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Lightweight Convolutional Neural Network for Image Processing Method for Gaze Estimation and Eye Movement Event Detection

Joshua Emoto, Yutaka Hirata
2020 IPSJ Transactions on Bioinformatics  
Also, detecting eye movement events, such as blinking and saccadic movements, from the inferred gaze direction sequence for particular purposes requires the use of a separate algorithm.  ...  The devices now widely used for measuring eye movements are based on the video-oculography (VOG) method, wherein the direction of gaze is estimated by processing eye images obtained through a camera.  ...  Eye movement measurement devices are also now being used as input interfaces for smartphones and games [4] .  ... 
doi:10.2197/ipsjtbio.13.7 fatcat:ss2k6mng5vdl3nok5raapkdvme

Soft, wireless periocular wearable electronics for real-time detection of eye vergence in a virtual reality toward mobile eye therapies

Saswat Mishra, Yun-Soung Kim, Jittrapol Intarasirisawat, Young-Tae Kwon, Yongkuk Lee, Musa Mahmood, Hyo-Ryoung Lim, Robert Herbert, Ki Jun Yu, Chee Siang Ang, Woon-Hong Yeo
2020 Science Advances  
Recent advancements in electronic packaging and image processing techniques have opened the possibility for optics-based portable eye tracking approaches, but technical and safety hurdles limit safe implementation  ...  Analytical and computational study of a data classification algorithm provides a highly accurate tool for real-time detection and classification of ocular motions.  ...  Acknowledgments: We thank the support from the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, a member of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure, which is supported by the NSF (grant ECCS  ... 
doi:10.1126/sciadv.aay1729 pmid:32201718 pmcid:PMC7069716 fatcat:v5fbn5zjcbdafiaemgyu3lhwwy

Estimation of behavioral user state based on eye gaze and head pose—application in an e-learning environment

Stylianos Asteriadis, Paraskevi Tzouveli, Kostas Karpouzis, Stefanos Kollias
2008 Multimedia tools and applications  
a non-intrusive scheme, which uses a simple web camera to detect and track the head, eye and hand movements and provides an estimation of the level of interest and engagement with the use of a neuro-fuzzy  ...  In this work, we present a mechanism which compiles feedback related to the behavioral state of the user (e.g. level of interest) in the context of reading an electronic document; this is achieved using  ...  Acknowledgement This work has been funded by the FP6 IP Callas (Conveying Affectiveness in Leadingedge Living Adaptive Systems), Contract Number IST-34800 and the FP6 STREP Agent-Dysl (Accommodative Intelligent  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11042-008-0240-1 fatcat:zwwdmdj7dzftzaribnvgsiichq

Video-realistic image-based eye animation via statistically driven state machines

Axel Weissenfeld, Kang Liu, Jörn Ostermann
2009 The Visual Computer  
The designed eye control unit is based on eye movement physiology and the statistical analysis of recorded human subjects.  ...  Mainly due to our integrated blink and gaze model and to the control of eye movements based on spoken language, subjective tests indicate that participants are not able Electronic supplementary material  ...  Eye animations are generated by using the spoken output, and the speaker's head movements as input parameters to the eye animation system (Fig. 7) .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00371-009-0401-x fatcat:6allwgjbgjhhlkc4ervyys3qve

Mobile-Based Eye-Blink Detection Performance Analysis on Android Platform

Md. Talal Bin Noman, Md. Atiqur Rahman Ahad
2018 Frontiers in ICT  
We define the eyeball area that is extracted from the eye region as the region of interest (ROI). The ROI helps to differentiate between the open state and closed state of the eyes.  ...  We categorize short, medium, and long blink, depending on the degree of closure and blink duration. Our analysis is operated on medium blink under 15 frames/s.  ...  We try to match between an image patch and an input image by getting the summation of square of difference between the template and the source image.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fict.2018.00004 fatcat:q72f6slw4rfsloqbffze7rzfqa

Eye Movement Analysis for Activity Recognition Using Electrooculography

Andreas Bulling, Jamie A Ward, Hans Gellersen, Gerhard Tröster
2011 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  
In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using an electrooculography (EOG) system.  ...  We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations, and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye  ...  In this work, saccades, fixations, and blinks form the basis of all eye movement features used for classification.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpami.2010.86 pmid:20421675 fatcat:imx4j37akzdvhaiqjg4kepyqca

Real-Time Nonintrusive Monitoring and Prediction of Driver Fatigue

Q. Ji, Z. Zhu, P. Lan
2004 IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  
Ocular measures are used in the second type, which is considered as the most suitable way for on-line monitoring.  ...  It uses a remotely located CCD camera equipped with an active IR illuminator to acquire video images of the driver.  ...  discrimination and facial expression analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvt.2004.830974 fatcat:ovdk2ol2yfaafnxuu75p5lrhei

Robust tracking and remapping of eye appearance with passive computer vision

Carlo Colombo, Dario Comanducci, Alberto Del Bimbo
2007 ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)  
Besides methods such as those cited earlier that exploit features extracted from the image, such as contours and eye corners, other approaches are appearance based and use all the raw image data as input  ...  Tracking also embeds an iris localization algorithm (working as a bootstrap multiple-hypotheses generation step), and a blink detector that can detect voluntary eye blinks in human-computer interaction  ...  An eye blink detector based on image analysis serves to control the transitions to and from the wait state.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1314303.1314305 fatcat:7zlse6ummvcn5ehkpjjhieiesu

Automated Eye Blink Artifact Removal from EEG using Support Vector Machine and Autoencoder

Rajdeep Ghosh, Nidul Sinha, Saroj Biswas
2018 IET Signal Processing  
Methods based on adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) have been used as a standard technique for removal of eye blink artefacts.  ...  The proposed method is evaluated on the data collected from the project entitled 'Analysis of Brain Waves and Development of Intelligent Model for Silent Speech Recognition'.  ...  Identification of artefact In the proposed work, SVM has been used for identification of the eye-blink artefact. Fig. 3a shows an uncontaminated EEG and an EEG contaminated with an eye blink.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-spr.2018.5111 fatcat:weud624fjveh5hwgmmy25oacl4

Proposals and Comparisons from One-Sensor EEG and EOG Human-Machine Interfaces

Francisco Laport, Daniel Iglesia, Adriana Dapena, Paula M. Castro, Francisco J. Vazquez-Araujo
2021 Sensors  
We have also developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that presents objects to the user using two paradigms—one-by-one objects or rows-columns of objects.  ...  A key part in HMI is the design of simple non-invasive interfaces to capture the signals associated with the user's intentions.  ...  Voluntary eye movements such as blinking, saccades or fixation have also been used as control signals in different HMIs.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21062220 pmid:33810122 pmcid:PMC8004835 fatcat:wmb3gha6bffbpd4s5c32pqvotm

Analysis of artifacts in EEG signals for building BCIs [article]

Srihari Maruthachalam
2020 arXiv   pre-print
EEG signals are noisy owing to the presence of many artifacts, namely, eye blink, head movement, and jaw movement. Such artifacts corrupt the EEG signal and make EEG analysis challenging.  ...  The objective of our work is to classify different types of artifacts, namely eye blink, head nod, head turn, and jaw movements in the EEG signal.  ...  The first proposed BCI is developed by employing an eye blink detector as an input mechanism. The second BCI uses eye blink and jaw movement as the input mechanism.  ... 
arXiv:2009.09116v1 fatcat:uknz7oa2sfdj3ca4c5qqlgnvvi

TFOS DEWS II pain and sensation report

Carlos Belmonte, Jason J. Nichols, Stephanie M. Cox, James A. Brock, Carolyn G. Begley, David A. Bereiter, Darlene A. Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J. Ivanusic, Deborah S. Jacobs, Nancy A. McNamara (+3 others)
2017 The ocular surface  
These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects  ...  of ocular pain and reflex blinking.  ...  The ocular surface input for spontaneous blinking is less well understood than for réflex blinking.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jtos.2017.05.002 pmid:28736339 pmcid:PMC5706540 fatcat:i2rsj25yvrgqpbp5oxr7wnqrma

Towards a Multimodal Model of Cognitive Workload Through Synchronous Optical Brain Imaging and Eye Tracking Measures

Erdinç İşbilir, Murat Perit Çakır, Cengiz Acartürk, Ali Şimşek Tekerek
2019 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Despite the small sample size, the performance of the linear discriminant analysis combining eye fixation and dorsolateral oxygenation measures before and after an unexpected event suggests that multimodal  ...  A linear discriminant analysis model capitalizing on the covariance structure among hemodynamic and eye movement measures could distinguish experts from novices with 91% accuracy.  ...  In terms of eye movement metrics, changes in the memory organization may also influence the way the visual information is sampled as perceptual input.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2019.00375 pmid:31708760 pmcid:PMC6820355 fatcat:dbdndcrm5bdxhefbmzxixxd4xi

Quadcopter flight control using a low-cost hybrid interface with EEG-based classification and eye tracking

Byung Hyung Kim, Minho Kim, Sungho Jo
2014 Computers in Biology and Medicine  
We propose a wearable hybrid interface where eye movements and mental concentration directly influence the control of a quadcopter in three-dimensional space.  ...  The combination of the two inputs augments the number of control commands to enable the flying robot to travel in eight different directions within the physical environment.  ...  There might be also an alternative way through replacing bi-state classification/discrimination (concentrated and non-concentrated) by other eye movements, such as blinking.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2014.04.020 pmid:24880998 fatcat:tvl5tlsyefg5ffbdbafthpw5za

Driver Inattention Monitoring System for Intelligent Vehicles: A Review

Yanchao Dong, Zhencheng Hu, Keiichi Uchimura, Nobuki Murayama
2011 IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print)  
Research and development has actively been carried out for decades, with the goal of precisely determining the drivers' state of mind.  ...  In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art technologies for driver inattention monitoring, which can be classified into the following two main categories: 1) distraction and 2) fatigue.  ...  The ocular parameters such as ECD, PERCLOS, eye closure/opening speed, and blink frequency were calculated as functions of the FSM.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tits.2010.2092770 fatcat:bgnlewweorguzhswkz4spwaeli
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