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Disentangling the Roles of Approach, Activation and Valence in Instrumental and Pavlovian Responding

Quentin J. M. Huys, Roshan Cools, Martin Gölzer, Eva Friedel, Andreas Heinz, Raymond J. Dolan, Peter Dayan, Antonio Rangel
2011 PLoS Computational Biology  
These influences account for differences in the instrumental performance of approach and withdrawal behaviours.  ...  We show a high degree of sophistication in Pavlovian influences, with appetitive Pavlovian stimuli specifically promoting approach and inhibiting withdrawal, and aversive Pavlovian stimuli promoting withdrawal  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Bernard Balleine, Molly Crockett, Anthony Dickinson, Marc Guitart-Masip, Jon Roiser and Ben Seymour for helpful discussions and critically commenting on the manuscript  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002028 pmid:21556131 pmcid:PMC3080848 fatcat:kvfm3xbbbrdgzmt4im2sduye6i

Frontal network dynamics reflect neurocomputational mechanisms for reducing maladaptive biases in motivated action

Jennifer C Swart, Michael J Frank, Jessica I Määttä, Ole Jensen, Roshan Cools, Hanneke E M den Ouden
2018 PLoS Biology  
Midfrontal theta-band (4 Hz-8 Hz) activity covaried with the level of Pavlovian conflict and was associated with reduced Pavlovian biases rather than reduced instrumental learning biases.  ...  This work links midfrontal processing to detecting Pavlovian conflict and highlights the importance of network processing in reducing the impact of maladaptive, Pavlovian biases.  ...  In the following, we disentangle the contribution of these cue-based Pavlovian response biases and outcome-based instrumental learning biases to the observed motivational bias in Go responding before turning  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.2005979 pmid:30335745 pmcid:PMC6207318 fatcat:kqeuo53rxzgelbc76o7jpxfjwa

Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action

Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk EM Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke EM den Ouden
2017 eLife  
We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing.  ...  Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Monique Timmer and Peter Mulders for medical assistance; Dr. Sean James Fallon for advice on setting up the MPH study; Dr. Matthew Albrecht for help with RStan.  ... 
doi:10.7554/elife.22169 pmid:28504638 pmcid:PMC5432212 fatcat:x6kp5uiznvg3hh45dszm3edune

Dorsal striatal dopamine D1 receptor availability predicts an instrumental bias in action learning

Lieke de Boer, Jan Axelsson, Rumana Chowdhury, Katrine Riklund, Raymond J. Dolan, Lars Nyberg, Lars Bäckman, Marc Guitart-Masip
2018 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
This coupling of action and valence is often thought of as a Pavlovian bias, although recent research has shown it may also emerge through instrumental mechanisms.  ...  in the modulation of instrumental learning biases.  ...  We thank Mats Erikson and Kajsa Burström for collecting the data, Dr. Anna Rieckmann for agreeing to sharing her D1 data, and Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1816704116 pmid:30563856 pmcid:PMC6320523 fatcat:e2l2kkyez5cbxk5phiebjogtxy

Interactions of motivation and cognitive control

Debbie M Yee, Todd S Braver
2018 Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences  
We conclude by highlighting open issues, specifically Pavlovian versus instrumental control distinctions and effects of motivational valence and conflict, which could benefit from future research attention  ...  There is general agreement that both motivation and cognitive control play critical roles in shaping goal-directed behavior, but only recently has scientific interest focused around the question of motivation-control  ...  Additionally, the authors gratefully acknowledge the members of the CCP lab for helpful productive discussion and assistance in the investigation of these topics.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.009 pmid:30035206 pmcid:PMC6051692 fatcat:n7tjecq3mbdudanmv6vexaobzu

Motivational sensitivity of outcome-response priming: Experimental research and theoretical models

Poppy Watson, Reinout W. Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
2018 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
This is a simple and parsimonious mechanism by which activation of outcome representations (e.g. thinking about the light coming on) leads to activation of the associated motor patterns required to achieve  ...  While there is a wealth of evidence that both the perceptual and motivational properties of an outcome can be encoded in the O-R association and mediate O-R priming, we critically examine the integration  ...  A number of studies have systematically investigated how Pavlovian stimuli facilitate and inhibit approach and avoidance actions, revealing a complex interaction between Pavlovian outcome valence, instrumental  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-018-1449-2 pmid:29468416 fatcat:zl2wdej4obgfhegzaehg7nwlbe

Strong seduction: impulsivity and the impact of contextual cues on instrumental behavior in alcohol dependence

C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka (+1 others)
2017 Translational Psychiatry  
The PIT effect was particularly strong in trials in which the instrumental stimulus required inhibition of instrumental response behavior and the background CS was associated to monetary gains.  ...  These findings suggest that positively valenced background CS can provoke dysfunctional instrumental approach behavior in impulsive alcohol-dependent patients.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the whole team of the LeAD study for fruitful discussions and their relentless work in data acquisition, management and quality control.  ... 
doi:10.1038/tp.2017.158 pmid:28763064 pmcid:PMC5611726 fatcat:xaul7clfjjgldljj5m2tlr7jay

Enhanced Go and NoGo Learning in Individuals With Obesity

Jana Kube, Kathleen Wiencke, Sandra Hahn, Arno Villringer, Jane Neumann
2020 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
We employed a probabilistic Pavlovian-instrumental learning paradigm in which participants (29 normal-weight and 29 obese) learned to actively respond (Go learning) or withhold a response (NoGo learning  ...  Participants were better at learning active approach responses (Go) in the light of anticipated rewards and at learning to withhold a response (NoGo) in the light of imminent punishments.  ...  Disentangling the roles of approach, activation and valence in instrumental and pavlovian responding. PLoS Comput.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2020.00015 pmid:32116595 pmcid:PMC7033453 fatcat:n3vtdxoizrbxdaa3lqhb2gktfq

Modifying Pavlovian-To-Instrumental Transfer By Approach Avoidance Training In Healthy Subjects – A Proof of Concept Study [article]

Annika Rosenthal, Ke Chen, Anne Beck, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
2022 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractThe modulation of instrumental action by conditioned Pavlovian cues is hypothesized to play a role in the emergence and maintenance of maladaptive behavior.  ...  The Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task is designed to examine the magnitude of the influence of cues on behavior and we aim to manipulate the motivational value of Pavlovian cues to reduce their  ...  Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG, Project-ID 402170461 -TRR 265; 390688087 -EXC 2049) and the China Scholarship Council (CSC grant 201806750014)  ... 
doi:10.1101/2022.07.01.497725 fatcat:it3qxyueszbqfgygcykzaz26vu

Dissociable responses to punishment in distinct striatal regions during reversal learning

Oliver J. Robinson, Michael J. Frank, Barbara J. Sahakian, Roshan Cools
2010 NeuroImage  
We demonstrate simultaneous valencespecific and valence-nonspecific signals in the striatum, with the posterior dorsal striatum responding only to unexpected reward, and the anterior ventral striatum responding  ...  For instance, how can significant BOLD responses in the ventral striatum during punishment-based reversal learning be reconciled with the frequently demonstrated role of the ventral striatum in reward  ...  Acknowledgments This work was completed within the University of Cambridge Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, funded by a joint award from the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.036 pmid:20303408 pmcid:PMC3038262 fatcat:tyivq7ggnne5rolktricccmkce

Go and no-go learning in reward and punishment: Interactions between affect and effect

Marc Guitart-Masip, Quentin J.M. Huys, Lluis Fuentemilla, Peter Dayan, Emrah Duzel, Raymond J. Dolan
2012 NeuroImage  
We studied the acquisition of instrumental responding in healthy human volunteers in a task in which we orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence.  ...  Using computational reinforcement-learning models, we teased apart contributions from putatively instrumental and Pavlovian components in the generation of the observed asymmetry during learning.  ...  Pavlovian responses associated with predictions of reward usually entail vigorous active approach and engagement (Gray and McNaughton, 2000) , irrespective of the instrumental validity of these actions  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.024 pmid:22548809 pmcid:PMC3387384 fatcat:dyl3nujyffekdc3nzhuknngxti

Individual differences in bodily freezing predict emotional biases in decision making

Verena Ly, Quentin J. M. Huys, John F. Stins, Karin Roelofs, Roshan Cools
2014 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
Furthermore, our findings help bridge (animal and human) decision making and emotion research to advance our mechanistic understanding of decision making anomalies in daily encounters as well as in a wide  ...  Our data evidence an emotional biasing of instrumental action. Thus, angry relative to happy faces slowed instrumental approach relative to avoidance responses.  ...  These findings speak to a traditional debate in the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer literature (Lovibond, 1983) about the role of Pavlovian influences, and support the idea that Pavlovian stimuli  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00237 pmid:25071491 pmcid:PMC4080288 fatcat:5da3yfuphnganfsvoanwv4vyd4

Motivational Mechanisms and Outcome Expectancies Underlying the Approach Bias toward Addictive Substances

P. Watson, S. de Wit, Bernhard Hommel, R. W. Wiers
2012 Frontiers in Psychology  
in the sense that expectancy of the rewarding effects of drugs controls approach.  ...  At present it is unclear whether this bias to drug cues is a Pavlovian conditioned approach response, a habitual response, the result of a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer process, or a goal-directed action  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This PhD studentship is made possible through funding received from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO; 433-09-243).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00440 pmid:23133434 pmcid:PMC3490330 fatcat:u2ijdochgfcbjmozbmc756xeqi

Overcoming Pavlovian bias in semantic space

Sam Ereira, Marine Pujol, Marc Guitart-Masip, Raymond J. Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson
2021 Scientific Reports  
AbstractAction is invigorated in the presence of reward-predicting stimuli and inhibited in the presence of punishment-predicting stimuli.  ...  However, we demonstrate that when subjects engage in instrumental learning in a verbal semantic space, as opposed to a motoric space, not only do they exhibit the typical Pavlovian bias, but this Pavlovian  ...  The Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging is supported by core funding from the Wellcome Trust  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-82889-8 pmid:33564034 fatcat:g5gqlrhrirfztdimxdrl4whxze

Reward and avoidance learning in the context of aversive environments and possible implications for depressive symptoms

Miriam Sebold, M. Garbusow, P. Jetzschmann, D. J. Schad, S. Nebe, F. Schlagenhauf, A. Heinz, M. Rapp, N. Romanczuk-Seiferth
2019 Psychopharmacology  
We discuss our findings in the light of the involvement of the neuromodulators serotonin and dopamine.  ...  Aversive stimuli in the environment influence human actions. This includes valence-dependent influences on action selection, e.g., increased avoidance but decreased approach behavior.  ...  So far, previous studies investigating valence-action interactions have realized actions along an axis of activation, thus as approach/avoidance or go/no-go responses.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00213-019-05299-9 fatcat:zhw25gljhvfybjqe4uuvezqdo4
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