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ECTS Grades: Combination of Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Grading [chapter]

Jonas Kunze, Andreas Geyer-Schulz
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ujgvd6x2gff2tcr2nwgnlwrpv4" style="color: black;">Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization</a> </i> &nbsp;
While ECTS grades are norm-referenced, most national grading systems in the European Union are criterion-referenced.  ...  a reason for the missing process implementation of ECTS grades.  ...  On the other hand, it can be argued, that the combination of a norm-referenced and a criterion-referenced scale opens up new options for quality control.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24466-7_57">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24466-7_57</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vo4xywhq45f6zjqdw3u7uox5ai">fatcat:vo4xywhq45f6zjqdw3u7uox5ai</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190228043549/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8c40/cb53da7f9ff8debf234a2eff2bff79a5fcc6.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/8c/40/8c40cb53da7f9ff8debf234a2eff2bff79a5fcc6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-24466-7_57"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Institutionalizing school failure: From abandoning to reintroducing a failing grade—the rationales behind Swedish grading reforms

Cecilia Arensmeier
<span title="2021-03-29">2021</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tszm32zfezaiper4hambaergf4" style="color: black;">Journal of educational change</a> </i> &nbsp;
Reasonable demands and a ranking scale without a failing grade characterize the introduction of a norm-referenced system; a first criterion-referenced system rests on a belief that virtually all pupils  ...  AbstractThe article aims to depict the political framing of three grading reforms in Swedish compulsory school, in terms of the political problem they are supposed to solve and what kind of attention is  ...  The investigated time period covers the introduction and abandonment of a norm-referenced grading system, and the implementation of two criterion-referenced scales.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-021-09421-7">doi:10.1007/s10833-021-09421-7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rojspxwomrbbpnr5jjzioirfey">fatcat:rojspxwomrbbpnr5jjzioirfey</a> </span>
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Understanding international grading scales: More translation than conversion

Anne E Witte
<span title="2011-08-10">2011</span> <i title="Oxford Brookes University"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/lshphdgvnjggnbme6s45r5xvay" style="color: black;">The International Journal of Management Education</a> </i> &nbsp;
Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Alberto Paucar-Caceres from the Manchester Metropolitan University Business School for comments on an earlier version of this paper.  ...  Although some grades may be perfect mathematical tallies of knowledge inventories (norm-referenced), the qualitative meaning of any grade (criterion-reference) is actually contingent on traditional attitudes  ...  This has lead to recent recommendations to abandon the ECTS scales, which pose equivalency problems and communicate the criterion-referenced local scale along with a numerical explanation of grade distribution  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3794/ijme.93.319">doi:10.3794/ijme.93.319</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6nvp3qvlsjcizfk6tuanditrgq">fatcat:6nvp3qvlsjcizfk6tuanditrgq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170811224524/http://www.cin.edu.ar/descargas/asuntosacademicos/02-07%20Paper%20on%20equivalences.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/af/0f/af0fe3d253f57d69e941327e38b843339fcb0bc8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3794/ijme.93.319"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Being Fair: Teachers' Interpretations of Principles for Standards-Based Grading

Robin D. Tierney, Marielle Simon, Julie Charland
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/fkpuha6c7jfrvbd7vwlfl7sjdq" style="color: black;">The Educational Forum</a> </i> &nbsp;
The results support previous research, and suggest that a better understanding of essential principles is needed for grades to accurately refl ect students' achievement.  ...  However, their interpretations of fairness are varied and sometimes contradictory.  ...  selection (norm-referenced) may have infl uenced their grading practices. • Elements represented: Grades were often based on work completion, and some refl ected teachers' perceptions of students' efforts  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2011.577669">doi:10.1080/00131725.2011.577669</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fq6gmflpivbd5nr4bi7mjqoypm">fatcat:fq6gmflpivbd5nr4bi7mjqoypm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808150958/http://mascoutah.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/8/9/13898212/61353486.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/87/53/87532873adc67d50da35a9f325e02637dfc74b24.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2011.577669"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Conformity or confusion? Changing higher education grading scales as a part of the Bologna Process: the cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Bettinal Lien Dahl, Åsa Lindberg-Sand
<span title="2009-01-01">2009</span> <i title="Berghahn Books"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/sq5jfm6dmbafpekito53tecxoi" style="color: black;">Learning and Teaching: The International Journal of Higher Education in the Social Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the reforms of higher education induced by the Bologna process also included a change of grading scales.  ...  This includes the perceived problems with the old grading scales and a description of the various national assessment traditions.  ...  Denmark Norm referenced or criterion referenced scales -classification and control?  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3167/latiss.2009.020103">doi:10.3167/latiss.2009.020103</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/d6m2hdnprraqbgq6qbawa5c244">fatcat:d6m2hdnprraqbgq6qbawa5c244</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200319162740/https://sverigesradio.se/diverse/appdata/isidor/files/406/4696.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d6/cd/d6cd724182cd7587f050b55fce98031f32112c4c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3167/latiss.2009.020103"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Grading and Report Cards for Standards-Based Physical Education

Vincent J. Melograno
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/edmbkoeivrh5xmp7jef5rnjo4y" style="color: black;">Journal of Physical Education Recreation &amp; Dance</a> </i> &nbsp;
Methods of grading have become more complicated-and more appropriate!  ...  The purpose of this article is to explore the reality of grading and report cards within the context of standards-based physical education (SBPE).  ...  ., norm-referencing) should not be used to distribute grades. 3. Limit the factors included in grades to achievement.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2007.10598041">doi:10.1080/07303084.2007.10598041</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ojp2jbvevfcozlzcoywo6rmfsy">fatcat:ojp2jbvevfcozlzcoywo6rmfsy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150412130642/http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795585.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c0/70/c0707491450490fb2741c28bbe5f45e22c5a0565.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2007.10598041"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

A Quantitative Analysis of Uncertainty in the Grading of Written Exams in Mathematics and Physics

<span title="2016-04-13">2016</span> <i title="Modestum Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/prkjvtz7njdjxfjmhh3ed7lwlq" style="color: black;">Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education</a> </i> &nbsp;
The amount of uncertainty is substantial and typically ranges over three grades. Increasing the duration of the examination decreases the uncertainty, however.  ...  The most common way to grade students in courses at university and university college level is to use final written exams.  ...  the other examination papers), rather than criterion-referenced grades (i.e., grades that reflect the intrinsic quality of the paper, independently of the rest of the group).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2016.1240a">doi:10.12973/eurasia.2016.1240a</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/s5oxo5lqhjddrnyqi2adfdu3eq">fatcat:s5oxo5lqhjddrnyqi2adfdu3eq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20181030051426/http://www.ejmste.com/pdf-75012-11606?filename=A" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/4d/5b/4d5bbb4a722d5124a751de83ae1b5bb7b5e7cb8d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2016.1240a"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk

Maureen Bell
<span title="">2001</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/zkibgubq3nhhvm733gu6qsstem" style="color: black;">Educational Media International</a> </i> &nbsp;
It is now possible to combine the powerful learning experience of role-play with the advantages of the online environment.  ...  Further research is needed into: levels of involvement and role engagement; the optimum number of participants; and the effects of asynchronicity and anonymity.  ...  Several participants were interested in further discussion of criterion-and norm-referenced assessment and of the role-play process.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/09523980110105141">doi:10.1080/09523980110105141</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3d5l6ibs5fbkpal4usoprheq6a">fatcat:3d5l6ibs5fbkpal4usoprheq6a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808013227/https://producecrisismanagement.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/bell-2001.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c6/1d/c61d767f0dcfc2055194de2bb94e388e09dfb527.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/09523980110105141"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Test-based promotion policies, dropping out, and juvenile crime

Ozkan Eren, Briggs Depew, Stephen Barnes
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/nrmdhgqdejgszgl7b6jadevtxa" style="color: black;">Journal of Public Economics</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper examines the potential e¤ects of summer school and grade retention on high school completion and juvenile crime.  ...  As for fourth grade students, however, we do not ...nd any e¤ect of summer school assignment on the likelihood of dropping out.  ...  7 and 9) were also given Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS), a low-stakes norm-referenced test for which scores are compared to a national norm group.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2017.07.002">doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2017.07.002</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zscmuz4vwfdgddlradoncnpvcm">fatcat:zscmuz4vwfdgddlradoncnpvcm</a> </span>
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A COMPARISON OF WOODCOCK–JOHNSON PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL BATTERY-REVISED AND QUALITATIVE READING INVENTORY-II INSTRUCTIONAL READING LEVELS

Patrick P. McCabe, Howard Margolis, Edna Ba
<span title="">2001</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/66oigu6q4bgkdhgygbuhyoxzae" style="color: black;">Reading &amp; Writing Quarterly</a> </i> &nbsp;
The Qualitative Reading Inventory-II (QRI-II) and the reading subtests of the Woodcock7J ohnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (W J -R) were administered to 34 fourth-grade males reading at or below  ...  For the portion of students who obtained different W J -R and QRI-II instructional levels, W J -R levels exceeded QRI-II levels 92.1% of the time.  ...  To do this, many rely on scores from commercially published normreferenced reading tests (NRT) or criterion-referenced reading tests (CRT).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/105735601317095034">doi:10.1080/105735601317095034</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/o76z3pgv2ffarjqys4giyudxna">fatcat:o76z3pgv2ffarjqys4giyudxna</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120802191739/http://www.iapsych.com/wj3ewok/LinkedDocuments/mccabe2001.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/0e/0d/0e0da590e716ef0f206e2bf90de37838e6eb8cd8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/105735601317095034"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Curriculum Based Measurement of Reading: Consistency and Validity Across Best, Fastest, and Question Reading Conditions

Theodore J. Christ, Mary Jane White, Scott P. Ardoin, Tanya L. Eckert, Amanda Vanderheyden
<span title="2013-12-01">2013</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/dwvxjgbxpbbzhg44jv2sk7oiua" style="color: black;">School psychology review</a> </i> &nbsp;
The GMRT-4 is a norm-referenced, group- administered test that was normed with stu- dents in the prereading stages through high school.  ...  An incremental approach to criterion validity might combine this measure of oral reading with a measure of comprehension, which we also evaluated in this study.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2013.12087463">doi:10.1080/02796015.2013.12087463</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/a3rbiacrinamrk5zp7z3xy3sqi">fatcat:a3rbiacrinamrk5zp7z3xy3sqi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/sim_school-psychology-review_2013-12_42_4/page/415" title="read fulltext microfilm" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Archive [Microfilm] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://archive.org/serve/sim_school-psychology-review_2013-12_42_4/__ia_thumb.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/02796015.2013.12087463"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

Page 2159 of Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts: LLBA Vol. 29, Issue 4 [page]

<span title="">1995</span> <i > <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/pub_linguistics-and-language-behavior-abstracts-llba" style="color: black;">Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts: LLBA </a> </i> &nbsp;
, criterion-referenced oa instrument efficacy; empirical data; deaf/hearing experts; General Certificate of Secondary Education oral proficiency testing validity, free conversation method; empirical data  ...  English at Matriculation use validity, U of Edinburgh (Scot- land), existing tests statistical comparison; 9507618 Tests explicit /implicit memory tests differences, na ery attention ef- ects; experiment  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://archive.org/details/sim_linguistics-and-language-behavior-abstracts-llba_1995-10_29_4/page/2159" title="read fulltext microfilm" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Archive [Microfilm] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://archive.org/serve/sim_linguistics-and-language-behavior-abstracts-llba_1995-10_29_4/__ia_thumb.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a>

The Effect of Training in Test Item Writing on Test Performance of Junior High Students

Jeanne Tunks
<span title="2001-06-01">2001</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/g72wjfuoprcojjl535qbk7tljq" style="color: black;">Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In 1939, Flannagan encouraged the use of criterion-referenced tests in the classroom. These tests generated scores that have some absolute meaning as opposed to group norming (Shaycott, 1979) .  ...  Teachers and other school personnel have minimized instruction to drill and practice in an effort to raise standardized and criterion referenced test scores.  ...  In 1939, Flannagan encouraged the use of criterion-referenced tests in the classroom. These tests generated scores that have some absolute meaning as opposed to group norming (Shaycott, 1979) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690125387">doi:10.1080/03055690125387</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7r3m7vessvgsvmpwjryiidd3vu">fatcat:7r3m7vessvgsvmpwjryiidd3vu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809125910/http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur7130/readings/effects_of_training_in_test_item_writing.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/96/71/96713a77c3e603dfacbe2eeee8655c0552b76e45.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690125387"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

The Effect of Training in Test Item Writing on Test Performance of Junior High Students

Jeanne Tunks
<span title="">2001</span> <i title="Informa UK Limited"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/g72wjfuoprcojjl535qbk7tljq" style="color: black;">Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In 1939, Flannagan encouraged the use of criterion-referenced tests in the classroom. These tests generated scores that have some absolute meaning as opposed to group norming (Shaycott, 1979) .  ...  Teachers and other school personnel have minimized instruction to drill and practice in an effort to raise standardized and criterion referenced test scores.  ...  In 1939, Flannagan encouraged the use of criterion-referenced tests in the classroom. These tests generated scores that have some absolute meaning as opposed to group norming (Shaycott, 1979) .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690120050374">doi:10.1080/03055690120050374</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lecyqsjow5cyhouwepxnc6tm2a">fatcat:lecyqsjow5cyhouwepxnc6tm2a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809125910/http://www.bwgriffin.com/gsu/courses/edur7130/readings/effects_of_training_in_test_item_writing.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/96/71/96713a77c3e603dfacbe2eeee8655c0552b76e45.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1080/03055690120050374"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> tandfonline.com </button> </a>

UKnowledge Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology Faculty Publications Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology Helping Standards Make the GRADE

Thomas Guskey
<span title="">2001</span> <span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
With standards and assessments now in place, educators face the daunting task of how best to grade and report student learning in terms of those standards.  ...  Most educators recognize the inadequacies of their current grading and reporting methods (Marzano, 2000) .  ...  Criterion-Referenced Standards The first challenge is moving from norm-referenced to criterion-referenced grading standards.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180418055559/https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&amp;context=edp_facpub" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/1f/2e/1f2ed84203051198f10fe39e72131b6a486514b1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a>
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