knowledge of brain and performance changes during and after spaceflight.  ...  study was to investigate brain and behavioral effects of prolonged 160 exposure to simulated microgravity and elevated CO 2 levels as a model of long-duration 161 spaceflight onboard the International  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.09.28.317404 fatcat:cysyj35ucnctbjdaofv2njhegm

Ophthalmic Changes in a Spaceflight Analog Are Associated with Brain Functional Reorganization [article]

Heather R McGregor, Jessica K Lee, Edwin Mulder, Yiri De Dios, Nichole E Beltran, Igor S Kofman, Jacob J Bloomberg, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Rachael D Seidler
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
SANS presents significant potential risk to astronaut health and performance; however, the origin and effects of SANS are not understood as signs of SANS have not manifested in previous spaceflight analog  ...  Here we investigated if development of optic disc edema during a spaceflight analog impacts resting-state functional connectivity.  ...  The effects of spaceflight are often studied using ground-based analogs, with head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) being one of the most widely used 4, 5 .  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.09.09.289827 fatcat:pj6hct2pkbbkvjhapt2qimhu7e
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