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Easy to Win, Hard to Master: Optimal Strategies in Parity Games with Costs [article]

Alexander Weinert, Martin Zimmermann
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Here, playing optimally is as hard as winning, both in terms of complexity and memory.  ...  Thus, solving and playing parity games with costs optimally is harder than just winning them. Moreover, we show that the tradeoff between the memory size and the realized bound is gradual in general.  ...  Playing Parity Games with Costs Optimally is PSPACE-hard.  ... 
arXiv:1604.05543v3 fatcat:i5no7vpobbc2jaiaqcaibghr44

Easy to Win, Hard to Master: Optimal Strategies in Parity Games with Costs *

Alexander Weinert, Martin Zimmermann
2016 17 Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik   unpublished
Thus, playing parity games with costs optimally is harder than just winning them.  ...  The winning condition of a parity game with costs requires an arbitrary, but fixed bound on the distance between occurrences of odd colors and the next occurrence of a larger even one.  ...  A detailed overview of more recent results in this direction and of tradeoffs in 31:4 Easy to Win, Hard to Master: Optimal Strategies in Parity Games with Costs multi-dimensional winning conditions is  ... 
fatcat:jx3cq2khjzaxfphehzfvy4ukou

The Complexity of Boundedness for Guarded Logics

Michael Benedikt, Balder Ten Cate, Thomas Colcombet, Michael Vanden Boom
2015 2015 30th Annual ACM/IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science  
Our proof extends the connection between guarded logics and automata, reducing boundedness for guarded logics to a question about cost automata on trees, a type of automaton with counters that assigns  ...  a natural number to each input rather than just a boolean. • the player that owns state q selects χ ∈ δ(q, t(v)), • the other player selects some (d, c, r) in χ,  ...  If Adam's optimal strategy is not (n+1)-winning in this approximant game, then there is an n-winning strategy for Eve in this approximant game selecting an X i valuation with only tuples in approximant  ... 
doi:10.1109/lics.2015.36 dblp:conf/lics/BenediktCCB15 fatcat:dfty4xxupfgnzb4wjmt3rz4ys4

Window Parity Games: An Alternative Approach Toward Parity Games with Time Bounds

Véronique Bruyère, Quentin Hautem, Mickael Randour
2016 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
Zimmermann (2014): Parity and Streett Games with Costs. LMCS 10(2). [WZ16] A. Weinert, M. Zimmermann (2016): Easy to Win, Hard to Master: Optimal Strategies in Parity Games with Costs.  ...  The first one, parity-response games, is based on the notion of finitary parity games [CHH09] and parity games with costs [FZ14,WZ16].  ...  We express our gratitude to Jean-François Raskin (Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium) and Martin Zimmermann (Saarland University, Germany) for insightful discussions.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.226.10 fatcat:dctb7qc5tngtdbwedp6oleisrq

Impartial Games: A Challenge for Reinforcement Learning [article]

Bei Zhou, Søren Riis
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Theoretically, there are well-known limits to the power of deep learning for strategy games like chess, Go, and shogi, as they are known to be NEXPTIME hard.  ...  The AlphaZero algorithm and its successor MuZero have revolutionised several competitive strategy games, including chess, Go, and shogi and video games like Atari, by learning to play these games better  ...  We appreciate the assistance of ITs Research team at the University of Queen Mary for supporting us in using the Apocrita HPC facility.  ... 
arXiv:2205.12787v1 fatcat:gcueoxg5u5eghlis3b6dnbyyfm

Window Parity Games: An Alternative Approach Toward Parity Games with Time Bounds (Full Version) [article]

Véronique Bruyère, Quentin Hautem, Mickael Randour
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Zimmermann (2014): Parity and Streett Games with Costs. LMCS 10(2). [WZ16] A. Weinert, M. Zimmermann (2016): Easy to Win, Hard to Master: Optimal Strategies in Parity Games with Costs.  ...  The first one, parity-response games, is based on the notion of finitary parity games [CHH09] and parity games with costs [FZ14,WZ16].  ...  We express our gratitude to Jean-François Raskin (Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium) and Martin Zimmermann (Saarland University, Germany) for insightful discussions.  ... 
arXiv:1609.05952v1 fatcat:picoqjhwibaozoq4ev6rbnchh4

Synchronization and Control of Quantitative Systems [article]

Simon Laursen
2016 Ph.d.-serien for Det Teknisk-Naturvidenskabelige Fakultet, Aalborg Universitet  
In this thesis, we explore modeling formalisms for quantitative systems and systems with partial observability to determine their computational limitations and feasibility.  ...  Formal methods, such as model checking, theorem proving and static analysis, are used to provide confidence in system models and designs, as it can assist in all phases of system development and testing  ...  We construct a three-color parity game with the following property: Player 0 wins the parity game if, and only if, there is a cap such that Player 0 wins (A, Recharge(W , cap)).  ... 
doi:10.5278/vbn.phd.engsci.00182 fatcat:kftiafaw4fhf5lyrvqha7vaoce

:{unav)

Jordan B. Pollack, Alan D. Blair
2012 Machine Learning  
We investigate how the peculiar dynamics of this domain enabled a previously discarded weak method to succeed, by preventing suboptimal equilibria in a "meta-game" of self-learning.  ...  Play proceeds by a roll of the dice, application of the network to all legal moves, and choosing the move with the highest evaluation.  ...  Thanks to Gerry Tesauro for providing PUBEVAL and subsequent means to calibrate it, Jack Laurence and Pablo Funes for development of the WWW front end to our evolved player, and comments from the Brandeis  ... 
doi:10.1023/a:1007417214905 fatcat:kl73a3uzdfbu7elgxd5zgllwvi

Unobtrusive workstation farming without inconveniencing owners: learning Backgammon with a genetic algorithm

P.J. Darwen
1999 ICWC 99. IEEE Computer Society International Workshop on Cluster Computing  
However, naïve attempts to utilize idle machines can interfere with their primary purpose.  ...  This paper describes the successful effort to unobtrusively farm idle machines, for an artificial intelligence system using a genetic algorithm to learn the game Backgammon.  ...  Acknowledgments The author is grateful for discussions at Brandeis University's DEMO Laboratory and the University of Queensland's Cognitive Science Research Group, and to Gerald Tesauro for making available  ... 
doi:10.1109/iwcc.1999.810900 dblp:conf/iwcc/Darwen99 fatcat:vwbmkwqow5cm5pvvocvn2nkemm

Combinatorial Games: Selected Bibliography with a Succinct Gourmet Introduction

Aviezri Fraenkel
2012 Electronic Journal of Combinatorics  
Both the easy game of Nim and the seemingly difficult chess are examples of combinatorial games. And so is go. The shorter terminology game, games is used below to designate combinatorial games.  ...  Roughly speaking, the family of combinatorial games consists of two-player games with perfect information (no hidden information as in some card games), no chance moves (no dice) and outcome restricted  ...  It seems to be hard to invent a playgame that catches the masses. In contrast, mathgames abound.  ... 
doi:10.37236/22 fatcat:ini3dpghcvewrnr7er5whklfuy

Dynamic Decision Making and Race Games

Shipra De, Darryl A. Seale
2013 ISRN Operations Research  
To address such concerns, we study dynamic decision making with respect to a simple race game, which has a computable optimal strategy.  ...  Results indicate that although players are influenced by the game state when making their decisions, they tend to play too conservatively in comparison to the optimal policy and are influenced by the behavior  ...  We draw a dashed horizontal line at 0.53 for easy comparison with the optimal strategy. It is clear that the effectiveness of the strategy is dependent upon the starting quantity of dice.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/452162 fatcat:bwumynbyzbca3mv23xuplirelq

The first reactive synthesis competition (SYNTCOMP 2014)

Swen Jacobs, Roderick Bloem, Romain Brenguier, Rüdiger Ehlers, Timotheus Hell, Robert Könighofer, Guillermo A. Pérez, Jean-François Raskin, Leonid Ryzhyk, Ocan Sankur, Martina Seidl, Leander Tentrup (+1 others)
2016 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
We introduce the reactive synthesis competition (SYNTCOMP), a long-term effort intended to stimulate and guide advances in the design and application of synthesis procedures for reactive systems.  ...  We provide an overview of this problem and existing approaches to solve it, and report on the design and results of the first SYNTCOMP.  ...  The development of Basil was supported by the Institutional Strategy of the University of Bremen, funded by the German Excellence Initiative.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-016-0416-3 fatcat:eaxveq4rk5ee3bakfpxcyyryne

Rethinking Blockchain Security: Position Paper

Vincent Chia, Pieter Hartel, Qingze Hum, Sebastian Ma, Georgios Piliouras, Daniel Reijsbergen, Mark Van Staalduinen, Pawel Szalachowski
2018 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData)  
For smart contracts, we propose to use recent advances in software testing to find flaws before deployment.  ...  For protocols, we propose the PRESTO framework that allows us to compare different protocols within a five-dimensional framework.  ...  in the Jackpot. • The minimum bet is 0.05 ETH. • When the winning number exceeds 900, it is reset to 1.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cybermatics_2018.2018.00222 dblp:conf/ithings/ChiaHHMPRSS18 fatcat:osem3ob2jvbdhn6vl6kldpvium

Rethinking Blockchain Security: Position Paper [article]

Vincent Chia, Pieter Hartel, Qingze Hum, Sebastian Ma, Georgios Piliouras, Daniel Reijsbergen, Mark van Staalduinen, Pawel Szalachowski
2019 arXiv   pre-print
For smart contracts, we propose to use recent advances in software testing to find flaws before deployment.  ...  For protocols, we propose the PRESTO framework that allows us to compare different protocols within a five-dimensional framework.  ...  in the Jackpot. • The minimum bet is 0.05 ETH. • When the winning number exceeds 900, it is reset to 1.  ... 
arXiv:1806.04358v2 fatcat:jebues6rdfg2fdz26s6haolfgm

A Gamut of Games

Jonathan Schaeffer
2001 The AI Magazine  
I In 1950, Claude Shannon published his seminal work on how to program a computer to play chess.  ...  Since then, developing game-playing programs that can compete with (and even exceed) the abilities of the human world champions has been a long-sought-after goal of the AI research community.  ...  an article on computer games in volume 1 of this series.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v22i3.1570 dblp:journals/aim/Schaeffer01 fatcat:6zirpq2v2va3bh7hkwhtaa577y
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