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Development of a Layout-Level Hardware Obfuscation Tool to Counter Reverse Engineering

Shweta Malik
In an attempt to prevent the illegal copies of the IP block from flooding the market, layout-level obfuscation based on switchable dopant is suggested for the hardware design.  ...  The connectivity of a design leaks important information related to inputs and outputs of a gate. We extend the basic idea of dopant-based hardware obfuscation by introducing "dummy wires".  ...  A major focus of this thesis has been to successfully developing a layout-level obfuscation tool which converts a rtl-level netlist into highly secure and complex obfuscated layout(mask) which is extremely  ... 
doi:10.7275/6959093 fatcat:hezt2bsi4zayte2qw3oydhaury

A Primer on Hardware Security: Models, Methods, and Metrics

Masoud Rostami, Farinaz Koushanfar, Ramesh Karri
2014 Proceedings of the IEEE  
This paper systematizes the current knowledge in this emerging field, including a classification of threat models, state-of-the-art defenses, and evaluation metrics for important hardware-based attacks  ...  | The multinational, distributed, and multistep nature of integrated circuit (IC) production supply chain has introduced hardware-based vulnerabilities.  ...  A trusted foundry can camouflage the layout (scenarios 6-8) and add a layer of defense beyond obfuscation. 1) Camouflaging: This is a layout-level technique to hamper image-processing-based extraction  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2014.2335155 fatcat:5k3zmw4mq5fida5ph6n5scrjdy

Efficient and secure split manufacturing via obfuscated built-in self-authentication

Kan Xiao, Domenic Forte, Mark Mohammed Tehranipoor
2015 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST)  
The OBISA circuit is connected to original design in order to increase the strength of obfuscation, thereby allowing a higher layer split and lower overall cost.  ...  In this paper, we propose to insert additional functional circuitry called obfuscated built-in self-authentication (OBISA) in the chip layout with split manufacturing process, in order to prevent reverse-engineering  ...  However, our objective is to develop a methodology that allows high-layer splits, M3 or higher, while lowering the cost and at the same time providing a high level of security.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hst.2015.7140229 dblp:conf/host/XiaoFT15 fatcat:psehx42lvzdh7kcewjbpgf3gde

A survey of hardware Trojan threat and defense

He Li, Qiang Liu, Jiliang Zhang
2016 Integration  
Hardware Trojan diagnosis Hardware Trojan prevention IC market model a b s t r a c t Hardware Trojans (HTs) can be implanted in security-weak parts of a chip with various means to steal the internal sensitive  ...  Therefore, it is very important to analyze the specific HT threats existing in the whole life cycle of integrated circuits (ICs), and perform protection against hardware Trojans.  ...  Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration (Southeast University), Ministry of Education.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.vlsi.2016.01.004 fatcat:fms3p3j7m5f7flfpewrgbz5bpy

Hardware security: Threat models and metrics

M. Rostami, F. Koushanfar, J. Rajendran, R. Karri
2013 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD)  
The globalized semiconductor supply chain is vulnerable to hardware attacks including: Trojans, piracy of intellectual properties (IPs) and/or overbuilding of integrated circuits (ICs), reverse engineering  ...  In this paper, we explain the threat models, the state-of-the-art defenses, and the metrics used to evaluate the defenses.  ...  Camouflaging is a layout-level technique that hampers image processing-based extraction of a gate-level netlist from an IC.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccad.2013.6691207 dblp:conf/iccad/RostamiKRK13 fatcat:bnvw474cjzaitpzdvle4z2vqhm

Ten years of hardware Trojans: a survey from the attacker's perspective

Mingfu Xue, Chongyan Gu, Weiqiang Liu, Shichao Yu, Máire O'Neill
2020 IET Computers & Digital Techniques  
What are the current methods and capabilities of attackers after ten years of research and development?  ...  In this paper, we attempt to make a review of the hardware Trojan design and implementations in the last decade and also provide an outlook.  ...  (87) propose a hybrid TABLE III COMPARISON OF TROJAN INSERTION AT RTL LEVEL AND LAYOUT LEVEL FROM THE ATTACKER'S PERSPECTIVE RTL level Layout level Pros 1) Have full access to the source code; 1  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-cdt.2020.0041 fatcat:7ugjmpblfjdippalfhovzmgaky

Classification and Analysis of Security Techniques for the User Terminal Area in the Internet Banking Service

Kyungroul Lee, Sun-Young Lee, Kangbin Yim
2020 Security and Communication Networks  
For easy understanding and security analysis of security technologies, we describe each security technology in detail and explain each technology by way of example.  ...  In this paper, we analyze the results of security techniques applied in the user terminal area.  ...  A number of prevention techniques and tools have been developed to protect against software attacks by reverse engineering, and code obfuscation is one of the countermeasures. e lexical meaning of obfuscation  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/7672941 fatcat:gt7dqjzytfddbpotht7gklcynu

Development and Evaluation of Hardware Obfuscation Benchmarks

Sarah Amir, Bicky Shakya, Xiaolin Xu, Yier Jin, Swarup Bhunia, Mark Tehranipoor, Domenic Forte
2018 Journal of Hardware and Systems Security  
Obfuscation is a promising solution for securing hardware intellectual property (IP) against various attacks, such as reverse engineering, piracy, and tampering.  ...  In this paper, we describe a set of such benchmarks obfuscated with some popular methods that we created to facilitate this need.  ...  A tool named as Key Insertion Tool (KIT) is developed to automate the obfuscation process.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s41635-018-0036-3 dblp:journals/jhss/AmirSXJBTF18 fatcat:xund72ukwrchplshjqjktx5bo4

Implementation of an Obfuscation Tool for C/C++ Source Code Protection on the XScale Architecture [chapter]

Seongje Cho, Hyeyoung Chang, Yookun Cho
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
That is, this paper presents an implementation of a code obfuscator, a tool which transforms a C/C++ source program into an equivalent one that is much harder to understand.  ...  In this paper, we implement and evaluate an obfuscation tool, or obfuscator for protecting the intellectual property of C/C++ source code.  ...  We will also develop another obfuscation method for a low-level program like assembly or machine languages, and then incorporate it with the current obfuscation method.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-87785-1_36 fatcat:zkrwie3zs5g7db4y723ibfjhjy

Physical Design Obfuscation of Hardware: A Comprehensive Investigation of Device and Logic-Level Techniques

Arunkumar Vijayakumar, Vinay C. Patil, Daniel E. Holcomb, Christof Paar, Sandip Kundu
2017 IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security  
The threat of hardware reverse engineering is a growing concern for a large number of applications. A main defense strategy against reverse engineering is hardware obfuscation.  ...  Second, we provide a review of the methods that have been proposed or in use. Third, we present recent and new device and logic-level techniques for design obfuscation.  ...  Practicality of the solutions also relates to ease of integration with existing tools and methodologies, or clear description of requirements to enable development of CAD tools for automatic obfuscation  ... 
doi:10.1109/tifs.2016.2601067 fatcat:kjtlqdafknhq7iemc62l3qautm

Hardware assisted control flow obfuscation for embedded processors

Xiaotong Zhuang, Tao Zhang, Hsien-Hsin S. Lee, Santosh Pande
2004 Proceedings of the 2004 international conference on Compilers, architecture, and synthesis for embedded systems - CASES '04  
To address all of these shortcomings, this paper presents a hardware assisted obfuscation technique that is capable of obfuscating the control flow information dynamically.  ...  On the other hand, pure software-based obfuscation has been proved inefficient to protect software due to its lack of theoretical foundation and considerable performance overhead introduced by complicated  ...  Based on existing hardware encryption techniques, hardware assisted control flow obfuscation provides a much higher level of obfuscation than its software-based counterpart.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1023833.1023873 dblp:conf/cases/ZhuangZLP04 fatcat:5qhm2pkcpzf35a5plsryifryba

Assessment of Dongle-based Software Copy Protection Combined with Additional Protection Methods

A. Liutkevicius, A. Vrubliauskas, E. Kazanavicius
2011 Elektronika ir Elektrotechnika  
Obfuscation methods are classified into three groups [6] : layout obfuscations, data obfuscations, controlflow obfuscations.  ...  , and the attack can be performed at a higher level.  ...  Assessment of Dongle-based Software Copy Protection Combined with Additional Protection Methods // Electronics and Electrical Dongle is a hardware device which is bound with software application in such  ... 
doi:10.5755/j01.eee.112.6.459 fatcat:dz4lqdzlu5alzdpyagtjurakuy

Security of Microfluidic Biochip

Huili Chen, Seetal Potluri, Farinaz Koushanfar
2020 ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems  
We propose a systematic framework for applying Reverse Engineering (RE) attacks and Hardware Trojan (HT) attacks on MFBs as well as for practical countermeasures against the proposed attacks.  ...  With the advancement of system miniaturization and automation, Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) technology has revolutionized traditional experimental procedures.  ...  The complexity and overhead of the protection schemes are analyzed. • Developing software tools that fully automates the deployment of attacks and countermeasures.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3382127 fatcat:if3lf3sdkjf73gwsbcng7rxayi

From FPGAs to Obfuscated eASICs: Design and Security Trade-offs [article]

Zain Ul Abideen, Tiago Diadami Perez, Samuel Pagliarini
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Layouts are presented for obfuscated circuits in a 65nm commercial technology, demonstrating the attained obfuscation both graphically and quantitatively.  ...  The use of reconfigurable elements (i.e., look-up tables as in FPGAs) is a known obfuscation technique.  ...  CONCLUSIONS In this paper, we have developed a custom tool (TOTe) that obfuscates a design and transforms it into an eASIC device.  ... 
arXiv:2110.05335v3 fatcat:435kfrmpcrgbremh7nibeijwym

Logic Obfuscation Technique using Configurable Gate Diffusion Input for Improved Hardware Security

Baluprithviraj Krishnaswamy Natarajan, Vijayachitra Senniappan
2018 IEICE Electronics Express  
Simulation results on IS-CAS-89 benchmark circuits show that high levels of security are achieved through a well formulated obfuscation scheme at less than 10% area, power and delay overheads.  ...  In this paper, a novel technique called configurable Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) based logic obfuscation is proposed to enhance the security of hardware IPs.  ...  A logic obfuscated gate level netlist is synthesized into the layout geometry for manufacturing IC. An adversary cannot identify original functionality by image processing based RE.  ... 
doi:10.1587/elex.15.20180802 fatcat:lcjvywvrbnb2vmflaxgqpa3pr4
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