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The Philosophy of PCM

B.M. Oliver, J.R. Pierce, C.E. Shannon
1948 Proceedings of the IRE  
INTRODUCTION You don't have to deal with ADCs or DACs for long before running across this often quoted formula for the theoretical signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of a converter.  ...  Remember that this formula represents the theoretical performance of a perfect N-bit ADC. You can compare the actual ADC SNR with the theoretical SNR and get an idea of how the ADC stacks up.  ...  Also for communications applications, the AD9446 16-bit, 100 MSPS ADC is optimized for high SNR (84 dB), dissipates 2.8 W, and is also designed on a BiCMOS process.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jrproc.1948.231941 fatcat:n5mzm7dp45cojmrmzpanr5zv2y

The FONT5 Bunch-by-Bunch Position and Angle Feedback System at ATF2

R.J. Apsimon, D.R. Bett, P.N. Burrows, G.B. Christian, B. Constance, M.R. Davis, A. Gerbershagen, C. Perry, J. Resta-Lopez
2012 Physics Procedia  
feedback system for the International Linear Collider interaction point.  ...  The FONT5 upstream beam-based feedback system at ATF2 is designed to correct the position and angle jitter at the entrance to the ATF2 final-focus system, and also to demonstrate a prototype intra-train  ...  The ADCs used are Texas Instruments ADS5474 [13], 14-bit, monolithic pipeline ADCs, with a latency of 3.5 clock cycles, and the DACs are 14-bit, 210 MSPS, Analog Devices AD9744 [14] , with a minimum latency  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.phpro.2012.03.758 fatcat:pzzmlrx6xreczkvkz6dldevxai

Clock aligner based on delay locked loop with double edge synchronization

Mile Stojčev, Goran Jovanović
2008 Microelectronics and reliability  
This paper describes a delay locked loop with double edge synchronization for use in a clock alignment process.  ...  In CMOS multistage clock buffer design, the duty-cycle of clock is liable to be changed when the clock passes through several buffer stages.  ...  A conventional solution is to attach duty-cycle correction circuits to all output drivers with the price of added area, increased jitter, and further phase mismatch due to enlarged path [12] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.microrel.2007.02.025 fatcat:xxq6zmfblrdopdcb72qzgndfim

The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design [article]

DESI Collaboration: Amir Aghamousa, Jessica Aguilar, Steve Ahlen, Shadab Alam, Lori E. Allen, Carlos Allende Prieto, James Annis, Stephen Bailey, Christophe Balland, Otger Ballester, Charles Baltay, Lucas Beaufore, Chris Bebek, Timothy C. Beers (+248 others)
2016 arXiv   pre-print
The DESI collaboration will also deliver a spectroscopic pipeline and data management system to reduce and archive all data for eventual public use.  ...  This powerful instrument will be installed at prime focus on the 4-m Mayall telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona, along with a new optical corrector, which will provide a three-degree diameter field of view  ...  by the DESI corrector and ADC.  ... 
arXiv:1611.00037v2 fatcat:qupbf5xl2beaxb5fjkl2ptdkz4

CARMENES instrument overview

A. Quirrenbach, P. J. Amado, J. A. Caballero, R. Mundt, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, W. Seifert, M. Abril, J. Aceituno, F. J. Alonso-Floriano, M. Ammler-von Eiff, R. Antona Jiménez (+124 others)
2014 Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V  
CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the  ...  This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain).  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.2056453 fatcat:b4jg4utqofco7nsbgkarewjwg4

The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA): Design, technical overview, and performance

Will Sutherland, Jim Emerson, Gavin Dalton, Eli Atad-Ettedgui, Steven Beard, Richard Bennett, Naidu Bezawada, Andrew Born, Martin Caldwell, Paul Clark, Simon Craig, David Henry (+10 others)
2015 Astronomy and Astrophysics  
The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is the 4-metre wide-field survey telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory, equipped with the world's largest near-infrared imaging camera (  ...  We conclude with a summary of the delivered performance, and a short overview of the six ESO public surveys in progress on VISTA.  ...  Mark Casali, Sue Worswick and Martin Fisher made substantial contributions in the Phase A design studies, and the late Richard Bingham provided detailed design for the WFS/AG units.  ... 
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424973 fatcat:ko4fiygajrgdfhruciistxosqm

APF—The Lick Observatory Automated Planet Finder

Steven S. Vogt, Matthew Radovan, Robert Kibrick, R. Paul Butler, Barry Alcott, Steve Allen, Pamela Arriagada, Mike Bolte, Jennifer Burt, Jerry Cabak, Kostas Chloros, David Cowley (+36 others)
2014 Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific  
APF features a fixed format spectral range from 374 nm - 970 nm, and delivers a "Throughput" (resolution * slit width product) of 114,000 arc-seconds, with spectral resolutions up to 150,000.  ...  Hamilton, the APF facility consists of a 2.4-m telescope and its Levy spectrometer, an optical echelle spectrometer optimized for precision Doppler velocimetry.  ...  Slew rates of up to 4°s À1 for telescope and dome keep nightly observing duty cycles high by reducing time lost to slewing.  ... 
doi:10.1086/676120 fatcat:ef26cnfbt5dzrngukvgudvnnte

Correcting Systematic Polarization Effects in Keck LRISp Spectropolarimetry to < 0.05%

David M. Harrington, Svetlana V. Berdyugina, Oleksii Kuzmychov, Jeffrey R. Kuhn
2015 Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific  
For faint targets and long exposures, cosmic ray hits are frequent and present a major limitation to the upgraded deep depletion red-channel CCD.  ...  We explore high SNR techniques such as defocusing and slit-stepping during integration with high spectral and spatial oversampling.  ...  Hien Tran for their support in operating the telescope during daylight hours and in develop-  ... 
doi:10.1086/682323 fatcat:ofjlms27k5hxjlq6v6xqhmhcbq

Space and High Energy Experiments Advanced Electronic Systems 2012

Ryszard S. Romaniuk
2012 International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications  
It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe.  ...  Topical tracks of the symposium embraced: nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics  ...  Digital converter is a modular device and was implemented for a constant 50% duty cycle output.  ... 
doi:10.2478/v10177-012-0060-0 fatcat:2nrsjwpharcuva4642wi3zmbim

CBETA Design Report, Cornell-BNL ERL Test Accelerator [article]

G.H. Hoffstaetter, D. Trbojevic, C. Mayes, N. Banerjee, J. Barley, I. Bazarov, A. Bartnik, J. S. Berg, S. Brooks, D. Burke, J. Crittenden, L. Cultrera (+40 others)
2017 arXiv   pre-print
All beams are returned for deceleration in a single beam pipe with a large-momentum-aperture permanent magnet FFAG optics.  ...  diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams.  ...  Cooling through copper braids as is commonly done in low duty cycle machines would in this machine have produced excessive temperature gradients.  ... 
arXiv:1706.04245v1 fatcat:njpdim4axfdipeey44ea457k5a

KEPLER MISSIONDESIGN, REALIZED PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE, AND EARLY SCIENCE

David G. Koch, William J. Borucki, Gibor Basri, Natalie M. Batalha, Timothy M. Brown, Douglas Caldwell, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, William D. Cochran, Edna DeVore, Edward W. Dunham, Thomas N. Gautier, John C. Geary (+35 others)
2010 Astrophysical Journal Letters  
Early results for classical variables and eclipsing stars show great promise.  ...  Results from just forty-three days of data along with ground-based follow-up observations have identified five new transiting planets with measurements of their masses, radii, and orbital periods.  ...  optics, and duty cycle.  ... 
doi:10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/l79 fatcat:2qqr22nhubgutac4vyjdz6ibpi

The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer Book 2018 [article]

Alexis Hill, Nicolas Flagey, Alan McConnachie, Kei Szeto, Andre Anthony, Javier Ariño, Ferdinand Babas, Gregoire Bagnoud, Gabriella Baker, Gregory Barrick, Steve Bauman, Tom Benedict, Christophe Berthod (+104 others)
2018 arXiv   pre-print
massive multiplexing (4332 spectra per exposure, with all spectral resolutions available at all times), and an on-target observing efficiency of more than 80%.  ...  It is intended as a concise reference guide to all aspects of the scientific and technical design of MSE, for the international astronomy and engineering communities, and related agencies.  ...  We will be revisiting this question by designing a modified duty cycle for PFHS, based on realistic observation lengths.  ... 
arXiv:1810.08695v2 fatcat:rxcqrbxtjjamtkwhdpp6eljplu

THE DARK ENERGY CAMERA

B. Flaugher, H. T. Diehl, K. Honscheid, T. M. C. Abbott, O. Alvarez, R. Angstadt, J. T. Annis, M. Antonik, O. Ballester, L. Beaufore, G. M. Bernstein, R. A. Bernstein (+106 others)
2015 Astronomical Journal  
The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar.  ...  The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2kx4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2kx2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 microns x15 microns pixels with a plate scale of 0.263 arc sec per pixel.  ...  The crown of the 1st corrector element (C1) can be seen at the left side of the barrel. The camera is attached to the cage at the heavy-duty "hexapod ring".  ... 
doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/5/150 fatcat:m4zbz5ffq5e67ct5x7gu52v3sy

The Zwicky Transient Facility: Observing System

Richard Dekany, Roger M. Smith, Reed Riddle, Michael Feeney, Michael Porter, David Hale, Jeffry Zolkower, Justin Belicki, Stephen Kaye, John Henning, Richard Walters, John Cromer (+14 others)
2020 Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific  
: a new 47-square-degree, 600 megapixel cryogenic CCD mosaic science camera, along with supporting equipment.  ...  The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Observing System (OS) is the data collector for the ZTF project to study astrophysical phenomena in the time domain.  ...  For the series of 503 observations in Table 5 , without telescope slew, the ROS latency timing jitter had a RMS of just 1.4 ms.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1538-3873/ab4ca2 fatcat:zn6xqf72evektmomqv5fd462di

Observing the Sun as a star: Design and early results from the NEID solar feed [article]

Andrea S.J. Lin, Andrew Monson, Suvrath Mahadevan, Joe P. Ninan, Samuel Halverson, Colin Nitroy, Chad F. Bender, Sarah E. Logsdon, Shubham Kanodia, Ryan C. Terrien, Arpita Roy, Jacob K. Luhn (+18 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
One avenue for investigating these effects is the use of small solar telescopes which direct disk-integrated sunlight to these EPRV instruments, observing the Sun at high cadence over months or years.  ...  Efforts with extreme-precision radial velocity (EPRV) instruments to detect small-amplitude planets are largely limited, on many timescales, by the effects of stellar variability and instrumental systematics  ...  a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.  ... 
arXiv:2112.05711v2 fatcat:c4qga6sg3fdjhlss7h3h5nj4eq
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