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The neuropsychology of fear learning and fear regulation

Alfons O. Hamm, Almut I. Weike
2005 International Journal of Psychophysiology  
Finally, conditioned startle potentiation can be obtained without contingency awareness, which on the other hand is necessary for skin conductance conditioning to occur.  ...  It is suggested here that potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex is a rather specific measure for fear acquisition, while skin conductance discrimination indexes contingency learning.  ...  Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant of the German Research Foundation (DFG) to Alfons Hamm (Ha 1593/10-2) and to Almut Weike (We 2762/3-1).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.01.006 pmid:15935258 fatcat:ih3vtsxwhnbvrmnuql2fpdnyr4

Fear conditioning of SCR but not the startle reflex requires conscious discrimination of threat and safety

Dieuwke Sevenster, Tom Beckers, Merel Kindt
2014 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
There is conflicting evidence as to whether awareness is required for conditioning of the skin conductance response (SCR).  ...  These findings are in stark contrast with other observations in human fear conditioning research, showing that SCR predominantly reflects contingency learning.  ...  Molenkamp for his technical assistance and F. Geurts for collecting the data. This study was funded by a Vici grant (Merel Kindt) from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00032 pmid:24616672 pmcid:PMC3937874 fatcat:7mcdd3pa2nfdlkog45jprtomly

Amygdala-dependent fear conditioning in humans is modulated by the BDNFval66met polymorphism

Tina B. Lonsdorf, Almut I. Weike, Armita Golkar, Martin Schalling, Alfons O. Hamm, Arne Öhman
2010 Behavioral Neuroscience  
Pictures of male faces were used as stimuli and fear learning was quantified by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR).  ...  Aware BDNF met-carriers show a deficit in amygdala-dependent fear conditioning as indicated by an absence of FPS responses in the last acquisition block.  ...  Skin Conductance Responses In aware participants, robust conditioned SCR discrimination was demonstrated by a significant main effect for stimulus, indicating differential conditioning, during both conditioning  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0018261 pmid:20141276 pmcid:PMC2862474 fatcat:53bm43ssgfh2pjiw6qybxgwwvq

Cognitive Processes in Extinction

P. F. Lovibond
2004 Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)  
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Preparation of this manuscript was supported by grants A10007156 and DP0346379 from the Australian Research Council.  ...  Implications for Neuroscience A great deal of research on the neural basis of conditioning has been conducted with animals.  ...  By comparison to these stimuli, it can be seen that presentation of stimulus D without shock had led to a substantial reduction in both shock expectancy ( Fig. 1 left panel) and skin conductance CRs  ... 
doi:10.1101/lm.79604 pmid:15466299 fatcat:3jx6ksjwwbhrlpb2pgfyiwsbcy

Conditioning with masked stimuli affects the timecourse of skin conductance responses

Nicholas L. Balderston, Fred J. Helmstetter
2010 Behavioral Neuroscience  
In Pavlovian fear conditioning, an aversive unconditional stimulus (UCS) is repeatedly paired with a neutral conditional stimulus (CS).  ...  There are currently two general models competing to explain the role of subjective awareness in fear conditioning.  ...  In fear conditioning with humans, autonomic CRs can be measured via changes in skin conductance level (SCL).  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0019927 pmid:20695647 pmcid:PMC5275764 fatcat:fj226psqgrfxxalbgsjlryt57u

Learned Fear of "Unseen" Faces after Pavlovian, Observational, and Instructed Fear

Andreas Olsson, Elizabeth A. Phelps
2004 Psychological Science  
The three groups demonstrated similar levels of learning as measured by the skin conductance response to unmasked stimuli.  ...  This study compared fear learning acquired through direct experience (Pavlovian conditioning) and fear learning acquired without direct experience via either observation or verbal instruction.  ...  comments on an earlier version of this article.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00762.x pmid:15563327 fatcat:c2u6gs6xivfn5ka3yemdcgpul4

Under what conditions can human affective conditioning occur without contingency awareness? Test of the evaluative conditioning paradigm

Michael E. Dawson, Anthony J. Rissling, Anne M. Schell, Rand Wilcox
2007 Emotion  
, both psychophysiological (skin conductance and startle eyeblink) and indirect behavioral (affective priming) measures of conditioning, along with a trial-by-trial measure of awareness from 55 college  ...  The role of conscious cognitive processes in human affective conditioning remains controversial, with several theories arguing that such conditioning can occur without awareness of the conditioned stimulus  ...  Affective Ratings Skin Conductance During Conditioning Skin Conductance During Preaware and Postaware Trials The mean skin conductance amplitudes to the CS pos and CS neg were compared with the CS  ... 
doi:10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.755 pmid:18039045 fatcat:3vjd4tvmsjgxdhg4zpaoof65uu

In the Blink of an Eye: Investigating the Role of Awareness in Fear Responding by Measuring the Latency of Startle Potentiation

Ole Åsli, Magne A. Flaten
2012 Brain Sciences  
We review research suggesting that single-cue delay classical conditioning is independent of awareness of the contingency between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US).  ...  These results indicate that the process underlying delay conditioned responding is independent of awareness, and that trace fear conditioned responding is dependent on awareness.  ...  Previous studies have used skin conductance responses to masked conditioned fear-evoking stimuli [23, 59] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/brainsci2010061 pmid:24962686 pmcid:PMC4061786 fatcat:jxmd5eteqzaqzfojayglqwdolq

Learning as a Model for Neural Plasticity in Major Depression

Christoph Nissen, Johannes Holz, Jens Blechert, Bernd Feige, Dieter Riemann, Ulrich Voderholzer, Claus Normann
2010 Biological Psychiatry  
Results: Depressed subjects showed a significant deficit in declarative memory consolidation and enhanced fear acquisition as indicated by skin conductance responses to conditioned stimuli, in comparison  ...  The neuroplasticity hypothesis of depression proposes that a dysfunction of neural plasticity-the basic ability of living organisms to adapt their neural function and structure to external and internal  ...  **p Ͻ .01, by analysis of variance. Figure 3 . 3 (A) Skin conductance response (SCR) levels during fear conditioning. The lines depict mean SCRs across single blocks (early, middle, and late).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.05.026 pmid:20655508 fatcat:7qvlaq2gefg3jbi6bg6rjqp6bq

Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents

Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan, Andrea L Gold, Andrea Duys, Hilary K Lambert, Matthew Peverill, Charlotte Heleniak, Tomer Shechner, Zuzanna Wojcieszak, Daniel S Pine
2015 Neuropsychopharmacology  
Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children.  ...  Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children.  ...  of maltreatment, suggesting good contingency awareness.  ... 
doi:10.1038/npp.2015.365 pmid:26677946 pmcid:PMC4908632 fatcat:mbccx76lhfav5bddqmcdxpupkq

The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: Empirical evidence and theoretical implications

Peter F. Lovibond, David R. Shanks
2002 Journal of Experimental Psychology Animal Behavior Processes  
The bulk of the evidence is consistent with the position that awareness is necessary but not sufficient for conditioned performance, although studies suggestive of conditioning without awareness are identified  ...  Many studies have used inadequate measures of awareness, and strategies for increasing validity and sensitivity are discussed.  ...  Additional analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between verbalizable knowledge and magnitude of the skin conductance response.  ... 
doi:10.1037//0097-7403.28.1.3 pmid:11868231 fatcat:jmlfohd7rnc2hirpa2tw34lzty

The role of awareness in Pavlovian conditioning: Empirical evidence and theoretical implications

Peter F. Lovibond, David R. Shanks
2002 Journal of Experimental Psychology Animal Behavior Processes  
The bulk of the evidence is consistent with the position that awareness is necessary but not sufficient for conditioned performance, although studies suggestive of conditioning without awareness are identified  ...  Many studies have used inadequate measures of awareness, and strategies for increasing validity and sensitivity are discussed.  ...  Additional analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between verbalizable knowledge and magnitude of the skin conductance response.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0097-7403.28.1.3 pmid:11868231 fatcat:xqg5b4satvaxrlja6uly6nzvlu

Startle reactivity and anxiety disorders: aversive conditioning, context, and neurobiology

Christian Grillon
2002 Biological Psychiatry  
A distinction is made between cued fear (as in specific phobia), a phasic response to an explicit threat cue, and anxiety, a more sustained and future-oriented response not linked to a specific discrete  ...  Following a brief description of the neurobiology of cued fear and context conditioning, evidence is presented showing that anxious patients are overly sensitive to threatening contexts.  ...  Aspects of this work were presented at the conference, "Learning and Unlearning Fears: Preparedness, Neural Pathways, and Patients," held March 21, 2002 in Austin, TX.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0006-3223(02)01665-7 pmid:12437937 fatcat:nxhile5girdapmgs6foi2oeshm

Impaired acquisition of classically conditioned fear-potentiated startle reflexes in humans with focal bilateral basolateral amygdala damage

Floris Klumpers, Barak Morgan, David Terburg, Dan J. Stein, Jack van Honk
2014 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
Based on studies in rodents, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is considered a key site for experience-dependent neural plasticity underlying the acquisition of conditioned fear responses.  ...  In a classical delay fear conditioning experiment, these subjects showed impaired acquisition of conditioned fear relative to a group of matched control subjects (N ¼ 10) as measured by fear-potentiation  ...  Near-complete bilateral amygdala calcification due to this disease was found to be associated with a lack of fear-conditioned skin conductance responses in this subject (Bechara et al., 1995) .  ... 
doi:10.1093/scan/nsu164 pmid:25552573 pmcid:PMC4560935 fatcat:i5bpcrl4rzddvoy5e3utkkxuwy

Social learning of fear

Andreas Olsson, Elizabeth A Phelps
2007 Nature Neuroscience  
A better understanding of social fear learning promotes integration of biological principles of learning with cultural evolution.  ...  We also describe how observational and instructed fear is distinguished by involvement of additional neural systems implicated in social-emotional behavior, language and explicit memory, and propose a  ...  This research was supported by the US National Institutes of Health MH62104 (to E.A.P.).  ... 
doi:10.1038/nn1968 pmid:17726475 fatcat:jekwtq4yvbbftafccnuytdvalq
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