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Diversity of preferences can increase collective welfare in sequential exploration problems [article]

Pantelis P. Analytis, Hrvoje Stojic, Alexandros Gelastopoulos and Mehdi Moussaïd
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we show that in such problems, preference diversity can function as a welfare enhancing mechanism.  ...  In search engines, online marketplaces and other human-computer interfaces large collectives of individuals sequentially interact with numerous alternatives of varying quality.  ...  Could some preference diversity be beneficial in problems where collectives sequentially explore numerous alternatives, and thus despite reducing the immediate value of social learning lead to an increase  ... 
arXiv:1703.10970v2 fatcat:6zgy5ps7pngkfmaoywdrz2vyiq

Deconstructing the Filter Bubble: User Decision-Making and Recommender Systems [article]

Guy Aridor, Duarte Goncalves, Shan Sikdar
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We study a model of user decision-making in the context of recommender systems via numerical simulation.  ...  We find that recommendation alleviates these natural filter-bubble effects, but that it also leads to an increase in homogeneity across users, resulting in a trade-off between homogenizing across-user  ...  There is a similar increasing diversity gap as γ , or the level of risk-aversion, increases as can be seen in the bottom row of Figure 2 .  ... 
arXiv:1904.10527v3 fatcat:pv7b2n6n2vdvhdrmk3nqw2iy7e

Community and Economics1 [chapter]

Michael Storper
2008 Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization  
These are not just limited to the well-explored case of principal-agent dynamics, where there is a problem of aggregation of heterogeneous preferences.  ...  Is the collective diversity of something akin to a "Europe of regions" likely to enhance welfare and development?  ... 
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199545490.003.0003 fatcat:clzyc4axurb4pjtxeeuoaaqyqa

Matching, cardinal utility, and social welfare

Elliot Anshelevich, Sanmay Das
2010 ACM SIGecom Exchanges  
Das and Kamenica [2005] explore the consequences of agents having to learn their preferences sequentially through interactions with each other, in the context of a dating game.  ...  Our paper also verifies another insight related to cardinal utilities: as preferences in a matching "society" become more diverse, the social utility of stable matchings increases, even though the price  ... 
doi:10.1145/1980534.1980538 fatcat:tnajda6mgbbadpjwgtzb3afe2a

Incentivising Exploration and Recommendations for Contextual Bandits with Payments [article]

Priyank Agrawal, Theja Tulabandhula
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a contextual bandit based model to capture the learning and social welfare goals of a web platform in the presence of myopic users.  ...  By using payments to incentivize these agents to explore different items/recommendations, we show how the platform can learn the inherent attributes of items and achieve a sublinear regret while maximizing  ...  The role of user heterogeneity is further explored in [1] and [11] as covariate diversity.  ... 
arXiv:2001.07853v1 fatcat:7ed2qdnxrze2bmna7ezzijo25e

Cooperation and Learning Dynamics under Wealth Inequality and Diversity in Individual Risk

Ramona Merhej, Fernando P. Santos, Francisco S. Melo, Francisco C. Santos
2022 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
We find that both wealth inequality and diversity in risk assessment can hinder cooperation and augment collective losses.  ...  We examine how wealth inequality and diversity in the perception of risk of a collective disaster impact cooperation levels in the context of a public goods game with uncertain and non-linear returns.  ...  ., 2008; Santos & Pacheco, 2011; Santos et al., 2012; Domingos et al., 2021a) , to the best our knowledge, diversity in risk perception has not yet been explored in the context of collective risk dilemmas  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.1.13519 fatcat:pn6zs657jjegtmdpopsn4qbrpe

Behavioural Diversity Study in Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Groups and Its Implications for Welfare Assessments

Fabienne Delfour, Ruta Vaicekauskaite, Daniel García-Párraga, Cristina Pilenga, Agathe Serres, Isabelle Brasseur, Ana Pascaud, Enrique Perlado-Campos, Guillermo J. Sánchez-Contreras, Katrin Baumgartner, Tania Monreal-Pawlowsky
2021 Animals  
Expression of behavioural diversity is considered a potential positive welfare indicator, and to the authors' knowledge, it has not been validated nor studied in cetaceans.  ...  The goal of our study was to analyse behavioural diversity in bottlenose dolphins at the group level to investigate how particular factors might impact the diversity of behaviours within the group and  ...  A special and deep thanks from the authors to Birgitta Mercera, curator of Parc Asterix dolphinarium (France) for her constant and enthusiastic support and her professional involvement in dolphin welfare  ... 
doi:10.3390/ani11061715 fatcat:qv2uarhz4nhjpmrubrpx3ebtpe

Consumer flexibility aggregation using partition function games with non-transferable utility

Tiago Pinto, Michael Wooldridge, Zita Vale
2021 IEEE Access  
in the diversity and total number of coalitions components, which are much more affected by this increase in the number of coalitions.  ...  Although partition function games have been widely studied, the modelling of these problems with NTU has not been explored in depth.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3069416 fatcat:kpv42kq4vzfh7ka52cyaes5sli

Why do intermediaries divert search?

Andrei Hagiu, Bruno Jullien
2011 The Rand Journal of Economics  
for diverting search (i.e. inducing consumers to search more than they would like): i) trading off higher total consumer traffic for higher revenues per consumer visit; ii) influencing stores' choices of  ...  We characterize the conditions under which there would be no role for search diversion as a strategic instrument for the intermediary, thereby showing that it occurs even when the contracting space is  ...  They can only visit the two stores sequentially (and they perform at most two rounds of search).  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1756-2171.2011.00136.x fatcat:3lzzk45w4fc2hnxuti36lhv3ry

Why Do Intermediaries Divert Search?

Andrei Hagiu, Bruno Jullien
2010 Social Science Research Network  
for diverting search (i.e. inducing consumers to search more than they would like): i) trading off higher total consumer traffic for higher revenues per consumer visit; ii) influencing stores' choices of  ...  We characterize the conditions under which there would be no role for search diversion as a strategic instrument for the intermediary, thereby showing that it occurs even when the contracting space is  ...  They can only visit the two stores sequentially (and they perform at most two rounds of search).  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1010682 fatcat:criudviscfgljmynwsbtehogm4

Innovation through Optimal Licensing in Free Markets and Free Software

Geoffrey Parker, Marshall W. Van Alstyne
2005 Social Science Research Network  
For private firms, we model a variety of possible business models from completely closed to fully open, and find that opening a platform can increase profits based on network effects exclusively, innovation  ...  In modeling terms, we add to the recent literature on two-sided network effects by incorporating a production function on one side of the market.  ...  In addition, we thank Emanuel Farhi for his close reading of the manuscript and suggestions to improve model formulation. We thank Paul Luongo for ideas and research assistance.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.639165 fatcat:efrgbe4wiffkppvmfb3lycsexq

Citizens, consumers and farm animal welfare: A meta-analysis of willingness-to-pay studies

Beth Clark, Gavin B. Stewart, Luca A. Panzone, Ilias Kyriazakis, Lynn J. Frewer
2017 Food Policy  
A combination of market and government based policy 29 solutions appears to be the best solution for improving farm animal welfare standards in the future, 30 enabling the diverse public preferences to  ...  Production diseases are particularly endemic in 8 intensive production systems, and can negatively impact upon farm animal welfare.  ...  Multiple measures of 197 secondary variables were extracted for each paper reflecting the diverse nature of welfare, and 198 because a large number of studies collected WTP information for a number of  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.01.006 fatcat:dgksl4ueczcsdhckzi2niat5w4

Linking solar geoengineering and emissions reductions: strategically resolving an international climate change policy dilemma

Jesse L. Reynolds
2021 Climate Policy  
Linkages in each of the three categories have potential and could occur sequentially.  ...  Limitations to this exploration and assessment include the speculative nature, the assumption that states' preferences regarding mitigation and solar geoengineering are properly related, and the use of  ...  at talks given at the University of California, Los Angeles; the University of California, Santa Cruz; Harvard University; Arizona State University in Washington, DC; the Institute for Advanced Sustainability  ... 
doi:10.1080/14693062.2021.1993125 fatcat:alesavpibbe6lfliejqfycxy4y

Fiscal restraints and voter welfare

Timothy Besley, Michael Smart
2007 Journal of Public Economics  
This paper explores the logic of ...scal restraints in a political agency model with both moral hazard and adverse selection.  ...  We use the model to examine the optimality of ine¢ cient taxation, limits on the size of government, increasing transparency, and yardstick competition. Some conclusions are surprising.  ...  Since residual problems remain, a further distortion in the form of ine¢ cient taxation can be welfare enhancing, or it may simply exacerbate existing problems in the political system.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2006.09.009 fatcat:5tgkcmulyba73d5pzpwtgie7ni

5th Iberian Primatological Congress

Miquel Llorente, Ana Morcillo, Catarina Casanova, Susanna Costa
2016 Folia primatologica  
angolensis) of the highland forests of Kenya, and snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) in China.  ...  Understanding the socio-ecological drivers of threats, the behavioural contexts of direct hostility (crop-raiding), those places and times when primates can find opportunities for survival, and when human  ...  These growing pressures have led to an increase in the number of animals in sanctuaries and rescue centres, which need to maintain levels of welfare of the primates they house.  ... 
doi:10.1159/000449293 pmid:27654984 fatcat:fbsssewjnrfl5drpwphttvm26i
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