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Differential collisions in SHA-0 [chapter]

Florent Chabaud, Antoine Joux
<span title="">1998</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we present a method for finding collisions in SHA-O which is related to differential cryptanalysis of block ciphers.  ...  In the case of SHA-1, this method is unable to find collisions faster than the birthday paradox. This is a strong evidence that the transition to version 1 indeed raised the level of security of SHA.  ...  However, it remains an open problem to see if differential masks exist in the SHA-1 case, because our attack builds very specific masks.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0055720">doi:10.1007/bfb0055720</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xsjl254eszcqjp6f7t6ezgqpzu">fatcat:xsjl254eszcqjp6f7t6ezgqpzu</a> </span>
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Finding Collisions in the Full SHA-1 [chapter]

Xiaoyun Wang, Yiqun Lisa Yin, Hongbo Yu
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we present new collision search attacks on the hash function SHA-1. We show that collisions of SHA-1 can be found with complexity less than 2 69 hash operations.  ...  This is the first attack on the full 80-step SHA-1 with complexity less than the 2 80 theoretical bound.  ...  In 1998 Chabaud and Joux independently found the same collision differential path for SHA-0 by the differential attack.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808140338/http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/~irjohnso/coursenotes/ufeen8-15-m/sha1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f4/48/f4489045822c1940a371c87d7d54cfca5fedd6f7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11535218_2"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Efficient Collision Search Attacks on SHA-0 [chapter]

Xiaoyun Wang, Hongbo Yu, Yiqun Lisa Yin
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we present new techniques for collision search in the hash function SHA-0.  ...  Using the new techniques, we can find collisions of the full 80-step SHA-0 with complexity less than 2 39 hash operations.  ...  New Techniques for Searching Collisions in SHA-0 In this section, we present our new techniques for collision search in SHA-0.  ... 
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Improving Local Collisions: New Attacks on Reduced SHA-256 [chapter]

Florian Mendel, Tomislav Nad, Martin Schläffer
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we focus on the construction of semi-free-start collisions for SHA-256, and show how to turn them into collisions.  ...  The main improvement of our work is to extend the size of the local collisions used in these attacks.  ...  The work has been supported in part by the Secure Information Tech-nology Center-Austria (A-SIT) and by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), project P21936-N23.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38348-9_16">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38348-9_16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ejiwmia4dbbtrdeglgbvzy76la">fatcat:ejiwmia4dbbtrdeglgbvzy76la</a> </span>
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Security Analysis of SHA-256 and Sisters [chapter]

Henri Gilbert, Helena Handschuh
<span title="">2004</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper studies the security of SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512 against collision attacks and provides some insight into the security properties of the basic building blocks of the structure.  ...  Differential and linear attacks also don't apply on the underlying structure.  ...  No high probability differentials (and thus no partial collisions) could be found for SHA-1.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24654-1_13">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24654-1_13</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/j5aqurjmunfi3iaferkcnfez7a">fatcat:j5aqurjmunfi3iaferkcnfez7a</a> </span>
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New Distinguishing Attack on MAC Using Secret-Prefix Method [chapter]

Xiaoyun Wang, Wei Wang, Keting Jia, Meiqin Wang
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The new distinguisher makes use of a special truncated differential path with high probability to distinguish an inner near-collision in the first round.  ...  The complexity for distinguishing the MAC with 43-step reduced SHA-1 is 2 124.5 queries. For the MAC with 61-step SHA-1, the complexity is 2 154.5 queries. The success probability is 0.70 for both.  ...  For MD5 and SHA-1, there are too many sufficient conditions in the collision or near-collision differential paths, which imply a complexity more than 2 n .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03317-9_22">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03317-9_22</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zu7xgbjferfktcc4awfjqrsdti">fatcat:zu7xgbjferfktcc4awfjqrsdti</a> </span>
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Finding SHA-2 Characteristics: Searching through a Minefield of Contradictions [chapter]

Florian Mendel, Tomislav Nad, Martin Schläffer
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we analyze the collision resistance of SHA-2 and provide the first results since the beginning of the NIST SHA-3 competition.  ...  We present the first automated tool for finding complex differential characteristics in SHA-2 and show that the techniques on SHA-1 cannot directly be applied to SHA-2.  ...  The work in this paper has been supported in part by the Secure Information Technology Center-Austria (A-SIT), by the European Commission under contract ICT-2007-216646 (ECRYPT II), by the Austrian Science  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25385-0_16">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-25385-0_16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/kavmn7qsurd6fjxan3bkesh72a">fatcat:kavmn7qsurd6fjxan3bkesh72a</a> </span>
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Second-Order Differential Collisions for Reduced SHA-256 [chapter]

Alex Biryukov, Mario Lamberger, Florian Mendel, Ivica Nikolić
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Based on this, we show a second-order differential collision for the compression function of SHA-256 reduced to 47 out of 64 steps with practical complexity.  ...  In this work, we introduce a new non-random property for hash/compression functions using the theory of higher order differentials.  ...  Acknowledgements The work in this paper has been supported in part by the Secure Information Technology Center -Austria (A-SIT), by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), project P21936-N23 and by the European  ... 
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Improved Collision Search for SHA-0 [chapter]

Yusuke Naito, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Shimoyama, Jun Yajima, Noboru Kunihiro, Kazuo Ohta
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
At CRYPTO2005, Xiaoyun Wang, Hongbo Yu and Yiqun Lisa Yin proposed a collision attack on SHA-0 that could generate a collision with complexity 2 39 SHA-0 hash operations.  ...  The combination of our newly found sufficient conditions and submarine modification allows us to generate a collision with complexity 2 36 SHA-0 hash operations.  ...  In 2004, Wang proposed an independent collision attack method on SHA-0 [10, 11] . Wang's method uses the differential attack approach in which numerical operations are used as the differential.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11935230_2">doi:10.1007/11935230_2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4tkxmfvydzastlucoi5so3vtva">fatcat:4tkxmfvydzastlucoi5so3vtva</a> </span>
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Boomerang Attack on Step-Reduced SHA-512 [chapter]

Hongbo Yu, Dongxia Bai
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this work, we analyze the security of SHA-512 with respect to boomerang attack.  ...  SHA-2 (SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512) is hash function family issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2002 and is widely used all over the world.  ...  In [17] , Lamberger and Mendel gave a second-order differential collision on 46 steps of SHA-256 compression function.  ... 
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Analysis of a SHA-256 Variant [chapter]

Hirotaka Yoshida, Alex Biryukov
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function which was proposed in 2000 as a new generation of SHA functions and was adopted as FIPS standard in 2002.  ...  In this paper we will consider a SHA-256 variant and a SHACAL-2 variant in which every arithmetic addition is replaced by XOR operation.  ...  Two interesting strategies significantly reducing the complexity in the attack found collisions or near-collisions for the SHA-0 hash functions [2, 3] .  ... 
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New Collision Attacks on SHA-1 Based on Optimal Joint Local-Collision Analysis [chapter]

Marc Stevens
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Firstly, we present a novel direction in the cryptanalysis of the cryptographic hash function SHA-1.  ...  Secondly, we present an identical-prefix collision attack and a chosenprefix collision attack on SHA-1 with complexities equivalent to approximately 2 61 and 2 77.1 SHA-1 compressions, respectively.  ...  In 1998, Chabaud and Joux [CJ98] constructed a collision attack on SHA-0 based on local collisions.  ... 
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A strict evaluation method on the number of conditions for the SHA-1 collision search

Jun Yajima, Terutoshi Iwasaki, Yusuke Naito, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Shimoyama, Noboru Kunihiro, Kazuo Ohta
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rau5643b7ncwvh74y6p64hntle" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2008 ACM symposium on Information, computer and communications security - ASIACCS &#39;08</a> </i> &nbsp;
This paper proposes a new algorithm for evaluating the number of chaining variable conditions(CVCs) in the selecting step of a disturbance vector (DV) for the analysis of SHA-1 collision attack.  ...  The algorithm is constructed by combining the following four strategies, "Strict Differential Bit Compression", "DV expansion", "Precise Counting Rules in Every Step" and "Differential Path Confirmation  ...  Collisions in SHA-0 andAPPENDIX Disturbance Vectors strict differential bit compression 6-step local collision precise counting rules in every step differential path confirmation for rounds 2 to 4 Rectangle  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1368310.1368316">doi:10.1145/1368310.1368316</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ccs/YajimaINSSKO08.html">dblp:conf/ccs/YajimaINSSKO08</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/eso6rhhm7ze2zgtlmn2wi2yofu">fatcat:eso6rhhm7ze2zgtlmn2wi2yofu</a> </span>
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Freestart Collision for Full SHA-1 [chapter]

Marc Stevens, Pierre Karpman, Thomas Peyrin
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In particular, we reuse the recent work on 76-step SHA-1 of Karpman et al. from CRYPTO 2015 that introduced an efficient framework to implement (freestart) collisions on GPUs; we extend it by incorporating  ...  We therefore recommend the industry, in particular Internet browser vendors and Certification Authorities, to retract SHA-1 quickly.  ...  The linear differential paths used in collision attacks are built around the concept of local collision, introduced by Chabaud and Joux in 1998 to attack SHA-0.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49890-3_18">doi:10.1007/978-3-662-49890-3_18</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/x6wvhsa2tjfa7pt7dictcgxfse">fatcat:x6wvhsa2tjfa7pt7dictcgxfse</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170716101248/https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/967.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b6/7c/b67c0da99894cffc6e54dc60d5604e72f222d7c8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49890-3_18"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Collisions for 70-Step SHA-1: On the Full Cost of Collision Search [chapter]

Christophe De Cannière, Florian Mendel, Christian Rechberger
<span title="">2007</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The diversity of methods for fast collision search in SHA-1 and similar hash functions makes a comparison of them difficult.  ...  In a case study, we consider a newly developed attack on 70-step SHA-1, and give complexity estimates and performance measurements of this new and improved collision search method.  ...  Examples are a 2 3 -fold speed-up for collision search in SHA-1 reduced to 58 steps [14] and full SHA [10] (the predecessor of SHA-1).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77360-3_4">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-77360-3_4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/rk3rgaugpvc4jma3h3ydpmbkum">fatcat:rk3rgaugpvc4jma3h3ydpmbkum</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180725114805/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-540-77360-3_4.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/1b/b4/1bb400a1e7fda283f260d17f606084a9c5b8e26e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77360-3_4"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>
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