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DoS Attacks on Blockchain Ecosystem [article]

Mayank Raikwar, Danilo Gligoroski
2022 arXiv   pre-print
To the best of our knowledge, there has not been any study on the DoS attack on the blockchain ecosystem.  ...  The immense financial potential of the Cryptocurrency market is a prevalent target of the DoS attack. The DoS attack events are kept on happening in cryptocurrencies and the blockchain ecosystem.  ...  DoS Attacks on Blockchain Ecosystem The blockchain ecosystem has suffered from many DoS attacks in the past, and that situation is a continuing trend.  ... 
arXiv:2205.13322v1 fatcat:s2k267biwndannb5bm6am6g2bu

On the suitability of blockchain platforms for IoT applications: Architectures, security, privacy, and performance

Sotirios Brotsis, Konstantinos Limniotis, Gueltoum Bendiab, Nicholas Kolokotronis, Stavros Shiaeles
2021 Computer Networks  
The analysis carried out identified that the defences currently provided by blockchain platforms are not sufficient to thwart all the prominent attacks against blockchains, with blockchain 1.0 and 2.0  ...  Key architectural aspects of blockchain solutions are examined in terms of their ability to withstand various types of common IoT and blockchain attacks, deliver enhanced privacy features, and assure adequate  ...  , which become the most common attacks on the blockchain ecosystem [97, 78] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2021.108005 fatcat:35tosxqpxjawzilnxoco5u2b5q

Blockchain Technology and Smart Cities - A Review

Shilpi Shilpi, Mohd Ahad
2018 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Smart Cities  
Smart cities ecosystem is one such domain wherein blockchain is finding numerous application and implementation avenues.  ...  Due to the diverse nature of devices and heterogeneity of data involved in smart cities ecosystem blockchain is considered an apt technology.  ...  • DAO Attack: Categorized as one of the most devastating attacks in history of blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.4108/eai.13-7-2018.163846 fatcat:fyd5zd7zmjeddoqnd37etz3swi

Blockchain-IoT Sensor (BIoTS): A Solution to IoT-Ecosystems Security Issues

Carlos Gonzalez-Amarillo, Cristian Cardenas-Garcia, Miguel Mendoza-Moreno, Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Corrales
2021 Sensors  
The proposed hardware is implemented on FPGA Altera DE0-Nano.  ...  BIoTS can participate as a miner in the blockchain network through Smart Contracts and solve security issues related to data integrity and data traceability in an Blockchain-IoT system.  ...  For this reason, BIoTs and your ecosystem pretend to solve some security issues as: (a) In a WiFi network, attacks such as access attacks, malicious phishing AP, and DDos/Dos attacks.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21134388 pmid:34206874 fatcat:4avsd5mhcvbgzb4yo5edgzv3yy

On the Design of Co-operating Blockchains for IoT [article]

Gokhan Sagirlar and John D. Sheehan and Emanuele Ragnoli
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We also provide a detailed security discussion, in order to identify threats and we provide discussion on how to cope with threats.  ...  Hybrid-IoT consists of multiple PoW sub-blockchains to achieve distributed consensus among IoT devices and an inter-connector framework, to execute transactions between sub-blockchains.  ...  PoW consensus mechanisms rely on the condition of doing some computation to prove legitimacy of the performed operation.  ... 
arXiv:2005.00658v1 fatcat:3nxsri5isnchjinb3zjrtvzxxm

Actor-based Risk Analysis for Blockchains in Smart Mobility [article]

Ranwa Al Mallah, Bilal Farooq
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We conduct an actor-based analysis to determine the impact of the attacks. The analysis identified five attack goals and five types of attackers that violate the security of the blockchain system.  ...  Four attack goals represent a risk in terms of economic losses and one attack goal contains many threats that represent a risk that is either unacceptable or undesirable.  ...  blockchain ecosystem.  ... 
arXiv:2007.09098v1 fatcat:sc7dbeqrlndoznon553zyhmgoa

A Security Framework for A Sustainable Smart Ecosystem using Permissioned Blockchain: Performance Evaluation

2019 VOLUME-8 ISSUE-10, AUGUST 2019, REGULAR ISSUE  
Blockchain another disruptive technology is amalgamated to form a robust secure Smart Home Ecosystem. An Ecosystem is designed to incorporate IoT and Blockchain seamlessly.  ...  This paper proposes the performance results of a Security framework for a Sustainable Smart Ecosystem using permissioned Blockchain.  ...  Unauthorized access to the system, denial of service attacks, snooping and eavesdropping are some of the attacks performed on these networks.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijitee.j9954.0881019 fatcat:mvrzznf67zbfdjsdc6p4wxgoye

Understanding the Evolution of Blockchain Ecosystems: A Longitudinal Measurement Study of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and EOSIO [article]

Ningyu He, Weihang Su, Zhou Yu, Xinyu Liu, Fengyi Zhao, Haoyu Wang, Xiapu Luo, Gareth Tyson, Lei Wu, Yao Guo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
level on the evolution of blockchain ecosystems at scale, longitudinally, and across multiple blockchains.  ...  blockchain ecosystems from different perspectives.  ...  attacks) and influential accounts have a large impact on ecosystems.  ... 
arXiv:2110.07534v1 fatcat:vkni6qwsdbdvbi5ef6zuodmz5a

Blockchain Economical Models, Delegated Proof of Economic Value and Delegated Adaptive Byzantine Fault Tolerance and their implementation in Artificial Intelligence BlockCloud

Qi Deng
2019 Journal of Risk and Financial Management  
The Artificial Intelligence BlockCloud (AIBC) is an artificial intelligence and blockchain technology based large-scale decentralized ecosystem that allows system-wide low-cost sharing of computing and  ...  The DPoEV-DABFT dual-consensus architecture, by design, makes the AIBC attack-proof against risks such as double-spending, short-range and 51% attacks; it has a built-in dynamic sharding feature that allows  ...  Essentially, conditions for the double spending attack to occur do not exist.  ... 
doi:10.3390/jrfm12040177 fatcat:23zlngrmsrgptipihg7ziantx4

Cyber-Security Risk Assessment Framework for Blockchains in Smart Mobility

Ranwa Al Mallah, David Lopez, Bilal Farooq
2021 IEEE Open Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems  
The analysis uncovers specific blockchain technology security vulnerabilities in the transportation ecosystem by exposing new attack vectors.  ...  Use of distributed ledger technologies like blockchain is becoming more common in transportation/mobility ecosystems.  ...  An attacker can also initiate a DoS attack on the blockchain. They create a million empty accounts which need to be stored in the state tree. This attack causes a waste of hard disk resources.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ojits.2021.3106863 fatcat:c76ydtskrrd5bjumlyspsicu74

HBFL: A Hierarchical Blockchain-based Federated Learning Framework for a Collaborative IoT Intrusion Detection [article]

Mohanad Sarhan, Wai Weng Lo, Siamak Layeghy, Marius Portmann
2022 arXiv   pre-print
However, the currently proposed frameworks do not consider data privacy, secure architectures, and/or scalable deployments of IoT ecosystems.  ...  The utilisation of Machine Learning (ML) capabilities in the defence against IoT cyber attacks has many potential benefits.  ...  Therefore, current methods for developing IoT IDSs do not scale and are vulnerable to the rapid growth of IoT ecosystems due to the introduction of new devices, services, and emerging zero-day attacks.  ... 
arXiv:2204.04254v1 fatcat:k4hkj7cxrndizc6v5ca4dvcu2m

A New Consensus Protocol for Blockchain Interoperability Architecture

Yan Pang
2020 IEEE Access  
The MPoS protocol is able to strengthen the token network effects in a crosschain ecosystem and grow the user base of blockchain systems dramatically.  ...  Despite many promising results, the current blockchain landscape is fragmented, in which many blockchain systems exist in silos.  ...  In addition, the "balkanization" phenomenon of the current blockchain ecosystem makes the token network effects even more difficult because the silo blockchain systems do not communicate with each other  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3017549 fatcat:pjuyp36b3jep7nw5cf37tl2zni

Zero-knowledge Based Proof-chain – A methodology for blockchain-partial system [article]

Yuqi Bai, Lei Luo
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We then apply proof-chain methodology to the analysis of the ecosystem of a collaborating group of blockchain-partial systems, representing the paradigm of public and private data domain whose border the  ...  the general paradigm of blockchain in blockchain-partial systems.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful for the support from university administration and computer science department; the cooperation of local government in applying our methodology in the public-sector blockchain-enabled  ... 
arXiv:2107.14142v1 fatcat:zk345x4p3vasrd3l5qmo5vluqq

ReSOLV: Applying Cryptocurrency Blockchain Methods to Enable Global Cross-Platform Software License Validation

Alan Litchfield, Jeff Herbert
2018 Cryptography  
The method described creates an ecosystem in which the rights and privileges of participants are observed.  ...  This paper presents a method for a decentralised peer-to-peer software license validation system using cryptocurrency blockchain technology to ameliorate software piracy, and to provide a mechanism for  ...  attacks as well as DoS attacks.  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography2020010 fatcat:cevjs6rvszarhea7sga4dcjzse

Short Selling Attack: A Self-Destructive But Profitable 51% Attack On PoS Blockchains [article]

Suhyeon Lee, Seungjoo Kim
2020 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Our findings are an example to show that the conventional myth that "a destructive attack that destroys the blockchain ecosystem totally will not occur because it is fundamentally unprofitable to the attacker  ...  There have been several 51% attacks on Proof-of-Work (PoW) blockchains recently, including Verge and Game-Credits, but the most noteworthy has been the attack that saw hackers make off with up to $18 million  ...  Through this, we will show that even 51% of attacks on PoS blockchain can fully benefit the attacker, and if the attack is not properly handled, the entire PoS blockchain ecosystem may be destroyed.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/LeeK20 fatcat:2k2ry4cdrvc2pfmn3bps6i74lq
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