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Articles Background: Our aim was to determine the influence of breastfeeding and postnatal nutrition on cardiovascular remodeling induced by fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: A cohort study including 81 children with birthweight <10th centile (FGR) and 121 with adequate fetal growth for gestational age (AGA) was conducted. Cardiovascular endpoints were left ventricular sphericity index (LVSI), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and blood pressure (BP) at 4-5 y of age. The combineddoi:10.1038/pr.2015.182 pmid:26372518 fatcat:oewvqesyufe33lzqavj5wd3i7u
more »... ect of FGR and postnatal variablesincluding breastfeeding, fat dietary intake, and BMI-on cardiovascular endpoints was assessed by linear and robust regressions. results: FGR was the strongest predictor of cardiovascular remodeling in childhood, leading to lower LVSI and increased cIMT and BP as compared with AGA. Breastfeeding >6 mo (coefficient: 0.0982) and healthy-fat dietary intake (coefficient: −0.0128) showed an independent beneficial effect on LVSI and cIMT, respectively. Overweight/obesity induced an additional increment of 1 SD on cIMT in FGR children (interaction coefficient: 0.0307) when compared with its effect in AGA. BMI increased systolic BP (coefficient: 0.7830) while weight catchup increased diastolic BP (coefficient: 4.8929). conclusions: Postnatal nutrition ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling induced by FGR. Breastfeeding and healthy-fat dietary intake improved while increased BMI worsened cardiovascular endpoints, which opens opportunities for targeted postnatal interventions from early life. RESULTS Characteristics of the Study Population A total of 202 children were evaluated on average at 4 (±1.6) years of age. Baseline and perinatal characteristics of the study populations are shown in Table 1 . As expected, both groups showed significant differences in parental ethnicity, socioeconomic status, smoking, prevalence of steroids use, pregnancy complications, birth weight, and neonatal morbidity.
Microsensors 66 consumption close to 100 mW. These sensors require a complex fabrication of the magnetic core and coils (Baschirotto, 2006) ; in addition, the reduction of their mass and power decreases both their sensitivity and stability (Diaz-Michelena, 2009 ). In order to miniaturize fluxgate sensors is needed to solve two problems: the miniaturization of the coils and the integration of the magnetic core (Perez et al., 2004) . Anisotropic Magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors have a resolution ofdoi:10.5772/16275 fatcat:54yrmppmcvg2dddnnpocml5lh4
more »... 10 nT, a size on order of millimetres, and a power consumption of a few milliwatts (Ripka, 2000) . AMR sensors employ the anisotropic magnetoresistive effect of ferromagnetic transition metals, whose electrical resistance depends on the angle between the electrical current and the direction of magnetization. However, these sensors require a complex resetting procedure and are saturated at low magnetic fields (close to several milliteslas). Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors can detect magnetic fields form 10 to 10 8 nT (Lenz & Edelstein, 2006) and have a size close to 1 mm. They suffer a large change in the electrical resistance when a magnetic field is applied on their thin layers of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic materials. GMR sensors can be damaged under magnetic fields close to 1 T and have higher both temperature dependence and offset than AMR sensors (Ripka, 2008) . Fiber optic sensors can detect magnetic fields from 10 -2 to 10 6 nT and are immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (Bahreyni, 2006) . These sensors exploit the magnetostrictive effect, which changes the dimensions of the magnetostrictive material under an external magnetic field. The magnetostrictive material is bonded over a piece of optical fiber that operates as a Mach-Zender interferometer. It measures the strain of the optical fiber under an external magnetic field. Unfortunately, fiber optic sensors are affected by both temperature and pressure shifts. Resonant magnetic field microsensors based on MEMS are a new alternative in order to detect magnetic fields with a resolution close to nanoteslas (Herrera-May et al., 2009a). These microsensors employ resonant structures for monitoring magnetic fields through Lorentz force and use capacitive, piezoresistive or optical sensing techniques. They offer advantages such as a small size (on order of micrometers), low power consumption (around of milliwatts), high functionality, wide dynamic range, and low cost through batch fabrication. They can be more compact and lighter than the SQUIDs, fiber optic sensors, and search coil sensors. Magnetic field sensors based on MEMS can be placed closer to lowmagnetic field sources in order to increase their output signals. These sensors need to be subjected to more studies of reliability in order to guarantee a safe operation in future commercial market. Several of they have problems such as nonlinear response, necessity of vacuum packaging, post-processing steps for releasing their resonant structures, and complex signal conditioning circuits. This work presents the development of resonant magnetic field microsensors based on MEMS that exploit the Lorentz force principle. It describes the general performance, advantages, drawbacks, challenges and future applications of the resonant magnetic field microsensors. Development of resonant magnetic field microsensors This section presents the development of several resonant magnetic field microsensors based on MEMS. It describes the general performance and sensing techniques of these microsensors. www.intechopen.com Development of Resonant Magnetic Field Microsensors: Challenges and Future Applications
Gas microsensors based on tungsten oxide (WO3-x) nanowires (NWs) silanized with APTES (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) are developed in this work. These surface modified microsensors are highly sensitive to ethanol at room temperature (RT) via photoactivation and show enhanced selectivity towards other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acetone and toluene.doi:10.3390/proceedings2130790 fatcat:3xijp3evy5hubm6yb6fmldbeze
Cryptophycins are a class of 16-membered highly cytotoxic macrocyclic depsipeptides isolated from cyanobacteria. The biological activity is based on their ability to interact with tubulin. They interfere with microtubule dynamics and prevent microtubules from forming correct mitotic spindles, which causes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Their strong antiproliferative activities with 100-fold to 1000-fold potency compared with those of paclitaxel and vinblastine have been observed.doi:10.1002/psc.3015 pmid:28661555 fatcat:i4d4ycsh5vbi7k6dyqqqz34x7q
more »... are highly promising drug candidates, as their biological activity is not negatively affected by P-glycoprotein, a drug efflux system commonly found in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and solid tumors. Cryptophycin-52 had been investigated in phase II clinical trials but failed because of its high neurotoxicity. Recently, cryptophycin conjugates with peptides and antibodies have been developed for targeted delivery in tumor therapy.
Gas microsensors based on columnar zinc oxide structures (rods and needles) with different aspect ratios and wetting properties are developed via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The correlation between their wetting properties and degree of humidity-interference in gas sensing is presented. Gas sensing tests of these systems to hydrogen demonstrate noticeable lower humidity-interference for the columnar zinc oxide structures in the form of needles provided of higher hydrophobicity,doi:10.3390/proceedings1040417 fatcat:ppza6na3rnaylbdmip6osjqdii
more »... s opposed to those in the form of rods, suggesting that a tuning of the wetting properties in metal oxides could allow for the humidity-resilient detection of gaseous analytes.
Cryptophycins are naturally occurring cytotoxins with great potential for chemotherapy. Since targeted therapy provides new perspectives for treatment of cancer, new potent analogues of cytotoxic agents containing functional groups for conjugation to homing devices are required. We describe the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of three new unit B cryptophycin analogues. The O-methyl group of the unit B D-tyrosine analogue was replaced by an O-(allyloxyethyl) moiety, andoi:10.3762/bjoc.14.109 pmid:29977395 pmcid:PMC6009196 fatcat:3pncoxqwhfbblibguhti36fide
more »... ) group, or an O-(((azidoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoyxethyl) substituent. While the former two maintain cytotoxicity in the subnanomolar range, the attachment of the triethylene glycol spacer with a terminal azide results in a complete loss of activity. Docking studies of the novel cryptophycin analogues to β-tubulin provided a rationale for the observed cytotoxicities.
Love wave sensors with silver-modified polypyrrole nanoparticles are developed in this work. These systems prove functional at room temperature with enhanced response, sensitivity and response time, as compared to other state-of-the-art surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, towards volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results demonstrate the monitoring of hundreds of ppb of compounds such as acetone, ethanol and toluene with low estimated limits of detection (~3 ppb for acetone). These results aredoi:10.3390/s20051432 pmid:32155699 fatcat:cgdfoijk35anhmspsea2v2nrfu
more »... attributed to the use of silver-modified polypyrrole as a second guiding/sensitive layer in the Love wave sensor structure, which provides further chemically active sites for the gas-solid interactions. The sensing of low VOCs concentrations by micro sensing elements as those presented here could be beneficial in future systems for air quality control, food quality control or disease diagnosis via exhaled breath as the limits of detection obtained are within those required in these applications.
Gas sensitive cerium oxide-tungsten oxide core-shell nanowires are synthesized and integrated directly into micromachined platforms via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. Tests to various volatile organic compounds (acetone, ethanol, and toluene) involved in early disease diagnosis demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to acetone for the core-shell structures in contrast to the non-modified materials (i.e., only tungsten oxide or cerium oxide). This is attributed to the high density ofdoi:10.3390/bios8040116 pmid:30477177 fatcat:4ifu7p77dng5zfkitdaigqzddu
more »... n vacancy defects at the shell, as well as the formation of heterojunctions at the core-shell interface, which provide the modified nanowires with 'extra' chemical and electronic sensitization as compared to the non-modified materials.
Importance: The clinical presentation of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome is one of the more severe forms of preeclampsia. COVID-19 infection exhibits signs that are shared with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome, which may lead to needless interventions and iatrogenic preterm delivery. Objective: We evaluated the prevalence of HELLP-like signs in pregnant women admitted for COVID-19 and the value of angiogenic factors to rule out preeclampsia. Methods: adoi:10.1101/2020.07.10.20133801 fatcat:ymyf3fv3kfakzdivcngmvt7ogm
more »... onsecutive series of 27 pregnant women beyond 20 weeks of gestation, with symptomatic COVID-19. Clinical and analytical features were recorded and those cases with signs of HELLP syndrome were tested for sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Results: Seven patients (25.9%) presented at least one sign of suspected HELLP syndrome, of which 2 (7.4%) were diagnosed clinically with PE because of hypertension and high transaminases and 5 (18.5%) had only elevated transaminases. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was normal in 6 of 7. Conclusion: Symptomatic COVID-19 may simulate severe preeclampsia in pregnancy. Angiogenic factors may be essential to avoid false diagnosis and needless interventions. These data were presented in a Virtual Symposium on Covid-19 and Pregnancy on 17 April: 2020:(http://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/simposiocovid19/ [Spanish] and https://medicinafetalbarcelona.org/symposiumcovid19/ [English]
0.52-2.42 0.77 Abnormal mean UtA PI 4.17 1.97-8.81 <0.001 Abnormal UA PI 1.65 0.55-2.75 0.38 Abnormal MCA PI 1.73 0.87-2.59 0.25 Downloaded by: 220.127.116.11 -10/31/2017 1:43:45 AM Meler/Figueras ... Gratacós Fetal Diagn Ther 2010;27:8-13 Downloaded by: 18.104.22.168 -10/31/2017 1:43:45 AM Prognostic Role of Uterine Artery Doppler in Patients with Preeclampsia Fetal Diagn Ther 2010;27:8-13 Meler/Figueras ...doi:10.1159/000258048 pmid:19907134 fatcat:lzktyltlvnc6th3p26xiz4c4vm
Case registries of pregnant women diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have reported that the majority experienced mild infection, but up to 9% may require critical care. Most COVID-19 cases published were in the third trimester of pregnancy, which could reflect reporting bias, higher risk of infection or increased disease severity in late pregnancy. Seroprevalence studies may allow reliable estimates of the susceptibility to infection and clinicaldoi:10.1101/2020.06.17.20134098 fatcat:i4r4vejxl5dwdbz6snnmrex4du
more »... ctrum since they include asymptomatic and mild infections not tested for PCR. We evaluated the seroprevalence and clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnant women in the first and third trimester. Methods: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at each institution and informed consent was obtained. We recruited 874 consecutive pregnancies attending for first trimester screening (10-16 weeks of gestation, n=372) or delivery (n=502) from April 14 to May 5. All women were interviewed with a structured questionnaire for COVID-19 symptoms two months prior to sampling. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM/IgA antibodies were tested (COVID-19 VIRCLIA Monotest, Vircell Microbiologist, Spain; reported sensitivity 70% IgG and 89% IgM/IgA, and specificity 89% and 99% respectively). Indeterminate results were re-tested (VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti-SARS-CoV2 Total Tests, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA; 100% sensitivity and specificity) and re-classified as positive or negative. Women with COVID-19 were diagnosed and managed according to standard protocols and guidelines3,4. Statistical differences were tested using the χ2 test or Student t-test as appropriate (p<0.05). Results: A total of 125 of 874 women (14.3%) were positive for either IgG or IgM/IgA SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 54/372 (14.5%) in the first and 71/502 (14.1%) in the third trimester. A total of 75/125 (60%) reported no symptoms of COVID-19 in the past 2 months, whereas 44 (35.2%) reported one or more symptoms, of which 31 (24.8%) had at least 3 symptoms or anosmia and 8 (6.4%) dyspnea. Overall, 7 women (5.6%) were admitted for persistent fever despite paracetamol and dyspnea, of which 3 had signs of pneumonia on chest radiography. All 3 had criteria for severity (bilateral chest condensation, respiratory rate>30 and leukopenia) and required oxygen support but not critical care or mechanical ventilation, and they were all discharged well. The rates of symptomatic infection, hospital admission or dyspnea were significantly higher in third trimester women (Table and Figure). Discussion: The 14.3% seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 in pregnant women in this study was substantially larger than the contemporary rates of PCR positive cases (0.78%) reported for women 20-40y in Barcelona. The data confirm that COVID-19 is asymptomatic in the majority of pregnant women6 and illustrate the value of seroprevalence studies to capture the high proportion of asymptomatic or mild infections. In this study, none of the 125 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection required critical care as compared to 9% reported in cases diagnosed with PCR. However, the proportion of infections with symptoms or dyspnea was remarkably higher in the third trimester, and these results are in line with COVID-19 registries, reporting that 81% of hospitalized women were in late pregnancy or peripartum. These results provide reassuring information that, even in settings with a high prevalence, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy mostly presents with asymptomatic or mild clinical forms. The susceptibility to infection seemed to be the same in the first and the third trimesters of gestation. The data further suggest that, as with other respiratory viruses, COVID-19 could be more severe and require increased surveillance in late pregnancy. These findings should be confirmed and extended with larger consecutive prevalence studies in pregnancy.
EDUROV is an educational underwater robot proposal from the researchers of the Oceanic Platform of Canary Islands (PLOCAN) and the Computer Vision and Robotics research group of the University of Girona (VICOROB), launched in January 2012 with the support of the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECyT). This program has evolved in the last decade in order to make it more sustainable, allowing the teleoperation of underwater vehicles from anywhere in the world. EDUROVs have passeddoi:10.3390/su13158657 fatcat:mxfi7gkmrzclhkpwctfovxslvu
more »... rough several phases, beginning with a basic electronics robot, followed by the incorporation of open-source electronic prototyping platforms and finally reaching the current state of teleoperation. Results based on 1–5 Likert scale questions show that both students and teachers consider the program useful to introduce technical and scientific concepts. It is concluded that the use of low-cost materials and tools that are easy to obtain, following education on sustainability approaches, also makes them possible for use in high schools, and science teachers can easily carry out the activity. Moreover, the possibility of remote teleoperation of underwater vehicles, together with the collaboration among groups of students in different locations that are in contact through these online tools, allows one to motivate students to work on the project from a different perspective.
The effective delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells is a key challenge in anticancer therapy. Multivalent integrinspecific ligands are considered a promising tool to increase the binding affinity, selectivity, and internalization efficiency of small-molecule drug conjugates. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a multimeric conjugate containing the high-affinity integrin αv β3 binding ligand RAFT-c(RGDfK)4 , a lysosomally cleavable Val-Cit linker, anddoi:10.1002/chem.201905437 pmid:31943410 pmcid:PMC7064988 fatcat:zjowirffvzh7lh5gpcwepkwxgm
more »... 5 glycinate, a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. In vitro cytotoxicity assays verified that the multimeric RGD-cryptophycin conjugate displays improved potency compared to the monomeric analogue in integrin αv β3 overexpressing tumor cell lines, while significantly reduced activity was observed in the integrin-negative cell line.
We recently identified the glioblastoma homing peptide CooP (CGLSGLGVA) using in vivo phage display screen. The mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI/FABP3) was identified as its interacting partner. Here, we present an alanine scan of A-CooP to investigate the contribution of each amino acid residue to the binding to FABP3 by microscale thermophoresis (MST) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We also tested the binding affinity of the A-CooP-K, KA-CooP, and retro-inverso A-CooP analogues todoi:10.3390/cancers12071836 pmid:32650473 fatcat:vyiixafdfbd3toiz53pg644coi
more »... he recombinant FABP3. According to the MST analysis, A-CooP showed micromolar (KD = 2.18 µM) affinity to FABP3. Alanine replacement of most of the amino acids did not affect peptide affinity to FABP3. The A-CooP-K variant showed superior binding affinity, while A-[Ala5]CooP and A-[Ala7]CooP, both replacing a glycine residue with alanine, showed negligible binding to FABP3. These results were corroborated in vitro and in vivo using glioblastoma models. Both A-CooP-K and A-CooP showed excellent binding in vitro and homing in vivo, while A-[Ala5]CooP and control peptides failed to bind the cells or home to the intracranial glioblastoma xenografts. These results provide insight into the FABP3–A-CooP interaction that may be important for future applications of drug conjugate design and development.
Superficies y vacío
This document presents the finite element modeling using ANSYS to obtain the thermal resistance of a MEMS thermal sensor. Additionally, the document describes a thermoelectrical characterization to find the sensor performance parameters. For modeling purposes, we divided the thermal sensor into four different thickness zones. We analyzed three different models, the first includes all materials layers, the second involves an equivalent thermal conductivity and an equivalent thickness for eachdoi:10.47566/2018_syv31_1-020033 fatcat:uspemzvllvh5xokdjf6wdktn4i
more »... e, and the proposed model besides using an equivalent thermal conductivity by zone also considers the same thickness for all zones to reduce simulation time and to optimize thermal sensor design parameters. The first model evaluates three different boundary conditions, while the second and third models consider two different thermopile wide strips. The thermal resistance of the proposed model has a relative error of 11% in relation to the experimental value. The model, considering all layers and heat power applied to the surface as boundary conditions, has the lowest error (9%), while models considering the thermopile strips width have shown a higher error, 67%. As a result, the proposed model for heat transfer analysis simplifies complex geometries and reduces simulation time.
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