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Discovering Boolean Gates in Slime Mould [article]

Simon Harding, Jan Koutnik, Klaus Greff, Jurgen Schmidhuber, Andy Adamatzky
2016 arXiv   pre-print
The occurrence frequency of the gates discovered in the slime was analysed and compared to complexity hierarchies of logical gates obtained in other unconventional materials.  ...  We show that it is possible to find configurations that allow the Physarum to act as any 2-input Boolean gate.  ...  Simon and Andy prepared the mould and performed the exhaustive search experiments on the hardware platform, Jan, Klaus and Jürgen contributed with the mould neural network modelling.  ... 
arXiv:1607.02168v1 fatcat:cihaptlg5rcz7d7rn2wppjicpy

Logics in fungal mycelium networks [article]

Andrew Adamatzky, Phil Ayres, Alexander E. Beasley, Nic Roberts, Martin Tegelaar, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Han A. B. Wösten
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The information processing in the mycelium networks is implemented via propagation of electrical and chemical signals en pair with morphological changes in the mycelium structure.  ...  example of a single real colony of Aspergillus niger, we demonstrate that the non-linear transformation of electrical signals and trains of extracellular voltage spikes can be used to implement logical gates  ...  Discovering boolean gates in slime mould. In Inspired by Nature, pages 323– 337. Springer, 2018. [19] Marie Held, Clive Edwards, and Dan V Nicolau.  ... 
arXiv:2112.07236v1 fatcat:b3jvp4ze4nbjvhmbbzbeqsbkku

On Boolean gates in fungal colony [article]

Andrew Adamatzky, Martin Tegelaar, Han A. B. Wosten, Anna L. Powell, Alexander E. Beasley, Richard Mayne
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We use FitzHugh-Nagumo model to imitate propagation of excitation in a single colony of Aspergillus niger. Boolean values are encoded by spikes of extracellular potential.  ...  We derive sets of two-inputs-on-output logical gates implementable the fungal colony and analyse distributions of the gates.  ...  x+y Sx Sy x⊕y xy xy xy Figure 9 : Comparative ratios of Boolean gates discovered in mycelium network in present analysed in present paper, black disc and solid line; slime mould Physarum polycephalum  ... 
arXiv:2002.09680v1 fatcat:7tkygdy2zvg33fq5bonujeau5m

Simulating strange attraction of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephaum to herbal tablets

Andrew Adamatzky
2012 Mathematical and computer modelling  
Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum exhibits traits of wave-like behaviour. The plasmodium's behaviour can be finely tuned in laboratory experiments by using herbal tablets.  ...  We use to two-variable Oregonator model to simulate the plasmodium behaviour in presence of the herbal tablets.  ...  In present section we discuss two possible applications of sedative tables in slime mould based computing: approximation of planar shapes and implementation of logical gates.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.mcm.2011.09.015 fatcat:6ozjt3wylza6pbr4l7tybascw4

Slime mould logic gates based on frequency changes of electrical potential oscillation

James G.H. Whiting, Ben P.J. de Lacy Costello, Andrew Adamatzky
2014 Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print)  
When inoculated in the environment with distributed sources of nutrients, the slime mould spans the nutrients using a network of protoplasmic tubes.  ...  The main goal of P. polycephalum computing is to design a general purpose processing device from the plasmodial phase of slime mould [35] , [36] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2014.08.001 pmid:25102081 fatcat:whsag7v2s5adhltzs2mbs4zali

Logics for Physarum Chips

Andrew Schumann, Krzysztof Pancerz
2016 Studia Humana  
In this case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in all possible directions.  ...  If it is assumed that at any time step t of propagation the slime mould can discover and reach not more than p − 1 attractants, then this behaviour can be coded in terms of p-adic numbers.  ...  The point is that in any experiment with the slime mould we deal with attractants which can be placed differently to obtain different topologies and to induce different transitions of the slime mould.  ... 
doi:10.1515/sh-2016-0002 fatcat:etwgccd5sbhhleg33nf6bfmn2y

Slime Mould Logic Gates Based on Frequency Changes of Electrical Potential Oscillation [article]

James G.H. Whiting, Ben P.J. de Lacy Costello, Andrew Adamatzky
2014 arXiv   pre-print
the output of each gate and determining the input of the following gate.  ...  External stimuli such as light and food cause changes in the oscillation frequency.  ...  When inoculated in the environment with distributed sources of nutrients, the slime mould spans the nutrients using a network of protoplasmic tubes.  ... 
arXiv:1406.2021v1 fatcat:lqivasrd5zg5paomtoishl7334

Computers from plants we never made. Speculations [article]

Andrew Adamatzky, Simon Harding, Victor Erokhin, Richard Mayne, Nina Gizzie, Frantisek Baluska, Stefano Mancuso, Georgios Sirakoulis
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Mathematical and engineering problems to be solved can be represented in plant root networks of resistive or reaction elements.  ...  Thus, we are in position to make living variable resistors, capacitors, operational amplifiers, multipliers, potentiometers and fixed-function generators.  ...  Boolean circuits being discovered.  ... 
arXiv:1702.08889v1 fatcat:htlr6rd7cjev3l5sxxm4zsvnim

On electrical gates on fungal colony [article]

Alexander E. Beasley, Phil Ayres, Martin Tegelaar, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Andrew Adamatzky
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We found that and, or and and-not gates are implementable in RC networks derived from the geometrical structure of the real fungal colony.  ...  logical gates based on electrical properties of fungal colonies.  ...  This can be done, for example, by means of biolithography as previously tested on slime mould Physarum polycephalum [14] .  ... 
arXiv:2107.00133v1 fatcat:yppxliehtffupk5z7wgvxhvgje

Route 20, Autobahn 7, and Slime Mold: Approximating the Longest Roads in USA and Germany With Slime Mold on 3-D Terrains

Andrew I. Adamatzky
2014 IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics  
We discuss how nutrients placed in destination sites affect performance of slime mould, how the mould navigates around elevations, and offer an automaton model of slime mould which might explain variability  ...  The slime mould sufficiently approximates man-made transport networks on a flat substrate.  ...  Three years later Tsuda, Aono and Gunji implemented Boolean logical gates with live slime mould [24] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcyb.2013.2248359 pmid:23757537 fatcat:gw3dpz4lr5ctdd2pyyx3xcjche

Fungal electronics [article]

Andrew Adamatzky, Phil Ayres, Alexander E. Beasley, Alessandro Chiolerio, Mohammad M. Dehshibi, Antoni Gandia, Elena Albergati, Richard Mayne, Anna Nikolaidou, Nic Roberts, Martin Tegelaar, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas (+2 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Fungal electronic devices are capable of changing their impedance and generating spikes of electrical potential in response to external control parameters.  ...  In the model of serial RC networks, we found gates and, select and and-not; no or gates have been found. The number n of the gates discovered decreases by a power law with increase of θ.  ...  ] and future specialised circuits and processors made from living fungi functionalised with nanoparticles, as have been illustrated in prototypes of hybrid electronic devices with slime mould [68, 63  ... 
arXiv:2111.11231v1 fatcat:zrov5rbebfagjloortmkbnolce

A Survey on Physarum Polycephalum Intelligent Foraging Behaviour and Bio-Inspired Applications [article]

Abubakr Awad, Wei Pang, David Lusseau, George M. Coghill
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The bio-inspired Physarum in competition algorithms proved to have great potentials for future research.  ...  The novelty of this review stems from our exploration of Physarum intelligent behaviour in competition settings.  ...  There are two main types of slime moulds: the cellular slime moulds, and the plasmodial slime moulds.  ... 
arXiv:2103.00172v3 fatcat:iunafkemtrdwziei6zasm337ey

Towards a Physarum learning chip

James G. H. Whiting, Jeff Jones, Larry Bull, Michael Levin, Andrew Adamatzky
2016 Scientific Reports  
Logic gates have also been produced using P. polycephalum: • First recognisable Boolean logic gate using propagation of plasmodial P. polycephalum along agar channels whose geometry was encoding the Boolean  ...  To discover physical means of programming the slime mould computers we explore conductivity of the protoplasmic tubes; proposing that the network connectivity of protoplasmic tubes shows pathway-dependent  ... 
doi:10.1038/srep19948 pmid:26837470 pmcid:PMC4738259 fatcat:hnrykpt6kjh7tdq437iwstqysi

Computing on actin bundles network [article]

Andrew Adamatzky, Florian Huber, Joerg Schnauss
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Frequencies of the Boolean gates' detection in actin network match an overall distribution of gates discovered in living substrates.  ...  These travelling localisations can be utilised in making the actin network executing specific computing circuits.  ...  The frequency hierarchy of gates discovered select {and-not, not-and} {or, and } xor matches, with some variations, hierarchies of gates discovered in living slime mould [15] , living plants [5] , Belousov-Zhabotinsky  ... 
arXiv:1903.10186v1 fatcat:q3khqb56gngzjhndvddw47am5a

Unconventional Bio-Inspired Model for Design of Logic Gates [article]

Theofanis Floros, Karolos-Alexandros Tsakalos, Nikolaos Dourvas, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The presented simulation results for various Logic Gates are found in good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the corresponding experimental results, proving the efficacy of this unconventional  ...  Consequently, it has been successfully utilized in the past to solve a variety of path problems in graphs and combinatorial problems.  ...  In this work, we consider the properties of the unicellular slime mould -P. polycephalum -during the creation of both adaptable networks [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] and logic gates [8] , which has led to the development  ... 
arXiv:2002.05767v2 fatcat:ku7jcdbkmjfbncjjqoygdgtwym
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