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Diversity within the crowd

Durga M. Kandasamy, Kristal Curtis, Armando Fox, David Patterson
2012 Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work Companion - CSCW '12  
Though crowdsourcing holds great promise, many struggle with framing tasks and determining which members of the crowd should be recruited to obtain reliable output.  ...  In some cases, expert knowledge is desired but, given the time and cost constraints of the problem, may not be available.  ...  Each agent within the group has a corresponding ability vector which represents its capabilities along several dimensions of interest.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2141512.2141556 dblp:conf/cscw/KandasamyCFP12 fatcat:hholonjwzzhn5pgtgfliujzkeu

Vesicular Diversity and Crowding within the Olfactory Sensory Receptor Neuron

Subrata Kumar De, Swaraj Kumar Sarkar
2014 Microscopy and Microanalysis  
The different phases of the vesicles are space specific and the polarity of the said vesicles within the perikaryon is also distinct.  ...  These vesicles are subsequently crowded near the centriole of the basal body of each kinocilium.  ...  Figure 1 . 1 The electron micrograph shows the perikaryon of olfactory sensory receptor cell (OSRN) with vesicular diversity (arrows) within the perinuclear cytoplasm. Nucleus (N).  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1431927614008095 fatcat:2ciof5tkgngb3nhppx6ifyboca

Is Emergency Department Crowding Associated With Increased "Bounceback" Admissions?

Renee Y. Hsia, Steven M. Asch, Robert E. Weiss, David Zingmond, Gelareh Gabayan, Li-Jung Liang, Weijuan Han, Heather McCreath, Benjamin C. Sun
2013 Medical Care  
Crowding as measured by ambulance diversion does not have an association with hospitalization within 7 days of an ED visit discharge.  ...  bounceback admissions within 7 days.  ...  the past as a standard criterion for developing ED crowding scales. 22 Within each county in California that allowed diversion, we obtained daily diversion logs for the entirety of 2007 from the local  ... 
doi:10.1097/mlr.0b013e3182a98310 pmid:24036997 pmcid:PMC3839788 fatcat:azc7ov6xw5f5hkqqlhyspoyfwy

Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish

Darren W. Johnson, Jan Freiwald, Giacomo Bernardi
2015 Ecology  
Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding.  ...  We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation.  ...  Moreover, a prior study suggests that the degree of crowding within a population may be related to genetic diversity.  ... 
doi:10.1890/15-0914.1 fatcat:v4eqzfc2mvfylh7koedf4glowq

Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish

D. W Johnson, J Freiwald, G Bernardi
2015 Ecology  
Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding.  ...  We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation.  ...  Moreover, a prior study suggests that the degree of crowding within a population may be related to genetic diversity.  ... 
doi:10.1890/15-0914 fatcat:ubbzuntc7ffefcljuvxsnyph6y

Comparison of measures of crowding, group size, and diversity

Zsolt Lang, Lajos Rózsa, Jenő Reiczigel
2017 Ecosphere  
Comparison of measures of crowding, group size, and diversity. Ecosphere 8(7): Abstract. In ecology, diversity is often measured as the mean rarity of species in a community.  ...  In relation to crowding, we introduce the notion "effective number of groups" that corresponds to the "effective number of species" used in diversity studies.  ...  If q = 2, then the crowding function is Lloyd's (1967) mean crowding. Its diversity counterpart D 2 is X • times the Gini-Simpson diversity 1 À P N i ¼ 1 p 2 i .  ... 
doi:10.1002/ecs2.1897 fatcat:lznd6osjt5bpzaj3v5j3lmyh7y

Attack on the Clones: Managing Player Perceptions of Visual Variety and Believability in Video Game Crowds [chapter]

Sean Oxspring, Ben Kirman, Oliver Szymanezyk
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It is often the case that individual models are re--used, lowering visual variety in the crowd and potentially affecting realism and believability.  ...  This paper explores a number of approaches to increase visual diversity in large game crowds, and discusses a procedural solution for generating diverse non--player character models.  ...  factors that are important for different aesthetic styles will vary and as such some aspects of the study may have less or more importance depending on the presentation of a specific game.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-03161-3_26 fatcat:rdsgfweerrfjdaceykhok3enpa

Emergency department crowding and thrombolysis delays in acute myocardial infarction

Michael J. Schull, Marian Vermeulen, Graham Slaughter, Laurie Morrison, Paul Daly
2004 Annals of Emergency Medicine  
At patient registration in an ED, the ambulance diversion status of all EDs in the network was determined.  ...  Study objective: We estimate the effect of emergency department (ED) crowding on door-to-needle time for patients given intravenous thrombolysis for suspected acute myocardial infarction.  ...  We sought to evaluate the effect of crowding within an ED network linked by an ambulance diversion system on door-to-needle time, hypothesizing that worsened crowding would be associated with greater delays  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.05.004 pmid:15573032 fatcat:e3bgfahg6zcepgs45ol7fsoltm

Wisdom of the Crowd within enterprises: Practices and challenges

Mahmood Hosseini, Jack Moore, Malik Almaliki, Alimohammad Shahri, Keith Phalp, Raian Ali
2015 Computer Networks  
The Wisdom of the Crowd advocates that decisions collectively made by a diverse crowd could be better than those made by an elite group of experts.  ...  This concerns the diversity of the crowd, their independence from each other, their decentralisation, and the methods of aggregating their distributed knowledge and forming collective decisions.  ...  Acknowledgements The research was supported by an FP7 Marie Curie CIG grant (the SOCIAD Project) (Grant no. 334287) and by Bournemouth University through the Fusion Investment Fund (the BBB, BUUU and VolaComp  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2015.07.004 fatcat:mg3rgbsgxvfm5h2xbcs7qkoqwi

Measures of Crowding in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review

Ula Hwang, Melissa L. McCarthy, Dominik Aronsky, Brent Asplin, Peter W. Crane, Catherine K. Craven, Stephen K. Epstein, Christopher Fee, Daniel A. Handel, Jesse M. Pines, Niels K. Rathlev, Robert W. Schafermeyer (+2 others)
2011 Academic Emergency Medicine  
All measures were then indexed to six validation criteria (clinician opinion, ambulance diversion, left without being seen (LWBS), times to care, forecasting or predictions of future crowding, and other  ...  A "measurement ⁄ definition" instrument is anything that assigns a value to the phenomenon of crowding in the ED.  ...  , help to complement factors within the ED, such as patient counts, to provide a more complete picture of both the causes and effects of crowding.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01054.x pmid:21569171 fatcat:vrbo6wualraf7ponr7nwbkqora

Effect of Emergency Department Crowding on Outcomes of Admitted Patients

Benjamin C. Sun, Renee Y. Hsia, Robert E. Weiss, David Zingmond, Li-Jung Liang, Weijuan Han, Heather McCreath, Steven M. Asch
2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine  
To control for hospital-level confounders of ambulance diversion, we defined periods of high ED crowding as those days within the top quartile of diversion hours for a specific facility.  ...  ED crowding was established by the proxy measure of ambulance diversion hours on the day of admission.  ...  To adjust for potential hospital-level confounding of ambulance diversion that may be unrelated to ED crowding, we defined periods of high ED crowding as days within the top quartile of daily ambulance  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.10.026 pmid:23218508 pmcid:PMC3690784 fatcat:ogypb5p53jfwrojyysobxpocai

Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion

Theodore A. Kennedy, Shahid Naeem, Katherine M. Howe, Johannes M. H. Knops, David Tilman, Peter Reich
2002 Nature  
This work was supported by the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the McKnight Foundation, the University of Minnesota, NASA and the NSF.  ...  Craine for comments on the manuscript, and T. Mielke and the undergraduate interns at Cedar Creek who made this work possible.  ...  These properties are (1) the number of species within the neighbourhood (S N ), (2) the number of plants in the neighbourhood (N) and (3) v sum (ref. 12) , an index of crowding that takes into account  ... 
doi:10.1038/nature00776 pmid:12050662 fatcat:wwgpibsrnzc2dk22cjr6cnpdsq

Assessing the value of cooperation in Wikipedia

Dennis M. Wilkinson, Bernardo A. Huberman
2007 First Monday  
To better understand the effects of crowd size we conducted a study on the retention and performance of 4,317 articles in the WikiProject Film community.  ...  The literature is unclear, however, about when crowd size leads to better outcomes.  ...  The first disparity construct is inequality in article workload when considering the work performed within each article. We label this construct as local workload diversity (LWD).  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v12i4.1763 fatcat:4ld7yctxl5bolh4nskxelgorr4

The influence of diversity and experience on the effects of crowd size

Lionel P. Robert, Daniel M. Romero
2016 Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology  
Our results suggest that crowds benefit from their size when they are diverse, experienced, and have low retention rates.  ...  The literature is unclear, however, about the relationship between the size of crowds and its impact on outcomes.  ...  A preliminary version of part of this article (Robert & Romero, 2015) appears in the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, 2015.  ... 
doi:10.1002/asi.23653 fatcat:a6ex7mv5yzetphzsgurunx66rq

Neighbourhood-scale diversity, composition and root crowding do not alter competition during drought in a native grassland

James F. Cahill
2003 Ecology Letters  
Neither diversity nor community composition influenced root crowding or competition.  ...  The diversity-invasion resistance theory argues that increased diversity results in increased competitive suppression of establishing plants.  ...  Even when ignoring the significance of the diversity effect on mortality, there was no evidence that mortality was generally higher within increased diversity (Table 1) .  ... 
doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00476.x fatcat:6bb3hulhebhonofq5dqwgutnuq
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