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D.8.2: Technical evaluation

Alessandro Marchetto, Daniele Brevi, Edoardo Bonetto, Gabor Halasz, Jan Strohbeck, Martin Dirnwöeber
2021 Zenodo  
The aim of the ICT4CART project is to design, implement and test a versatile ICT infrastructure in real-life conditions, which will enable the transition towards higher levels of automation. It focuses on four high-value use cases: Smart Parking & IoT services, dynamic adaptation of vehicle automation level based on infrastructure information, intersection crossing (urban) & lane merging (highway), and cross-border Interoperability. These use cases are serving one of the project's main targets,
more » ... which is to show that the proposed and implemented ICT infrastructure architecture is flexible, adaptable and can serve the needs of various automated driving use cases (safety, comfort, etc.) with different requirements, across test sites with different capabilities. The ICT4CART use cases can be global or local, can be associated with network slices or not, can use Edge Clouds/Computing or not, can use different radio technologies and can be used everywhere (roaming aspect). They also consider mechanisms for cyber-security, authentication, integrity protection and privacy. For this purpose, four test sites are involved in ICT4CART, namely in Austria, in Germany, in Italy and a cross-border site at the Austrian-Italian borders. The main objective of WP8 is to evaluate the performance of the ICT4CART architecture through the proposed scenarios defined for each test site. This deliverable describes the basis on which the technical evaluation will be performed. Based on the outcomes of Task 8.1 "Evaluation Methodology and Plan", this deliverable refines the definition of Technical Evaluation Key Performance Indicators (TE-KPIs) considering the feedback received from the integration and testing activities of the different test sites. Furthermore, it introduces procedures for the measurements of each TE-KPI to achieve a consistent approach across the ICT4CART test sites. These procedures take also into account the need to evaluate the different components and solutions of the ICT4CART architecture that are tested in so [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396677 fatcat:arftuwszujfxnenv7k6kbvx2my

D.9.7: Final report on communication, dissemination & liaison

Daniele Brevi, Edoardo Bonetto, Elena Krikigianni, Tomislav Pilic, Irini Krimpa, Elisa Todesco, Lidia Buenavida
2022 Zenodo  
Context: Connected and automated vehicles are a key focal point of ITS research. To enable and accelerate their deployment in our everyday life, ICT is a prerequisite; this is the frame in which ICT4CART project places itself. Despite the significant advances in the telecom and IT industries, several ICT challenges related to connectivity, data management, cyber-security and ICT infrastructure architectures still exist, and need to be addressed to enable road vehicle automation. ICT4CART aimed
more » ... o address the gaps to deployment, bringing together over 42 months key players from the automotive, telecom and IT industries to shape the ICT landscape for Connected and Automated Road Transport and to boost EU competitiveness and innovation in this area. Project scope ICT4CART's main objective was to design, implement and test in real-life conditions a versatile ICT infrastructure that will enable the transition towards higher levels of automation (up to L4) by addressing existing gaps and working with specific key ICT elements, namely hybrid connectivity, data management, cyber-security, data privacy and accurate localisation. ICT4CART built on high-value use cases (urban and highway), which have been demonstrated and validated in real-life conditions at ICT4CART test sites in Austria, Germany and Italy (cfr.D7.3, D7.4, D7.5). Significant effort has been put into cross-border interoperability through the set-up of a separate test site at the Italian-Austrian border (cfr. D7.6). D9.7 Final report on communication, dissemination & liaison This document provides ICT4CART's final report on communication, dissemination & liaison activities carried out by the whole consortium throughout the entirety of the project. It includes a detailed overview on all communication and dissemination actions that have been performed by the ICT4CART consortium from M1 until M42 (timeline moved from M36 to M42 due to the official extension obtained by the project), benchmarking the pe [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396950 fatcat:h45zl4omarasjp5zeqbq3l7qjm

Energy profiling of ISP points of presence

Edoardo Bonetto, Marco Mellia, Michela Meo
2012 2012 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)  
Points of Presence (PoP), large aggregation nodes of a telecommunication network in which users lines are interconnected to the ISP backbone network, are relevant elements of the ISP network infrastructure. Motivated by the today interest of both ISPs and researchers to more energy efficient Internet, we investigate the power consumption of PoPs of FASTWEB, a national-wide ISP in Italy. Energy profiling spans a period of one year, and includes both ADSL and FTTH access technologies. This
more » ... ve and unique dataset allows us to shed light on energy consumption of ISP networks, which we profile against other measurements, such as external temperature and PoP handled traffic. Results show that energy consumption is independent on the traffic, while it is strongly correlated with both daily and annual variability of temperature, due to air conditioning energy cost. Starting from these results, we investigate some possible strategies to reduce ISP electricity bill. We consider the adoption of energy proportional architectures which are currently being investigated by both manufacturers and researchers. Moreover, we evaluate the possible energy savings using real traffic data and we obtain that simple PoPs energy saving models based on two-three energy operating configuration can achieve results comparable to fully energy proportional model.
doi:10.1109/icc.2012.6364815 dblp:conf/icc/BonettoMM12 fatcat:6k7gmde34zeerlvyszvikt3s3a

D.9.3: Definition of Communication Strategy & Plan (Version III)

Daniele Brevi, Edoardo Bonetto, Elena Krikigianni, Tomislav Pilic, Vasilis Sourlas, Elisa Todesco, Sara Jane Weeks
2021 Zenodo  
Context: Connected and automated vehicles are a key focal point of ITS research. To enable and accelerate their deployment in our everyday life, ICT is a prerequisite; this is the frame in which ICT4CART project places itself. Despite the significant advances in the telecom and IT industries, several ICT challenges related to connectivity, data management, cyber-security and ICT infrastructure architectures still exist, and need to be addressed to enable road vehicle automation. ICT4CART aims
more » ... address the gaps to deployment, bringing together key players from the automotive, telecom and IT industries, to shape the ICT landscape for Connected and Automated Road Transport and to boost EU competitiveness and innovation in this area. Project scope: ICT4CART's main objective is to design, implement and test in real-life conditions a versatile ICT infrastructure that will enable the transition towards higher levels of automation (up to L4), addressing existing gaps and working with specific key ICT elements, namely hybrid connectivity, data management, cyber-security, data privacy and accurate localisation. ICT4CART builds on high-value use cases (urban and highway), which will be demonstrated and validated in real-life conditions at ICT4CART test sites in Austria, Germany and Italy. Significant effort will be put on cross-border interoperability, setting up a separate test site at the Italian-Austrian border. D9.3 Definition of Communication Strategy & Plan (Version III): This document provides ICT4CART's final communication strategy and plan. It includes a detailed overview on all communication and dissemination actions that have been performed by the ICT4CART consortium from M1 until M36. As granted via the official extension obtained by the project, the publication of D9.3 Definition of Communication Strategy and Plan (Version III) has been postponed from M30 to M36. This has allowed the consortium to re-adapt the strategy and the plan including ad hoc mitiga [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396877 fatcat:g7qnsuoeljh4horhpnps5r6c3u

D.3.3: IT environment Specification and Architecture

Anastasia Petrou, Danilo Amendola, Daniele Brevi, Edoardo Bonetto, Elena Krikigianni, Jan Strohbeck, Michael Buchholz, Silvia Capato, Vasilis Sourlas, Yassine Lassoued
2019 Zenodo  
The aim of the ICT4CART project is to design, implement and test in real-life conditions a versatile ICT infrastructure that will enable the transition towards higher levels of automation. It focuses on four high-value use cases: 1. UC1 - Smart parking and IoT services, 2. UC2 - Dynamic adaptation of vehicle automation level based on infrastructure information, 3. UC3 - Intersection crossing (urban) and lane merging (highway), 4. UC4 - Cross-border interoperability between Austria and Italy.
more » ... above use cases will be implemented and tested in four test sites in Austria, Germany, Italy, and at the Austria-Italy border. This document is the first version of the IT environment specification and architecture (task T3.3 of ICT4CART). It defines the scope of the ICT4CART IT environment and provides an initial specification of the functions and components thereof. The document provides a high-level architecture as well as more detailed architectures focused on the various components. The ICT4CART IT environment architecture covers data exchange and management aspects, data analytics, semantic interoperability, environment perception models (EPM), and high-precision positioning. In order to design a generic architecture, we started by identifying the commonalities between the various use cases in terms of the data flows. This further allowed us to identify the common architectural components and data exchange standards to comply with across the test sites. The functional viewpoint of the IT environment architecture foresees two types of functions:  Core IT Services: These are low-level functions that are common across use cases and pilot sites. As such, they require a high level of standardisation. Core services include cooperative intelligent transport system (C-ITS) services, EPM building and fusion, service provider gateways, geo service, location correction, message brokering, and analytics.  Applications: These are services that are specific to the use cases. They typically make use of the core IT services. Appl [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396498 fatcat:rsafylxobjb57hf6ny4zb3hbpu

D.7.7: Collected and Aggregated Data

Gottfried Allmer, Michael Buchholz, Martin Dirnwöber, Edoardo Bonetto, Anton Dekusar, Martin Herrmann, Richard Lutz, Alessandro Marchetto, Rodrigo Ordonez Hurtado, Anastasia Petrou, Jan Strohbeck, Markus Wimmer
2022 Zenodo  
This document describes the data collection and aggregation methodology used in ICT4CART, together with a summary of the state of the art on tools needed for data acquisition, validation, transmission, database structure and storage. The developed methodology is impacted by the other tasks of WP7, where the test site requirements and deployments are specified, as well as the task T8.1 "Evaluation Methodology and Plan". The test sites have provided their own data specifications of the collected
more » ... ata in each use case. The data collection and aggregation methodology is described in the Section 2, and defines a common process that should be used by all the test sites and for each use case to produce required data with the right quality for the evaluation tasks in WP8. This deliverable presents insights into collected data with focus on the WP8 requirements and specificities per test site. In addition, the document explains the data management methodology and procedures, and defines the features of the centralised data management in ICT4CART which enables the storage and sharing of collected data across the consortium partners. The current deliverable is a public document and provides a complete picture of the data management methodology developed the task T7.7 "Data Collection and Aggregation" in ICT4CART. In this task, the involved partners have developed a common methodology for data acquisition and centralised data management, which is tailored to the needs of collection of semi-structured data formats that may significantly vary from a test site to a test site. All collected data are stored in a centralised data management system. The design and architecture of such a system are explained in Section 5 of this document, which provides a deep understanding of the interfaces provided to the evaluators and to the test sites to collect data.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396592 fatcat:iifzc4nlcvflhbx4wddih4t4nu

Traffic grooming and energy-efficiency in flexible-grid networks

Arsalan Ahmad, Andrea Bianco, Edoardo Bonetto
2014 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC)  
Energy-efficient design of flexible-grid networks is investigated. We focus on the design of the logical layer, usually disregarded when dealing with flexible-grid networks. More precisely, we evaluate the impact of introducing an energy-aware electronic traffic grooming in flexible-grid networks design. We propose two greedy heuristics for the network design, one exploiting traffic grooming, and we compare their energy efficiency. Results have been retrieved for several randomly generated
more » ... rks of different size, with different connectivity, average physical link length and traffic scenarios. Significant energy savings can be achieved for low traffic loads and large network size when performing traffic grooming.
doi:10.1109/icc.2014.6883824 dblp:conf/icc/AhmadBB14 fatcat:6cenosklpjdbbiwphaw7q2o2ty

Energy efficiency in access and aggregation networks: From current traffic to potential savings

Edoardo Bonetto, Alessandro Finamore, Marco Mellia, Riccardo Fiandra
2014 Computer Networks  
Access and aggregation networks account nowadays for a large share of the consumed energy in communication networks, and actions to ameliorate their energy cost are under investigation by the research community. In this work, we present a study of the possible savings that could be achieved if such technologies were in place. We take advantage of large datasets of measurements collected from the network of FASTWEB, a national-wide Internet Service Provider in Italy. We first perform a detailed
more » ... haracterization of the energy consumption of Points of Presence (PoPs) investigating on how factors such as external temperature, cooling technology and traffic load influence the consumed energy. Our measurements precisely quantify how the power consumption in today networks is practically independent from the traffic volume, while it is correlated only with the external temperature. We then narrow down our analysis to consider the traffic generated by each household. More specifically, by observing about 10,000 ADSL customers, we characterize the typical traffic patterns generated by users who access the Internet. Using the available real data, we thus investigate if the energy consumption can be significantly reduced by applying simple energy-efficient policies that are currently under studies. We investigate energy-to-traffic proportional and resource consolidation technologies for the PoP, while sleep modes policies are considered at the ADSL lines. All these energy-efficient policies, even if they are not yet available, are currently being widely investigated by both manufacturers and researchers. At the PoP level, our dataset shows that it would be possible to save up to 50% of energy, and that even simple mechanisms would easily allow to save 30% of energy. Considering the ADSL lines, it results that sleep mode policies can be effectively implemented, reducing the energy consumption of ADSL modems with little or marginal impact on the Quality of Service offered to users. We make available all datasets used in this paper to allow other researchers to benchmark their proposals considering actual traffic traces.
doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2014.03.008 fatcat:opddzmq5svdxrdxl4z2euapoj4

Energy-Aware Design of Multilayer Core Networks [Invited]

Arsalan Ahmad, Andrea Bianco, Edoardo Bonetto, Luca Chiaraviglio, Filip Idzikowski
2013 Journal of Optical Communications and Networking  
We consider the power-efficient design of an Internet protocol (IP)-over-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network, tackling the problem of installing optical and IP layer equipment to satisfy traffic requirements. We take into account routing constraints and consider a comprehensive set of realistic scenarios defined by network topology, traffic matrix, and power consumption values of network devices in both layers. Furthermore, besides defining and solving an optimal integer linear
more » ... mming model, we propose an efficient heuristic to solve the problem up to medium-sized networks. The proposed heuristic requires at most 30% of additional power with respect to the optimal solution, but with a significantly reduced complexity. We show that the largest power consumption is due to line cards and routers rather than WDM equipment. Furthermore, we find that multipath routing reduces the network power consumption with respect to single-path routing, but not significantly. Finally, we show that a two-step design procedure, in which power is separately minimized in each layer (i.e., IP and WDM layers), can find results with a total power consumption comparable to the one achieved by a more complex joint multilayer design procedure.
doi:10.1364/jocn.5.00a127 fatcat:3c5ka6qegbafzgzb7h3thevy6a

D.6.1: SoA & benchmarking of Existing Cyber-security Mechanisms and Technologies

Danilo Amendola, Edoardo Bonetto, Jesus Diaz Vico, Guillemette Massot, Bernhard Monschiebl, Panagiotis Pantazopoulos, Christophe Ponchel, Maria Rita Spada
2020 Zenodo  
The deliverable relies on a well-established categorization of the different communication technology areas of connected and automated driving (Section 2) and presents a set of relevant cyber-security technologies to each area (Section 3). The corresponding cyber-security challenges are discussed and the way that they are addressed by the described technology is detailed. Subsequently, the deliverable points to certain technology gaps in the identified cyber-security technology and proposes a
more » ... refully-selected set of features that each solution is expected to exhibit (Section 4). This set can serve as recommended benchmarking criteria to comparatively analyze the full spectrum of the various cyber-security tools (which apparently cannot be available to the project). The document concludes providing links from the herein surveyed state-of-the-art cybersecurity tools to the actual ICT4CART implementation work in WP6 and furthermore the ICT4CART integrated ecosystem.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396538 fatcat:7mrz7aswmvduzcgu7k5lw3sj6q

Monetisation of and Access to in-Vehicle data and resources: the 5GMETA approach [article]

Djibrilla Amadou Kountche, Fatma Raissi, Mandimby Ranaivo Rakotondravelona, Edoardo Bonetto, Daniele Brevi, Angel Martin, Oihana Otaegui, Gorka Velez
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Today's vehicles are increasingly embedded with computers and sensors which produce huge amount of data. The data are exploited for internal purposes and with the development of connected infrastructures and smart cities, the vehicles interact with each other as well as with road users generating other types of data. The access to these data and in-vehicle resources and their monetisation faces many challenges which are presented in this paper. Furthermore, the most important commercial
more » ... compared to the open and novel approach faced in the H2020 5GMETA project.
arXiv:2208.11335v1 fatcat:ppprk4ibvncp3opwonab6ksyzq

Cyclophilin A knock-out mice develop a pure frontotemporal dementia phenotype with marked TDP-43 pathology [article]

Laura Pasetto, Silvia Pozzi, Edoardo Micotti, Milica Cerovic, Mirjana Carli, Gianluigi Forloni, Valentina Bonetto
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of early-onset dementia, characterized by frontotemporal lobar degeneration and considerable clinical, genetic and neuropathological heterogeneity. Several mouse models of FTD have been generated targeting genes with known pathogenic roles. However, each of these models recapitulates only certain aspects of the human disease. Cyclophilin A (PPIA) is a multifunctional protein abundantly expressed in the brain, with double-edged functions.
more » ... larly, it is mainly protective as a foldase and molecular chaperone with scaffolding properties. Extracellularly, it behaves as a proinflammatory cytokine able to activate an aberrant inflammatory response. In a previous work, we found that PPIA governs TDP-43 functions and its deficiency exacerbates disease in a mouse model of ALS. Selective inhibition of extracellular PPIA rescued motor neurons and increased survival. To decipher PPIA functions in the central nervous system, we planned a deep neuropathological and behavioral characterization of PPIA knock-out (PPIA-/-) mice throughout their lifespan. They develop a neurodegenerative disease that recapitulates key features of the behavioral variant of FTD associated with TDP-43 pathology. PPIA-/- mice present progressive hippocampal and cortex atrophy, with neuronal death and clear-cut TDP-43 pathology that include fragmentation, hyperphosphorylation, and cytoplasmic mislocalization/nuclear clearing. Mice exhibit increased disinhibition, defects in social behavior, but no memory and motor impairment. On a molecular level, our findings indicate that PPIA is involved in multiple genes and pathways that have a dominant protective effect in the brain, and is fundamental for TDP-43 function. Considering that an impaired interaction of TDP-43 with PPIA has been observed in ALS/FTD patients, the PPIA-/- mouse is a useful experimental model to investigate the mechanism at the basis of TDP-43 pathology and develop novel therapeutic approaches for ALS/FTD and possibly other TDP-43 proteinopathies.
doi:10.1101/2020.06.08.129528 fatcat:5q6zdpd34ng5rfux2kkqgejd6u

Energy efficient content distribution in an ISP network

Remigiusz Modrzejewski, Luca Chiaraviglio, Issam Tahiri, Frederic Giroire, Esther Le Rouzic, Edoardo Bonetto, Francesco Musumeci, Roberto Gonzalez, Carmen Guerrero
2013 2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM)  
Bonetto is with the Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy (e-mail: edoardo.bonetto@polito.it). F.  ... 
doi:10.1109/glocom.2013.6831508 dblp:conf/globecom/ModrzejewskiCTGRBMGG13 fatcat:e7fxsgyycrc6hi2fqsxhxg7key

D.8.1: Evaluation methodology

Gottfried Allmer, Isabel Althoff, Danilo Amendola, Alberto Bellini, Paul Blakeman, Edoardo Bonetto, Daniele Brevi, Michael Buchholz, Birger Haetty, Robert Mark Hegyi, Kevin Lepretre, Guillemette Massot (+9 others)
2020 Zenodo  
The aim of the ICT4CART project is to design, implement and test a versatile ICT infrastructure in real-life conditions, which will enable the transition towards higher levels of automation. It focuses on four high-value use cases: Smart Parking & IoT services, dynamic adaptation of vehicle automation level based on infrastructure information, intersection crossing (urban) & lane merging (highway), and cross-border Interoperability. ICT4CART use cases have been carefully selected based on
more » ... ic criteria, which are: i) alignment with EU policy and relevant forums and initiatives, ii) significant impact on connected automation, iii) the ability to generalise on the results (applicable in other scenarios and environments), and iv) interest to the consortium members and relevance to their industrial roadmaps. Moreover, these use cases are serving one of the main targets of the project, which is to show that the proposed and implemented ICT infrastructure architecture is flexible, adaptable and can serve the needs of various automated driving use cases (safety, comfort, etc.) with different requirements, across test sites with different capabilities. The ICT4CART use cases can be global or 7 local, can be associated with network slices or not, can use Edge Clouds/Computing or not, can use different radio technologies and can be used everywhere (roaming aspect). They also consider mechanisms for cyber-security, authentication, integrity and privacy. For this purpose, four test sites are involved in ICT4CART, namely in Austria, in Germany, in Italy and a cross-border site at the Austrian-Italian borders. The main objective of WP8 is to evaluate the ICT4CART architecture through the proposed scenarios defined for each test site. Since ICT4CART deals with many different components, multiple use cases and novel architectural solutions, its actual evaluation becomes pivotal and inartistically multifaceted. WP8 will evaluate and validate each logical component of the proposed architecture (D3.1-D3.4) and its poten [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6396617 fatcat:siujbw6zr5acdajfnspy3gr2py

EWA: An adaptive algorithm for energy saving in IP-over-WDM networks

Filip Idzikowski, Luca Chiaraviglio, Edoardo Bonetto
2012 2012 17th European Conference on Networks and Optical Communications  
We propose Energy Watermark Algorithm (EWA), an adaptive algorithm to reduce power consumption in Internet Protocol (IP)-over-Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks. Our solution wisely adapts the set of powered on line cards to the actual traffic demand. In particular, EWA trades between network power consumption and Quality of Service (QoS) by changing the level of overprovisioning of the lightpaths. We evaluate the performance of EWA over a set of realistic scenarios. Results show
more » ... at EWA adapts the power consumption to the traffic variation, while limiting the amount of rerouted traffic. We also show that a proper setting of the input parameters allows to avoid overload introduced by the power saving.
doi:10.1109/noc.2012.6249922 fatcat:h4tsktoserfzzjh4bfilm7eham
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