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Differential Sensitivity of Letters, Numbers, and Symbols to Character Transpositions

Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Maria Dimitropoulou, Jonathan Grainger, Juan Andrés Hernández, Manuel Carreiras
2012 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
■ This study was designed to explore whether the human visual system has different degrees of tolerance to character position changes for letter strings, digit strings, and symbol strings.  ...  An earlier N1 transposition effect was also found for letters but was absent for symbols and digits, whereas a later P3 effect was found for all types of string.  ...  This research has been partially supported by grants PSI2009-08889 and CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 (CSD2008-00048) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00180 pmid:22185490 fatcat:gjbznn45bzavfd5gnirqs6wgpa

Orthographic Coding: Brain Activation for Letters, Symbols, and Digits

Manuel Carreiras, Ileana Quiñones, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
2014 Cerebral Cortex  
The present experiment investigates the input coding mechanisms of 3 common printed characters: letters, numbers, and symbols.  ...  Here, in an fMRI study, we manipulated character position and character identity through the transposition or substitution of 2 internal elements within strings of 4 elements.  ...  Note Conflict of Interest: None declared.  ... 
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu163 pmid:25077489 fatcat:usrqla2zjffs3kggfbziwiymvq

Lightweight Symmetric Encryption Algorithm for Secure Database

Hanan A., Abeer S., Heba A.
2013 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
Due to the popularity of databases for storing important and critical data, they are becoming subject to an overwhelming range of threats, such as unauthorized access.  ...  This paper proposes enhancing the TSFS algorithm by extending its data set to special characters, as well as correcting its substitution and shifting steps to avoid the errors occurring during the decryption  ...  However, it supports only numbers and alphabetic characters that are not enough to protect different types of sensitive data.  ... 
doi:10.14569/specialissue.2013.030407 fatcat:axsh7zlkjff53exoddwkul6pp4

A Novel Approach to Strengthen Additional Layer of Security to Caesar Cipher

Vyshak R, Abdul Shareef Pallivalappil
2022 Sparklinglight Transactions on Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Computing  
This preserves confidentiality, integrity and availability and also provides security and privacy of data to the users.  ...  We are living in the world of technology where we share our messages to the sender via several messaging applications.  ...  In addition, a new character value table is proposed, which specifies the symbol, character, and digit places in the table.  ... 
doi:10.55011/staiqc.2022.2201 fatcat:unnld2kcr5cybm2vjhg2yboafa

Orthographic Coding in Illiterates and Literates

Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Karla Orihuela, Manuel Carreiras
2014 Psychological Science  
Some accounts propose that TL effects reflect domain-general, noisy perceptual mechanisms of the sensitivity of the same groups of participants to transpositions and replacements in nonlinguistic symbol  ...  processing: the transposed-letter (TL) effect (i.e., failing to efficiently differentiate between a known letter-string and another one created by transposing two of its internal elements; e.g., CHOLOCATE  ...  We designed two perceptual matching experiments to examine the sensitivity of literate and illiterate adults to letter and symbol strings that were similar to each other except for the transposition of  ... 
doi:10.1177/0956797614531026 pmid:24760145 fatcat:mqc3y7aqtvamxjjzq5mh55gvku

Data encryption

Ed DeHart
2008 XRDS Crossroads The ACM Magazine for Students  
cipher a manner of encryption carried out at the symbol level (i.e., letter or number) by transposition or substitution ciphertext data or message encrypted with a cipher cleartext unencrypted data or  ...  message code a manner of encryption carried out on a group or block of letters, numbers, or symbols codeword a word, group, or block of symbols encrypted by a coding scheme cryptography the study or science  ...  Instead of replacing words or blocks of numbers or symbols with others, as does the code, the cipher replaces individual or smaller sets of letters, numbers, or characters with others, based on a certain  ... 
doi:10.1145/1452012.1452017 fatcat:6chbwvm4irdgnolznowcizv2b4

Automatic Correction of Arabic Dyslexic Text

Maha Alamri, William Teahan
2019 Computers  
Furthermore, the generated candidate list is based on edit operations (insertion, deletion, substitution and transposition), and the correct alternative for each misspelled word is chosen on the basis  ...  of the compression codelength of the trigram.  ...  Acknowledgments: We deeply thank the teachers, parents and all the children for providing Arabic texts written by dyslexics. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/computers8010019 fatcat:pfjtlsyqyzcpjgimjqsj5d4kdi

Orthographic processing in pigeons (Columba livia)

Damian Scarf, Karoline Boy, Anelisie Uber Reinert, Jack Devine, Onur Güntürkün, Michael Colombo
2016 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
In addition, the pigeons were sensitive to the bigram frequencies of words (i.e., the common co-occurrence of certain letter pairs), the edit distance between nonwords and words, and the internal structure  ...  Learning to read involves the acquisition of letter-sound relationships (i.e., decoding skills) and the ability to visually recognize words (i.e., orthographic knowledge).  ...  words and nonwords, and the transposition of letters.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1607870113 pmid:27638211 pmcid:PMC5056114 fatcat:sikxpfpscrapjbruzeldd6rm7e

Serial position functions for letter identification at brief and extended exposure durations

W. K. Estes, D. H. Allmeyer, S. M. Reder
1976 Perception & Psychophysics  
Further, transposition errors exhibit a pronounced peripheral-to-central drift, possibly reflecting gradients of positional uncertainty.  ...  Four-letter strings of random consonants were presented in varying display loc~ions relative to the fixation point with the observers' eye movements monitored to limit them to a single fixgtion for each  ...  This research was supported in part by Grants MH23878 from the National Institute of Mental Health and GB41176 from the National Science Foundation. Reprint requests may be addressed to W. K. Estes.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03199379 fatcat:ndx2ow5sujad3fr57iz7abxsyq

Neural correlates of confusability in recognition of morphologically complex Korean words

Jeahong Kim, JeYoung Jung, Kichun Nam, Manuel Perea
2021 PLoS ONE  
The TCE is known to occur at the very early stages of visual word recognition with such unit exchange as letters or syllables, but little is known about the brain mechanisms of TCE.  ...  When people confuse and reject a non-word that is created by switching two adjacent letters from an actual word, is called the transposition confusability effect (TCE).  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank to all participants. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Jeahong Kim.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249111 pmid:33857191 fatcat:eyki7mjptna3no3rtasddm3ls4

Origins of the specialization for letters and numbers in ventral occipitotemporal cortex

Thomas Hannagan, Amir Amedi, Laurent Cohen, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Stanislas Dehaene
2015 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
The puzzle of symbol form areas in the brain Written symbols such as letters or numbers are a late but far-reaching addition to the mental toolkit of humanity.  ...  Deep in the occipitotemporal cortex lie two functional regions, the visual word form area (VWFA) and the number form area (NFA), which are thought to play a special role in letter and number recognition  ...  Acknowledgments The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Seventh  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.05.006 pmid:26072689 fatcat:fvtcjb4anjbv7carndsyqdmn5y

Supporting the serial in the SERIOL model

Carol Whitney
2008 Language and Cognitive Processes  
Once the effects of frequency, number of syllables and orthographic-neighborhood size were factored out, RTs actually decreased with increasing length for words of three to five letters (and remained constant  ...  That is, an increased number of letters may reduce the time required for the lexical network to settle after the final letter fires (as compared to shorter words).  ...  The SERIOL account predicts that there should not be an RVF initial-character primacy and LVF final-character primacy for symbols.  ... 
doi:10.1080/01690960701828202 fatcat:emuom4u3lzbsblxkr4qe26m474

Are all letters really processed equally and in parallel? Further evidence of a robust first letter advantage

Michele Scaltritti, David A. Balota
2013 Acta Psychologica  
In Experiment 1, words of different lengths (from 3 to 6 letters) were presented in separate blocks.  ...  In a series of 4 Experiments, target-strings were briefly (33 ms for Experiments 1 to 3, 83 ms for Experiment 4) displayed and both forward and backward masked.  ...  Louis as a visiting graduate student, supported by a fellowship from the Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization (University of Padova).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.07.018 pmid:24012723 pmcid:PMC3859888 fatcat:kdi4vhsa4vbujomazvapx7fkve

Information extraction from topographic map using colour and shape analysis

NIKAM GITANJALI GANPATRAO, JAYANTA KUMAR GHOSH
2014 Sadhana (Bangalore)  
The recognition rates of symbols, letters and numbers are 84.68, 91.73 and 92.19%, respectively.  ...  The work presented in this paper is related to symbols and toponym understanding with application to scanned Indian topographic maps.  ...  Here, n 1 is w + x and n 2 isw + y. Variable x is defined as relevant symbol/letter/number but not recognized and y is defined as non-relevant symbol/letter/number but still recognized.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12046-014-0270-5 fatcat:gvycxa6d3vejve27o6fkgnsilm

SERIOL Reading

Carol Whitney, Piers Cornelissen
2008 Language and Cognitive Processes  
We compare the SERIOL model to parallel models in their ability to explain experimental data at the lexical and sub-lexical levels.  ...  We find that the parallel models have difficulty accounting for position-independent letter priming, letter perceptibility patterns, and temporal effects.  ...  Mason (1982) also showed an external-character advantage for number strings.  ... 
doi:10.1080/01690960701579771 fatcat:m7jn3vrkvzfc5iktxv5aelzrfq
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