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Epidemiology of prostate cancer in Asia

Edmund Chiong
2015 Prostate International  
Asia, which comprises over 4 billion people, makes up approximately 60 percent of the world's population. Its population is currently seen to be rising faster than Europe's or America's. Asia's population is also ageing and experiencing longer life expectancy, with a significant projected increase in proportion of people over 65 years of age, in the next few decades. Prostate cancer is the 3 rd most common cancer amongst men worldwide, and incidence rates are highest in western countries and
more » ... est in Asian countries. Recent data from Asia have shown steady increase in prostate cancer incidence in the past few decades, with some countries such as Korea, experiencing a rapid rise. The average mortality rate of prostate cancer in Asian countries is 3.8 per 100,000, but current data shows a rising trend in a number of countries. 1,2 Although prostate cancer incidence is lower in Asia compared to western countries, the mortality-to-incidence rate ratio is generally higher in Asian countries (up to 0.63), compared to that of Caucasian population in the USA (up to 0.17). 3 These numbers differ across Asia, with Japan, Korea, and Singapore having lower mortality-to-incidence rate ratios than Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, and China. As for China, there is also a huge variability between Shanghai and other provinces. Multiple factors including increasing age, genetic differences (including differences in prevalence of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, PTEN inactivation and polymorphisms), environmental factors, changing dietary habits, increased obesity and increasing adoption of prostate cancer screening have been proposed to be responsible for the differences and rise in incidence rates, in Asia. 2 Ethnic difference, relatively lower intensity of screening, late detection of cancers in advanced or metastatic stages, and variations in resource for access to therapy, are thought to contribute to the higher mortality rate in Asian countries. There is a need for better understanding of the variations in biology, more data on the epidemiological trends, and collection of quality data on management and outcomes, for prostate cancer in Asia. Individualised screening and treatment strategies for each country, depending on epidemiological characteristics and resource availability, needs to be developed. Conflict of interest EC is involved with Advisory Boards and received honoraria from Janssen, Sanofi, Bayer, Astellas.
doi:10.1016/j.prnil.2015.10.011 fatcat:7epdkqgnj5cexiug4pb5p6riaa

The role of chemohormonal therapy in metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer

Ravindran Kanesvaran, Ji Youl Lee, Edmund Chiong
2015 Prostate International  
. * Correpsonding author: Edmund Chiong (  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.prnil.2015.10.006 fatcat:pzaq5esghbbbjdljdtitxmyrhe

The incidence, mortality, and risk factors of prostate cancer in Asian men

Byung Ha Chung, Shigeo Horie, Edmund Chiong
2018 Prostate International  
Chiong reports nonfinancial support from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, during the conduct of the study.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.prnil.2018.11.001 pmid:30937291 pmcid:PMC6424686 fatcat:o36s3q6l2vdmppb7yptjp2q5lq

Clinical Studies Investigating The Use Of Leuprorelin For Prostate Cancer In Asia

Byung Ha Chung, Shigeo Horie, Edmund Chiong
2019 Prostate International  
Chiong reports receiving nonfinancial support from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, during the conduct of the study. Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.prnil.2019.06.001 pmid:32257971 pmcid:PMC7125360 fatcat:mydvxhf6k5bxzczsxpdc6qklru

Preserving Operational Capability while Building Capacity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Tertiary Urology Centre's Experience

Yi Quan Tan, Qing Hui Wu, Edmund Chiong
2020 Urology  
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2020.04.079 pmid:32360121 pmcid:PMC7188658 fatcat:23727izfanepdowwehquv7knva


Edmund Chiong, I-Ling Lee, Ali Dadbin, Anita L Sabichi, David J McConkey, H Barton Grossman
2009 Journal of Urology  
Purpose: We investigated the effect of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) on human bladder cancer (BC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: The effect of RAD001 on the growth of UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, UM-UC-9, and UM-UC-14 BC cells were assessed by crystal violet and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation assays. Flow cytometric cell-cycle analyses were done to measure the apoptotic cell fraction. Protein synthesis was measured using tritium-labeled leucine incorporation assays. The effects
more » ... RAD001 on the mTOR pathway were analyzed by Western blotting. To test the effects of RAD001 in vivo, UM-UC-3, UM-UC-6, and UM-UC-9 cells were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were treated orally with RAD001 or placebo. Tumors were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: In vitro, RAD001 transiently inhibited BC cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was augmented by re-treatment of cells after 3 days. UM-UC-14 cells were the most sensitive to RAD001, whereas UM-UC-9 cells were the least sensitive. After re-treatment with RAD001, only sensitive cell lines showed G 1 -phase arrest, with no evidence of apoptosis. RAD001 significantly inhibited the growth of tumors that were subcutaneously implanted in mice. Inhibition of protein synthesis through the S6K and 4EBP1 pathways seems to be the main mechanism for the RAD001-induced growth inhibition. However, inhibition of angiogenesis was the predominant mechanism of the effect of RAD001 on UM-UC-9 cells. Conclusions: The mTOR inhibitor RAD001 inhibits growth of BC cells in vitro. RAD001 is effective in treating BC tumors in an in vivo nude mouse model despite the heterogeneity of in vitro responses. Clin Cancer Res; 17(9); 2863-73. Ó2011 AACR.
doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(09)61154-x fatcat:qe7k564qr5doljtvadiukcxdk4

Guidelines on management of prostate cancer

Hong Gee Sim, Keith H C Lim, Miah Hiang Tay, Kian Tai Chong, Edmund Chiong
2013 Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore  
therapeutic option has different risk-benefi t profi les. Hence the rationale, indications, risks and benefi ts are presented to assist the clinician in his discussion with his patient. The committee favours this open discussion strategy over explicit and potentially dogmatic emphasis on certain therapeutic strategies. Other novel therapies currently used in Singapore are also included and specifi cally highlighted for selective risk groups only. A detailed statement as to the investigative
more » ... re of these therapies is also included. Published data on cost-benefi t issues for prostate cancer in Singapore are currently lacking and cost discussions differ in different institutions with varying extent of government subsidies and service grants. Hence cost considerations were not included in this set of guidelines.
pmid:23677214 fatcat:amdhf33jwzdpvdksgj74q2i6am

Extraction and quantification of biofilm bacteria: Method optimized for urinary catheters

Kedar Diwakar Mandakhalikar, Juwita Norasmara Rahmat, Edmund Chiong, Koon Gee Neoh, Liang Shen, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
2018 Scientific Reports  
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for the failure of many medical devices such as urinary catheters and are associated with many infectious and non-infectious complications. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of novel catheter coatings to prevent these infections needs to accurately quantify the bacterial load in the biofilm in vitro and ex vivo. There is currently no uniform gold standard for biofilm quantification for different surfaces and established biofilms. We have tried to establish a
more » ... simple, accurate and reproducible method for extraction and measurement of biofilm bacteria on indwelling catheters, using a combination of vortexing and sonication. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method for catheters of different sizes -3 Fr to 14 Fr -in vitro, in murine and porcine models, and indwelling in human clinical subjects. We also demonstrate consistent results with complex and polymicrobial biofilms. We believe that this standardized reproducible method will assist the assessment of biofilms in general and urological devices in particular in efforts to harness novel technologies to prevent healthcare associated infections. Bacterial biofilms and CAUTI. Biofilm formation is an important mechanism by which bacteria survive and persist despite antibiotics and host immune responses. Bacterial biofilms are responsible for the failure of many medical devices and are associated with many infectious and non-infectious complications 1 . Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are among the most commonly reported hospital acquired infections 2 . Bacteria frequently associated with CAUTI include uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc. 3 . Intraluminal and extraluminal biofilms, caused by the attachment of bacteria to the catheter, lead to the entry and subsequent persistence of uropathogens in the bladder. In addition, urease producing bacteria, especially P. mirabilis, contribute significantly to catheter encrustation through precipitation of salts such as calcium and magnesium phosphates 4 . Together, these are the major contributors to morbidity and mortality in CAUTI. The role of bacterial biofilm and encrustation in CAUTI and its ensuing complications has been widely described in the literature 5-8 . Novel approaches to preventing CAUTI have focussed on preventing the development of biofilms using various techniques including novel coatings 9 . Thus, preclinical and clinical evaluation of novel catheter coatings or materials needs to accurately quantify the bacterial load in the biofilm to compare the effectiveness of these methods in vitro and ex vivo.
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-26342-3 pmid:29795121 pmcid:PMC5966383 fatcat:r33eqyzscjfuzl6pqfbgrwxd6a

Review of Clinical Manifestations of Biochemically-advanced Prostate Cancer Cases

Edmund Chiong, Alvin Fung Wean Wong, Yiong Huak Chan, Chong Min Chin
2005 Asian Journal of Surgery  
shown to correlate directly with advancing clinical and pathological stage of prostate cancer, 3,7-10 although PSA level alone may not provide for accurate staging due to the overlap in PSA 070/20 ■ CHIONG  ...  Overall mortality rate, % 45 50 Mean time to overall mortality, mo 41.9 (range, 12-132) 81 (range, 1-972) Cancer-specific mortality rate, % 17.5 39.5 PSA = prostate specific antigen. 070/20 ■ CHIONG  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1015-9584(09)60344-4 pmid:16024317 fatcat:4pqrzf2vtvdvbjt3s2pdvd4ybq

Right Place, Right Time: Serendipitous Opportunities in a Urology Fellowship Disrupted by the COVID-19 Pandemic

Chowdhury Md Ashif, Yi Quan Tan, Ziting Wang, Ho Yee Tiong, Edmund Chiong
2020 Urology  
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2020.05.061 pmid:32533966 pmcid:PMC7287436 fatcat:j7x3t5sdendd3jtaucn7m5epay

Needle Deflection Studies for Optimal Insertion Modeling

Ka Wei Ng, Jin Quan Goh, Soo Leong Foo, Poh Hua Ting, Teck Kheng Lee, Kesavan Esuvaranathan, Qing Hui Wu, Edmund Chiong
2013 International Journal of Bioscience Biochemistry and Bioinformatics  
Chiong are with National University Hospital Singapore, SG Singapore (e-mail:,,  ... 
doi:10.7763/ijbbb.2013.v3.278 fatcat:32te4j6pbzaexelsav7gqlovw4

The Use of Short Tandem Repeat Profiling to Characterize Human Bladder Cancer Cell Lines

Edmund Chiong, Ali Dadbin, Loleta D. Harris, Anita L. Sabichi, H. Barton Grossman
2009 Journal of Urology  
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2009.01.108 pmid:19375735 pmcid:PMC2680455 fatcat:u36r63zu45djblfrnnepif5pau

The START (Surgical Triage And Resource Allocation Tool) of Surgical Prioritisation during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yi Quan Tan, Ziting Wang, Ho Yee Tiong, Wei Jin Chua, Qing Hui Wu, Edmund Chiong
2020 Urology  
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2020.05.021 pmid:32445764 pmcid:PMC7238979 fatcat:o3qofv5kz5hifd2yc3j67effna

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Urology Residency Program in Singapore

Yi Quan Tan, Ziting Wang, Ho Yee Tiong, Edmund Chiong
2020 Urology  
publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active. system resources. The pandemic scenario could rapidly change due to inadequate social behaviors or in case of a sec'ond wave of infection. However, any efforts and suggestions to mitigate the
more » ... dary effect of delaying urooncologic treatment should be pursued.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2020.05.027 pmid:32473937 pmcid:PMC7256528 fatcat:nef46g3aajg7ncq2x5s2zm2e7q

Surface modification strategies for combating catheter-related complications: recent advances and challenges

Koon Gee Neoh, Min Li, En-Tang Kang, Edmund Chiong, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
2017 Journal of materials chemistry. B  
Chiong A/Prof.  ...  Edmund Chiong received his MBBS and PhD from the National University of Singapore (NUS), and obtained his postgraduate medical qualifications from the UK and Singapore.  ... 
doi:10.1039/c6tb03280j pmid:32263678 fatcat:ajngraxfmjhyxc3trpzi6a4uwa
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