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Series Elastic Actuator: Design, Analysis and Comparison [chapter]

Arnaldo Gomes Leal Junior, Rafhael Milanezi de Andrade, Antonio Bento Filho
2016 Recent Advances in Robotic Systems  
This chapter describes a comparison between two types of SEA, an electric series elastic actuator (ESEA) and a hydraulic series elastic actuator (HSEA), for four-legged dynamic robot application.  ...  Unlike rigid actuators, a SEA contains an elastic element in series with the mechanical energy source.  ...  Series elastic actuator schematic (Williamson, 1995 Series elastic actuators Series elastic actuator (SEA) has been successfully applied in a number of applications for almost 20 years (Pratt and  ... 
doi:10.5772/63573 fatcat:dbrlugydxvhe5ex5lm4rgrscaq

Optimal passive dynamics for torque/force control

Kevin Kemper, Devin Koepl, Jonathan Hurst
2010 2010 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation  
The design of force-controlled actuators typically revolves around developing the best possible software control strategy.  ...  to select the passive dynamics for a force-control task.  ...  As an example of passive dynamics improving performance, a mechanical spring in series with a motor can dramatically improve force control bandwidth in response to position disturbances.  ... 
doi:10.1109/robot.2010.5509924 dblp:conf/icra/KemperKH10 fatcat:td7lkw3x6zhiveasyvv2roxnpe

Continuously-variable series-elastic actuator

Luke Mooney, Hugh Herr
2013 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR)  
A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion.  ...  motor work requirements for actuator applications where an elastic response is sought.  ...  Elliott Rouse for his many insights and contributions to the project.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icorr.2013.6650402 pmid:24187221 dblp:conf/icorr/MooneyH13 fatcat:5xi5edyc2vabjadrq3gq4dxzqe

Momentum Control of Humanoid Robots with Series Elastic Actuators [article]

Gabriele Nava, Daniele Pucci, Francesco Nori
2017 arXiv   pre-print
This paper proposes a control framework for extending momentum based controllers developed for stiff actuators to the case of series elastic actuators.  ...  The presence of joint elasticity, however, complexifies the design of balancing and walking controllers.  ...  The balancing control for series elastic actuators Eq. (12c) points out that the motor dynamicsθ is fully actuated.  ... 
arXiv:1703.01882v1 fatcat:wy6twjof5jbwja4qvinhnkf6dq

Diaphragm Ankle Actuation for Efficient Series Elastic Legged Robot Hopping [article]

Marco Bolignari and An Mo and Marco Fontana and Alexander Badri-Spröwitz
2022 arXiv   pre-print
With this goal in mind, we propose a low-friction, lightweight Series ELastic Diaphragm distal Actuator (SELDA) which meets many, although not all, of the above requirements.  ...  Animals' anatomy and locomotion capabilities emphasize the importance of that lightweight legs and integrated, compact, series elastically actuated for distal leg joints.  ...  In this project, we developed a Series ELastic Diaphragm for distal Actuation (SELDA). SELDA is inspired by the omnipresent series elastic actuation (SEA), especially in the distal animal leg [20] .  ... 
arXiv:2203.01595v2 fatcat:6p4wny3g4bdmdbu7ztvurtfhsq

An Overview on Principles for Energy Efficient Robot Locomotion

Navvab Kashiri, Andy Abate, Sabrina J. Abram, Alin Albu-Schaffer, Patrick J. Clary, Monica Daley, Salman Faraji, Raphael Furnemont, Manolo Garabini, Hartmut Geyer, Alena M. Grabowski, Jonathan Hurst (+12 others)
2018 Frontiers in Robotics and AI  
We review various robotic actuators exploiting compliance in series and in parallel with the drive-train to permit energy recycling during locomotion.  ...  This paper also reviews a number of control approaches allowing for energy efficient locomotion of robots by exploiting the natural dynamics of the system, and by utilizing optimal control approaches targeting  ...  AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.  ... 
doi:10.3389/frobt.2018.00129 pmid:33501007 pmcid:PMC7805619 fatcat:dwrykp2fofg7zelyir5ii6n6se

Design and Control of a Series–Parallel Elastic Actuator for a Weight-Bearing Exoskeleton Robot

Tianshuo Wang, Tianjiao Zheng, Sikai Zhao, Dongbao Sui, Jie Zhao, Yanhe Zhu
2022 Sensors  
A force controller combining dynamic compensation and a cascade control with an inner velocity loop and a disturbance observer is designed for the SPEA.  ...  A series–parallel elastic actuator (SPEA) is designed, in this work, to meet the demanding requirements of an exoskeleton robot called PALExo.  ...  Series elastic actuators (SEAs), with their low impedance and high force fidelity, are attractive for exoskeletons.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s22031055 pmid:35161799 pmcid:PMC8840669 fatcat:32wvz7prhnatncjjtc43tn3ynq

Leveraging disturbance observer based torque control for improved impedance rendering with series elastic actuators

Joshua S. Mehling, James Holley, Marcia K. O'Malley
2015 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)  
The fidelity with which series elastic actuators (SEAs) render desired impedances is important.  ...  Both simulation and a series of experiments are used to demonstrate the significant improvements possible in an SEA's ability to render desired dynamic behaviors when utilizing a DOB.  ...  A variety of impedance control architectures have been proposed for series elastic actuators.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iros.2015.7353588 dblp:conf/iros/MehlingHO15 fatcat:72zznmzksnhihfiwrccnlzn6n4

Combining series elastic actuation and magneto-rheological damping for the control of agile locomotion

E. Garcia, J.C. Arevalo, G. Muñoz, P. Gonzalez-de-Santos
2011 Robotics and Autonomous Systems  
The actuation system of the leg is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological Keywords-dampers, which provide variable compliance for natural-looking motion and improved interaction  ...  Results show that the controller achieves a significant reduction in Hybrid actuators for robotics energy consumption during the leg swing phase thanks to the exploitation of inherent leg dynamics.  ...  Acknowledgments This work has been partially funded by the Spanish Ministry for Innovation and Science through grant DPI2010-18702 and by AEC1D through grant PCI-iberoamerica D/030531/10.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.robot.2011.06.006 fatcat:dl23gyqed5ewrdriglfjlv5hri

Concepts of Softness for Legged Locomotion and Their Assessment [chapter]

Andre Seyfarth, Katayon Radkhah, Oskar von Stryk
2015 Soft Robotics  
For instance, compliant actuators such as series elastic actuators (SEA) can help to improve the energy efficiency and the required peak power in powered prostheses and exoskeletons.  ...  Results for the design of compliant legged systems based on a series of conceptual biomechanical models are summarized.  ...  At the same time biological signal processing and actuator dynamics are slow. The resulting latencies in the control loop only enable feedforward control of fast motions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44506-8_11 fatcat:wmfzkm66yfhadlpbgtfbwwqljq

An Adjustable Compliant Joint for Lower-Limb Exoskeletons

Manuel Cestari, Daniel Sanz-Merodio, Juan Carlos Arevalo, Elena Garcia
2015 IEEE/ASME transactions on mechatronics  
The actuator prototype is implemented in an exoskeleton knee joint operated by a state machine that exploits the dynamics of the leg, resulting in a reduction in actuation energy demand and better adaptability  ...  In this paper, we provide an overview of the requirements that must be fulfilled by these actuators while evaluating the behavior of leg joints in the locomotion cycle.  ...  In a simulation-based work [16] , series elastic and parallel elastic actuators are evaluated based on the reduction in peak energy demands, with the conclusion that the series elastic design reduces  ... 
doi:10.1109/tmech.2014.2324036 fatcat:kajqhufrxffone3mhdnmor42uq

Quantitative Evaluation of Standing Stabilization Using Stiff and Compliant Actuators

Jorhabib Eljaik, Zhibin Li, Marco Randazzo, Alberto Parmiggiani, Giorgio Metta, Nikos Tsagarakis, Francesco Nori
2013 Robotics: Science and Systems IX  
In both scenarios, results show that series elasticity simplifies the role of the balancing controller by low pass filtering the dynamics of the zero moment point, consistently observing a more stable  ...  In this paper we evaluate the benefits of series elastic actuation in performing a balancing task on a humanoid robot.  ...  which can be explained by the low pass filter effect of the series elastic actuators on the zero moment point dynamics.  ... 
doi:10.15607/rss.2013.ix.008 dblp:conf/rss/EljaikLRPMTN13 fatcat:oi6xizczgvdh7ib5f6ilb5gr74

Optimal Passive Dynamics for Physical Interaction: Catching a Mass

Kevin Kemper, Hamid Vejdani, Brent Piercy, Jonathan Hurst
2013 Actuators  
In this paper, we develop relationships between an actuator's passive dynamics and the resulting performance for the purpose of better understanding how to tune the passive dynamics for catching an unexpected  ...  For manipulation tasks in uncertain environments, intentionally designed series impedance in mechanical systems can provide significant benefits that cannot be achieved in software.  ...  To develop the relationships between an actuator's design parameters, we investigate the series elastic/damping actuator (SEDA) in Figure 2 .  ... 
doi:10.3390/act2020045 fatcat:ji3y4hok5rcnxbaszlvz2grhuu

Differential elastic actuator for robotic interaction tasks

M. Lauria, M.-A. Legault, M.-A. Lavoie, F. Michaud
2008 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation  
and stability of robots when using simple force or simple movement controllers.  ...  e.g., position of contact points, interaction forces) in real-time, the finite sampling time of digital control loops and the non-collocation of sensors and transducers have negative effects on performance  ...  -Parallel Coupled micro-Macro Actuators (PaCmMA): they use a high power series elastic actuator in parallel with a low power direct drive transducer.  ... 
doi:10.1109/robot.2008.4543763 dblp:conf/icra/LauriaLLM08 fatcat:yq7gifhzn5es3gxf7ydf3fprfy

On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

Elena Garcia, Juan Carlos Arevalo, Gustavo Muñoz, Pablo Gonzalez-de-Santos
2011 Sensors  
The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion.  ...  The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds.  ...  Acknowledgements This work has been partially funded by the Spanish Ministry for Innovation and Science through grant DPI2010-18702 which has funded personnel costs and by AECID through grant PCI-Iberoamerica  ... 
doi:10.3390/s111211305 pmid:22247667 pmcid:PMC3251984 fatcat:epcto7zsyvbjvcytor26cwtxaq
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