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Industrial Application of a Partitioning Scheduler to Support Mixed Criticality Systems

Stephen Law, Iain Bate, Benjamin Lesage, Michael Wagner
2019 Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
The paper deals with three key challenges as part of the technology transitions.  ...  Firstly, how to provide an equivalent level of fault isolation to ARINC 653 without the restriction of strict temporal slicing between criticality levels.  ...  Therefore, it is necessary to condense the set of tasks in order to reduce the RTOS overheads to a level where a schedulable system can be defined.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lipics.ecrts.2019.8 dblp:conf/ecrts/LawBL19 fatcat:3vtvx2scj5eircqykgfxhemjtm

Security and Reliability of Safety-Critical RTOS

Ryan Luna, Sheikh Ariful Islam
2021 SN Computer Science  
Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) presents a computing environment with the ability to react to events within a strictlydefined period.  ...  Hence, the reliability and security of embedded systems running on top of RTOS are equally important.  ...  The authors presented the following effects of transient fault in C RTOS: • Effect-less No observable effect. • Application hang Due to dysfunction in real-time scheduling, an application stops responding  ... 
doi:10.1007/s42979-021-00753-y fatcat:janiiponebgqjm3mluq3g77b4q

AUTOBEST: a united AUTOSAR-OS and ARINC 653 kernel

Alexander Zuepke, Marc Bommert, Daniel Lohmann
2015 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium  
While both, AUTOSAR and ARINC 653, use a unified task model in the kernel, we address their differences in dedicated user space libraries.  ...  This paper presents AUTOBEST, a united AUTOSAR-OS and ARINC 653 RTOS kernel that addresses the requirements of both automotive and avionics domains.  ...  Felix Fastnacht, André Himmighofen, Bernhard Jungk, and Tobias Jordan from Easycore GmbH for insightful discussions on AUTOSAR and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the first version of  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtas.2015.7108435 dblp:conf/rtas/ZuepkeBL15 fatcat:3atpst22mzd5fb5eftczc2ihjm

Real-time multi-agent systems: rationality, formal model, and empirical results

Davide Calvaresi, Yashin Dicente Cid, Mauro Marinoni, Aldo Franco Dragoni, Amro Najjar, Michael Schumacher
2021 Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems  
In numerous scenarios, MAS boosted distributed autonomous reasoning and behaviors. However, many real-world applications (e.g., CPS) demand the respect of strict timing constraints.  ...  This paper analyzes the MAS compliance with strict timing constraints (real-time compliance)—crucial for safety-critical applications such as healthcare, industry 4.0, and automotive.  ...  agents Number of agents participating in the simulation P2 Agent knowledge Set of tasks an agent is able to execute P3 Agent task-set Set of running tasks P4 Agent services Set of tasks an  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10458-020-09492-5 fatcat:wnk7xk7ei5blfg7eil5byr67ha

A real-time virtual machine for task placement in loosely-coupled computer systems

Mohamed O. Elsedfy, Wael A. Murtada, Ezz F. Abdulqawi, Mahmoud Gad-Allah
2019 Heliyon  
Complex systems in space, avionics, and military applications usually operate with Loosely-Coupled Computer Systems in a real-time environment for years.  ...  In this paper, a new approach is introduced to support task transfer between loosely-coupled computers in a real-time environment to add more features without software upgrading.  ...  Funding statement This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01998 pmid:31309162 pmcid:PMC6606991 fatcat:dkj5oezksram5prfp5uuamorpy

Preventing interrupt overload

John Regehr, Usit Duongsaa
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED conference on Languages, compilers, and tools for embedded systems - LCTES'05  
Performance guarantees can be given to tasks in an embedded system by ensuring that access to each shared resource is mediated by an appropriate scheduler.  ...  However, almost all previous work on CPU scheduling has focused on thread-level scheduling, resulting in systems that are vulnerable to a lower-level form of overload that occurs when too many interrupts  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Luca Abeni, Ian Broster, Jay Lepreau, and Alastair Reid for their helpful comments on drafts of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1065910.1065918 fatcat:4xjgkkngzjeghmpjls5cabz34i

Preventing interrupt overload

John Regehr, Usit Duongsaa
2005 SIGPLAN notices  
Performance guarantees can be given to tasks in an embedded system by ensuring that access to each shared resource is mediated by an appropriate scheduler.  ...  However, almost all previous work on CPU scheduling has focused on thread-level scheduling, resulting in systems that are vulnerable to a lower-level form of overload that occurs when too many interrupts  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Luca Abeni, Ian Broster, Jay Lepreau, and Alastair Reid for their helpful comments on drafts of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1070891.1065918 fatcat:nuz34sp64bcptavgzw5f4v5sv4

Global fixed priority scheduling with deferred pre-emption

R.I. Davis, A. Burns, J. Marinho, V. Nelis, S.M. Petters, M. Bertogna
2013 2013 IEEE 19th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications  
This paper introduces schedulability analysis for global fixed priority scheduling with deferred pre-emption (gFPDS) for homogeneous multiprocessor systems. gFPDS is a superset of global fixed priority  ...  We show how schedulability can be improved via appropriate choice of priority assignment and final non-pre-emptive region lengths, and we provide algorithms which optimize schedulability in this way.  ...  by Portuguese National Funds through FCT (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology), and by ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) through COMPETE (Operational Programme 'Thematic Factors of  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2013.6732198 dblp:conf/rtcsa/DavisBMNPB13 fatcat:un6sewoij5fgrhqaene7cu3qpi

RTHybrid: A Standardized and Open-Source Real-Time Software Model Library for Experimental Neuroscience

Rodrigo Amaducci, Manuel Reyes-Sanchez, Irene Elices, Francisco B. Rodriguez, Pablo Varona
2019 Frontiers in Neuroinformatics  
We report a set of validation tests and latency benchmarks for the construction of hybrid circuits using this library.  ...  In this paper we introduce RTHybrid (www.github.com/GNB-UAM/RTHybrid), a free and open-source software that includes a neuron and synapse model library to build hybrid circuits with living neurons in a  ...  Variability of the time consumed by the operations performed inside each interval (see Table 6 ) is constrained by the use of RTOS, being Xenomai 3 more effective in this task than Preempt-RT.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fninf.2019.00011 pmid:30914940 pmcid:PMC6423167 fatcat:oi4f3dptxrgbxbvwhvje7hlmsm

Global and Partitioned Multiprocessor Fixed Priority Scheduling with Deferred Preemption

Robert I. Davis, Alan Burns, Jose Marinho, Vincent Nelis, Stefan M. Petters, Marko Bertogna
2015 ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems  
This article introduces schedulability analysis for Global Fixed Priority Scheduling with Deferred Preemption (gFPDS) for homogeneous multiprocessor systems. gFPDS is a superset of Global Fixed Priority  ...  We show how schedulability can be improved using gFPDS via appropriate choice of priority assignment and final nonpreemptive region lengths, and provide algorithms that optimize schedulability in this  ...  Figures 10 and 11 show how the weighted schedulability measure varies with the log-range r of task periods given by the ratio 10 r between the maximum and the minimum permissible task period, for the  ... 
doi:10.1145/2739954 fatcat:k24u4qiwizbfnhxf7lgdwbx2pm

Real-Time and Real-Fast Performance of General-Purpose and Real-Time Operating Systems in Multithreaded Physical Simulation of Complex Mechanical Systems

Carlos Garre, Domenico Mundo, Marco Gubitosa, Alessandro Toso
2014 Mathematical Problems in Engineering  
In this paper, real-fast and real-time performance of RTOS and GPOS are compared when simulating models of high complexity with large time steps.  ...  Interfacing hardware at a given rate (as in a hardware-in-the-loop test) requires instead maximizing time determinism, for which real-time operating systems (RTOS) are designed.  ...  As an example, periodic tasks are implemented in the native API of RTAI [27] , while implementing a periodic task using only POSIX is not straightforward.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2014/945850 fatcat:cp6dxqyp5nblhmza4icqaiiwru

Operating Systems for Low-End Devices in the Internet of Things: A Survey

Oliver Hahm, Emmanuel Baccelli, Hauke Petersen, Nicolas Tsiftes
2016 IEEE Internet of Things Journal  
The Internet of Things (IoT) is projected to soon interconnect tens of billions of new devices, in large part also connected to the Internet.  ...  In this paper, we thus analyse in detail the specific requirements that an OS should satisfy to run on low-end IoT devices, and we survey applicable operating systems, focusing on candidates that could  ...  A preemptive scheduler can interrupt any (nonkernel) task at any given point to allow another task to execute for a limited time.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jiot.2015.2505901 fatcat:sjxwshsw4bc53hmrwl567lvoh4

Industrial experiences with resource management under software randomization in ARINC653 avionics environments

Leonidas Kosmidis, Cristian Maxim, Victor Jegu, Francis Vatrinet, Francisco J. Cazorla
2018 Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design - ICCAD '18  
We describe the challenges in this task, we propose a set of solutions and present the results obtained for two commercial avionics applications, executed on COTS hardware and RTOS.  ...  In this paper, with focus on the latter, we show our experience regarding memory and timing resource management when software randomization techniques are applied to one of the most stringent industrial  ...  Moreover, it has been partially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation under grant TIN2015-65316-P and the HiPEAC Network of Excellence.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3240765.3240818 dblp:conf/iccad/KosmidisMJVC18 fatcat:54yrdz5rlvdfda4piysirsr3py

Virtualizing mixed-criticality systems: A survey on industrial trends and issues

Marcello Cinque, Domenico Cotroneo, Luigi De Simone, Stefano Rosiello
2021 Future generations computer systems  
This work surveys the state-of-the-practice of real-time virtualization technologies by discussing common issues in the industry.  ...  Virtualization is gaining attraction in the industry as it promises a flexible way to integrate, manage, and re-use heterogeneous software components with mixed-criticality levels, on a shared hardware  ...  The micro-VMM includes only the scheduler (in that case NOVA uses a preemptive priority-driven round-robin scheduler with one runqueue per CPU), MMU, a limited set of hypercalls, and implements the communication  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.future.2021.12.002 fatcat:4q277etxfjewlpmkjcn7by42pm

A tool for describing and evaluating hierarchical real-time bus scheduling policies

Trevor Meyerowitz, Claudio Pinello, Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
2003 Proceedings of the 40th conference on Design automation - DAC '03  
Our simulator evaluates the specified scheduling structure on a set of message traces for a given bus.  ...  We present a tool suite for building, simulating, and analyzing the results of hierarchical descriptions of the scheduling policy for modules sharing a bus in real-time applications.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was funded in part by the Semiconductor Research Corporation and the MARCO GSRC program.  ... 
doi:10.1145/775832.775913 dblp:conf/dac/MeyerowitzPS03 fatcat:zu476gppjbaq7cid2ytymplc7i
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