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Distributional Learning of Some Context-Free Languages with a Minimally Adequate Teacher [chapter]

Alexander Clark
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Angluin showed that the class of regular languages could be learned from a Minimally Adequate Teacher (mat) providing membership and equivalence queries.  ...  In this paper we consider learnability of context free languages using a mat.  ...  Acknowledgments I am very grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions, and to Ryo Yoshinaka for some technical suggestions and corrections.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15488-1_4 fatcat:rjydzjrgw5ajdnt2qtuxppji6i

Context Free Grammar Identification from Positive Samples

K Senthil Kumar, D Malathi
2018 International Journal of Engineering & Technology  
Identification of unknown Context Free grammar of the target language from positive examples is an extensive area in Grammatical Inference/ Grammar induction.  ...  Context free grammar which represents type 2 grammar in Chomsky hierarchy has many applications in Formal Language Theory, pattern recognition, Speech recognition, Machine learning , Compiler design and  ...  Minimally Adequate Teacher (MAT) This is the model proposed by Angluin [5] .In this model each time a query is asked to the Oracle(teacher) by the inference machine(learner).The learner will always get  ... 
doi:10.14419/ijet.v7i3.12.17768 fatcat:vk6edzaupravdjorn5axvj4aee

Challenges Faced by Teachers When Teaching English in Public Primary Schools in Kenya

Mary Susan Anyiendah
2017 Frontiers in Education  
Given that language learning requires a lot of exposure as postulated by Cummins (2006) , the teacher of English is left with the sole burden of helping learners develop competence in English within a  ...  There are other prevailing conditions which pose a challenge to the teacher hence impeding learning. Teachers in my context face numerous challenges in and out of the classroom.  ...  No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.  ... 
doi:10.3389/feduc.2017.00013 fatcat:o2trdl2ofregxlala4dlewyeti

Polynomial Time Learning of Some Multiple Context-Free Languages with a Minimally Adequate Teacher [chapter]

Ryo Yoshinaka, Alexander Clark
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present an algorithm for the inference of some Multiple Context-Free Grammars from Membership and Equivalence Queries, using the Minimally Adequate Teacher model of Angluin.  ...  This is an extension of the congruence based methods for learning some Context-Free Grammars proposed by Clark (ICGI 2010).  ...  Learning of Congruential Multiple Context-Free Grammars with a Minimally Adequate Teacher Minimally Adequate Teacher Our learning model is based on Angluin's mat learning [18] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32024-8_13 fatcat:ziasohqdrffjhnl6ypx5svptf4

Grammatical Inference in Software Engineering: An Overview of the State of the Art [chapter]

Andrew Stevenson, James R. Cordy
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Grammatical inference -used successfully in a variety of fields such as pattern recognition, computational biology and natural language processing -is the process of automatically inferring a grammar by  ...  examining the sentences of an unknown language.  ...  Sakakibara has shown this method effective by adapting Angluin's results for learning DFAs by a minimally adequate teacher [5] and learning reversible automata [4] to context-free variants with structured  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36089-3_12 fatcat:3qp3xzhhqjgwdhguesrjnvotra

A survey of grammatical inference in software engineering

Andrew Stevenson, James R. Cordy
2014 Science of Computer Programming  
Grammatical inference -used successfully in a variety of fields such as pattern recognition, computational biology and natural language processing -is the process of automatically inferring a grammar by  ...  examining the sentences of an unknown language.  ...  Sakakibara has shown this method e↵ective by adapting Angluin's results for learning DFAs by a minimally adequate teacher [7] and learning reversible automata [6] to context-free variants with structured  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2014.05.008 fatcat:xwasotc745ekbhaoq2n43vrufm

Theoretical Aspects of Computing

Gabriel Ciobanu
2014 Scientific Annals of Computer Science  
ICTAC 2014 welcomed submissions from the following areas: automata theory and formal languages; principles and semantics of programming languages; theories of concurrency, mobility and reconfiguration;  ...  The 11th International Colloquium on Theoretical Aspects of Computing (ICTAC) aimed to bring together practitioners and researchers from academia, industry and government, with the purpose of encouraging  ...  This algorithm synthesizes a minimal deterministic cover automaton consistent with an observation table maintained via a learning protocol called "minimally adequate teacher".  ... 
doi:10.7561/sacs.2014.2.173 fatcat:6gqkwapiqzc23aok7m2fmydcjy

General Perspective on Distributionally Learnable Classes

Ryo Yoshinaka
2015 Proceedings of the 14th Meeting on the Mathematics of Language (MoL 2015)  
Several algorithms have been proposed to learn different subclasses of context-free grammars based on the idea generically called distributional learning.  ...  Those techniques have been applied to many formalisms richer than context-free grammars like multiple context-free grammars, simple contextfree tree grammars and others.  ...  Acknowledgments The view presented in this paper has been sharpened through the interactions and discussions with several researchers with whom I worked on the distributional learning of generalized CFGs  ... 
doi:10.3115/v1/w15-2308 dblp:conf/mol/Yoshinaka15 fatcat:q2ziqqernvepnnnat6or2kzhgy

Perceptions of Dominance in English as an International Language (EIL) Pedagogy

Mili Saha
2020 Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education  
Forty learners and twenty teachers of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) from different Bangladeshi colleges and universities responded to a survey on Google Forms.  ...  This article explores teacher and learner perceptions about the standard varieties of English language and the power-effect involved in teaching and learning EIL.  ...   What are the common perceived pedagogical goals in an EIL context?  How to minimize the effects of perceived dominance?  ... 
doi:10.12785/jtte/080101 fatcat:j4lazxjwb5fpzmnx6ovfemwioy

The Quality of Play Center Activities of Early Childhood Education in China

Xiaolin Liu, Biying Hu, Jian-hao Huang
2019 English Language Teaching  
Findings and implications will help teachers to better support and enhance children’s play center activities and early learning.  ...  on a stratified random selection of 48 classrooms in Guangdong Province in China.  ...  It is observed that kindergarten teachers interact minimally with children during play center activities, while the organization and instruction of teachers has proven to be a crucial reason for a high  ... 
doi:10.5539/elt.v12n8p95 fatcat:46icxpvymbbdlclibwz3v3su4e

A bibliographical study of grammatical inference

Colin de la Higuera
2005 Pattern Recognition  
The field of grammatical inference (also known as grammar induction) is transversal to a number of research areas including machine learning, formal language theory, syntactic and structural pattern recognition  ...  The goal of this paper is to introduce a certain number of papers related with grammatical inference.  ...  Membership and equivalence queries together form a Minimal Adequate Teacher.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2005.01.003 fatcat:62qwskiqcvddjobakbdshwebqq

Learning regular sets from queries and counterexamples

Dana Angluin
1987 Information and Computation  
A polynomial-time learning algorithm is shown for a particular problem of context-free language identification. cl  ...  A learning algorithm L* is described that correctly learns any regular set from any minimally adequate Teacher in time polynomial in the number of states of the minimum dfa for the set and the maximum  ...  To give an example of how the ideas of the present paper extend to some of the domains considered by Shapiro, we describe a Learner Lcf for a class of context-free languages.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0890-5401(87)90052-6 fatcat:you6u3ahpvfgpgezjpse5w5xaq

Teachers' Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

2015 Advances in Language and Literary Studies  
as a Foreign Language, ELT -English Language Teaching  ...  A checklist is used to gauge teachers' viewpoints while subsequent interview sessions seek to reveal more insightful responses.  ...  Therefore, successful communication would require some form of understanding in the cultural context of the target language.  ... 
doi:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.6n.4p.128 fatcat:nmzrcsoi3rfjvcgenwpfvzaugq

A computational model of teaching

Jeffrey Jackson, Andrew Tomkins
1992 Proceedings of the fifth annual workshop on Computational learning theory - COLT '92  
We study the relationships between variants of these models, and also touch on a relationship with distribution-free learning.  ...  Goldman and Kearns [GK91] recently introduced a notion of the teaching dimension of a concept class.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Discussions with Avrim Blum have been fundamental in formulating these ideas.  ... 
doi:10.1145/130385.130421 dblp:conf/colt/JacksonT92 fatcat:hrqhp5uqbnc47f3lt67eguh3fa

Distributional learning of parallel multiple context-free grammars

Alexander Clark, Ryo Yoshinaka
2013 Machine Learning  
Here we extend a family of distributional learning algorithms for context-free grammars to the class of Parallel Multiple Context-Free Grammars (PMCFGs).  ...  We present a learning algorithm for a large subclass of these grammars, that includes all regular languages but not all context-free languages.  ...  Under a different learning model, the minimally adequate teacher (MAT) model, Yoshinaka and Clark (2012) show that a class of multiple context-free grammars can be learned using distributional techniques  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10994-013-5403-2 fatcat:l6tkr4wgv5b2laj7pmo5v2wxje
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