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The general need to slow the depletion of fossil resources and reduce carbon footprints has led to tremendous effort being invested in creating "greener" industrial processes and developing alternative means to produce fuels and synthesize platform chemicals. This work aims to design a microwave-assisted cascade process for a full biomass valorisation cycle. GVL (γ-valerolactone), a renewable green solvent, has been used in aqueous acidic solution to achieve complete biomass lignin extraction.doi:10.3390/molecules21040413 pmid:27023511 fatcat:dfnqfet455eu5pmf7tntlq2o6m
more »... fter lignin precipitation, the levulinic acid (LA)-rich organic fraction was hydrogenated, which regenerated the starting solvent for further biomass delignification. This process does not requires a purification step because GVL plays the dual role of solvent and product, while the reagent (LA) is a product of biomass delignification. In summary, this bio-refinery approach to lignin extraction is a cascade protocol in which the solvent loss is integrated into the conversion cycle, leading to simplified methods for biomass valorisation.
Roberto Gaudino (M'99) was born in Torino, Italy, on August 9, 1968. He received the Ph.D. degree from Politecnico di Torino, Torino. ... Diego Carzaniga was born in Milano, Italy, in 1980. He received the Dr. Ing. degree in telecommunications engineering from the Politecnico di Milano, in 2005. ...doi:10.1109/jlt.2007.904938 fatcat:gpamhwxt4vcahojlg7dyhdl3ja
The WONDER project aims at designing and building a WDM packet-switched slotted ring network, with tunable transmitters and fixed receivers. An experimental prototype is under development at the laboratories of Politecnico di Torino. In this paper, we study two different strategies of slot synchronization for such networks: in the former, a slot synchronization signal is transmitted by the master station on a dedicated control wavelength; in the latter, slave nodes achieve slotdoi:10.1109/icc.2006.255164 dblp:conf/icc/BregniCGP06 fatcat:lki4zgzor5cmxdn5u753o2ck6a
more »... aligning on data packets received from the master. Emphasis has been given to the architecture of the WONDER network. The performance of the two synchronization strategies, in terms of packet collision probability, has been evaluated by simulation. The technique based on transmitting a timing signal on a dedicated control wavelength resulted in achieving a better performance, although being more expensive due to need of an additional wavelength. However, the technique based on aligning on data packets received from the master should be not discarded, although attaining lower timing stability, especially if limiting the number of wavelengths and receivers is a strong requirement. Index Terms Metropolitan area networks, optical networks, phase locked loops, synchronization, WDM. W Work partially funded by Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Italy, under PRIN project WONDER and by European Union under FP6 Network of Excellence e-Photon/ONe. This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2006 proceedings.
Diego Carnaroglio (Ph.D. student), Dr. Emanuela Calcio Gaudino (Post Doc researcher); (Organic Chemistry Group -DSTF, University of Turin, Italy). ...doi:10.1515/gps-2012-0029 fatcat:nzlo3he3yfe3tjdmnn26ghghde
OBJECTIVES: to report the frequency and characteristics of Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adolescents who had normalized GH secretion at mid-puberty; to identify possible factors predictive for GH sufficiency at puberty. DESIGN: Clinical analysis of children affected by GHD at five time points: diagnosis; first year of therapy; intermediate stage of puberty; retesting and end of growth phase. METHODS: The study population was 80 children with idiopathic GHD and treated with GH for atdoi:10.1530/eje-19-0646 pmid:32337961 fatcat:ta43yacgrfgxtiaioqslmljtoy
more »... ast 2 years. Treatment was discontinued at the intermediate stage of puberty. Retesting with an arginine test was performed 12 weeks later. If GH peak at retesting was ≥ 8 μg/L, the therapy was definitively discontinued, otherwise it was restarted and continued until achievement of near-final height. RESULTS: GH therapy was discontinued in 44 children (55%), and restarted in 36 (45%). No evidence of differences in definitive height and in the delta height between the genetic target and the definitive height was found between the two groups. The only predictive factor for GHD at mid-puberty was the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level at one year of GH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: GH secretion should be retested at mid-puberty.- Retesting at puberty may reduce potential side effects and minimize costs, without impairing growth potential and final height.
The oxidative desulfurization/denitrification of liquid fuels has been widely investigated as an alternative or complement to common catalytic hydrorefining. In this process, all oxidation reactions occur in the heterogeneous phase (the oil and the polar phase containing the oxidant) and therefore the optimization of mass and heat transfer is of crucial importance to enhancing the oxidation rate. This goal can be achieved by performing the reaction in suitable ultrasound (US) reactors. In fact,doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.04.009 pmid:23735892 fatcat:j5wr2h7u5jh33f5mpxxsbyc55m
more »... flow and loop US reactors stand out above classic batch US reactors thanks to their greater efficiency and flexibility as well as lower energy consumption. This paper describes an efficient sonochemical oxidation with H2O2/CH3COOH at flow rates ranging from 60 to 800 mL/min of both a model compound, dibenzotiophene (DBT), and of a mild hydro-treated diesel feedstock. Four different commercially available US loop reactors (single and multi-probe) were tested, two of which were developed in the authors' laboratory. Full DBT oxidation and efficient diesel feedstock desulfurization/denitrification were observed after the separation of the polar oxidized S/N-containing compounds (S ≤ 5 ppm, N ≤ 1 ppm). Our studies confirm that high-throughput US applications benefit greatly from flow-reactors.
Neonatal screening for 21 hydroxylase deficiency is designed to detect classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). It is still unclear whether newborns who result false positives at neonatal screening might later develop signs of androgen excess. The aim of this study is to verify whether a slightly elevated 17-OHP at newborn screening is a predictive factor for premature pubarche. Methods: We evaluated all infants born between 2001 and 2014 with premature pubarche. In case ofdoi:10.1186/s13052-018-0444-6 pmid:29338783 pmcid:PMC5771218 fatcat:h4z3k7ax5regtpvirb645acmxa
more »... sed bone age, they were submitted to functional tests to find out the cause of their symptoms. Their 17-OHP values at newborn screening for CAH were reconsidered. Results: We identified 330 patients (269 females, 61 males) with premature pubarche. All these children had a normal 17-OHP at newborn screening with the exception of a child, born preterm and not affected by CAH. Conclusions: An elevated 17-OHP at newborn screening is not a predictive factor for premature pubarche. A likely cause of increased 17-OHP level at screening is an immaturity of adrenal gland or a neonatal stress. Therefore a strict follow up of these neonates during childhood is not necessary.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The main treatment for localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors is surgical resection. These tumors respond poorly to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy agents and to radiotherapy. Imatinib mesylate, a small-molecule kinase inhibitor, has proved useful in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic GISTs and is now being tested in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting. The role ofdoi:10.1177/030089160909500217 pmid:19579872 fatcat:phrwquj64zbkbczdwie6azq4xi
more »... therapy in the management of patients with GIST is currently restricted to symptomatic palliation. We present the case of a 54-year-old man affected by rectal GIST extending to the anal canal, with constipation, hematochezia, and anal pain. He received imatinib, 400 mg orally per day, for a week before and during radiation therapy. Irradiation was delivered to the gross tumor volume by 3D conformal therapy. The planned total dose was 50.4 Gy in fractions of 1.8 Gy daily. We observed a partial clinical response 3 weeks after the end of combination treatment. The patient then underwent a sphincter-saving surgical procedure. There was no perioperative morbidity and a complete pathological response was obtained. At the present time, the role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with GIST is restricted to symptomatic palliation. The introduction of molecularly targeted therapy combined with radiation therapy could improve the outcomes for patients diagnosed with GIST.
The aim of this work was to evaluate detection of low-contrast objects and image quality in computed tomography (CT) phantom images acquired at different tube loadings (i.e. mAs) and reconstructed with different algorithms, in order to find appropriate settings to reduce the dose to the patient without any image detriment. Methods: Images of supraslice low-contrast objects of a CT phantom were acquired using different mAs values. Images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP),doi:10.1186/s41747-017-0023-4 pmid:29708194 pmcid:PMC5909349 fatcat:kxv6eplgkbckzlcmq3e4zwzrk4
more »... brid and iterative model-based methods. Image quality parameters were evaluated in terms of modulation transfer function; noise, and uniformity using two software resources. For the definition of low-contrast detectability, studies based on both human (i.e. fouralternative forced-choice test) and model observers were performed across the various images. Results: Compared to FBP, image quality parameters were improved by using iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms. In particular, IR model-based methods provided a 60% noise reduction and a 70% dose reduction, preserving image quality and low-contrast detectability for human radiological evaluation. According to the model observer, the diameters of the minimum detectable detail were around 2 mm (up to 100 mAs). Below 100 mAs, the model observer was unable to provide a result. Conclusion: IR methods improve CT protocol quality, providing a potential dose reduction while maintaining a good image detectability. Model observer can in principle be useful to assist human performance in CT lowcontrast detection tasks and in dose optimisation.
A novel protocol for microwave-assisted alkyne semi-hydrogenation under heterogeneous catalysis in a continuous flow reactor is reported herein.doi:10.1039/c8ra00331a pmid:35540310 pmcid:PMC9078474 fatcat:4xgukjwls5b5fa3kfmyy5bo234
Graphs have been created with GraphPad Prism version 7.00 for Windows (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA). ...doi:10.3390/nu11051070 pmid:31091731 pmcid:PMC6566536 fatcat:w6p2n7zh5bhr5jeq6233bj4xmm
et al. A new three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) technique for large breast and/or high body mass index patients: evaluation of a novel fields assessment aimed to reduce extra-target-tissue irradiation. tissue) were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT v.12.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). Results: In 38 patients included, S5F improved HI (8.4 vs 10.1; p # 0.001) and significantly reduced PTV D max and PTV V 105% . The extra-target-tissue irradiation was significantlydoi:10.1259/bjr.20160039 pmid:27355127 pmcid:PMC5124916 fatcat:44btzmrakjedtavxpkqvr5sg2a
more »... duced using S5F for V 105% (cm 3 ) and V 107% (cm 3 ) with a very high difference in tissue irradiation (46.6 vs 3.0 cm 3 , p # 0.001 for V 105% and 12.2 vs 0.0 cm 3 , p # 0.001 for V 107% for tangential field and S5F plans, respectively). Only a slight increase in low-dose extra-target-tissue irradiation (V 10% ) was observed (2.2719 vs 1.8261 cm 3 , p 5 0.002). Conclusion: The S5F technique in patients with large breast or high BMI increases HI and decreases hot spots in extra-target-tissues and can therefore be easily implemented in breast cancer radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: The treatment planning strategy proposed in this study has several advantages: (a) it is extremely reliable as the standard supine positioning is used; (b) the standardized class solution allows for widespread use; (c) time and cost of treatment are not increased; and (d) it can be used for both large breasted and obese patients not compliant to different treatment positioning.
In previous studies, dietary and circulating fatty acids (FA) and desaturases activity (delta-5 desaturase [D5D], delta-6 desaturase [D6D], and stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD-16]) involved in their metabolism were associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the association between different FAs and desaturases activity (estimated as product:precursor ratios) with individual cardiovascular risk factors (in particular, anthropometric measurements anddoi:10.3390/ijms21113899 pmid:32486144 pmcid:PMC7312303 fatcat:ypgoyxer5vadxn6wzjnxcchemi
more »... ood pressure [BP]) in children. The FA profile was determined on a whole-blood drop in 243 children (age: 8.6 ± 0.72 years) participating in a school-based cross-sectional study. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inversely correlated with indices of adiposity, glucose, and triglycerides. Palmitoleic acid and SCD-16 were directly associated with markers of adiposity and BP, even after adjustment for main confounders. D6D correlated directly with the waist/height ratio. Children with excess weight (>85th percentile; that is overweight plus obese ones) showed higher palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and higher SCD-16 activity as compared to normal-weight children. Most of the associations were confirmed in the excess-weight group. Omega-3 FAs, particularly DHA, but not omega-6 FA, showed a potentially beneficial association with metabolic parameters, whereas palmitoleic acid and SCD-16 showed a potentially harmful association with indices of adiposity and BP, especially in obese children.
Onaitis from UC San Diego Health, Editorin-chief of VATS; (B) Dr. Mario Gaudino from Weill Cornell Medicine, editorial board member of JTD; (C) Dr. ... Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Dr. Rodney Landreneau, Dr. Hiran C. Fernando; (B) Mr. Stephen Wang (first from left), Thomas A. D'Amico (second from left), Dr. Yaxing Shen (first from right); (C) Prof. ...doi:10.21037/jtd.2017.08.83 fatcat:yqseo5pldnd5tg3gsu2llfiidq
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